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very same thing. It surely became him, in the justice of history, to have particularised the many noble efforts made by the churchmen of those times, in resistance of the doctrines and the practices of despotism. He ought to have taken notice of what was so zealously done and written, by ecclesiastical dignitaries, in behalf of liberty of conscience, and in prevention of all persecution for religious opinions and methods of worship.


A large space is occupied with the invasions and proceedings of Monmouth aud Argyle. The account of the execu tion of Monmouth is finely written; but the most interesting part of the whole volume, is the account of the last days and the death of Argyle. We should have transcribed this part, but that we are persuaded it will appear in very many publications, and in every work that shali profess to be a collection of the finest passages in the English language. It is a picture, 'drawn with the happiest simplicity, though with one slight blemish, of one of the most enchanting examples of heroic virtue that history or poetry ever displayed. It is closed with what we felt to be the most eloquent sentence in the whole work.

May the like happy serenity in such dreadful circumstances, and a death equally glorious, be the lot of all, whom tyranny, of whatever dénomination or description, shall in any age, or in any country, call to expiate their virtues on a scaffold.' p. 211.

It is needless to say, that the style of this work is clear and simple in the utmost possible degree. It is in general as correct as it is of any great consequence for a book to be, though a considerable number of little faults could be pointed out; we will only notice one form of expression, which occurs several times and which is obviously wrong; "Argyle may have had many motives which are unknown to us. One or two phrases reminded us of the senate. A reader, with certain classical notions of the dignity to be preserved in every sentence of history, would strongly object to the introduction of Verges and Dogberry, from Shakespear's Much Ado about Nothing, in ridicule of the vice-chancellors and doctors of our learned university." But if Mr. Fox might have introduced his humourous illustration in a conversation party of ingenious and intelligent persons, while talking of the very same subject, and all of them would have felt it apt enough, by what rule was he forbidden to suppose, that if written it would please other persons that could not hear him say it? We join with the whole literary public, in regretting that this work was not destined to be finished.


The volume is made out with about 160 pages of documents, in French.

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Art. VII. Travels in Asia and Africa; Including a journey from Scanderoon to Aleppo, and over the Desert to Bagdad and Bussora; A voyage from Bombay, and along the Western Coast of India; A voyage from Bombay to Mocha and Suez in the Red Sea, and

a journey from Suez to Cairo and Rosetta, in Egypt. By the late Abraham Parsons, Esq. Consul and Factor - Marine at Scanderoon, 4to. pp. 346. Price, 11. 5s. Longman and Co. 1808. IF this narrative had been published thirty years ago, it would have been received very favourably by the world. The reason alledged for delaying its appearance so long is "the professional engagements" of the Editor, who is son of the late Rev. J. Berjew, of Bristol, brother in law of the deceased, to whom the MS. descended. The work has consequently lost a very large portion of its interest as novel, and of its value as correct. Every part of the globe, within our know ledge, has experienced considerable changes since the year 1774; and descriptions, which at that time were strictly true, have since become notoriously inapplicable, or at least are no longer intitled to credit. A publication of these antiquated descriptions has the double disadvantage of being preceded, and of being preceded by later observations. This is espe cially the case in regard to Egypt. The military events, which for a while distinguished that country, gave occasion to so many descriptions and histories of it, that we are almost as well acquainted with the river Nile as with the Thames, and with the Delta, as with the counties within a day's journey of the metropolis; the state of the country, also, in consequence of those events, is as completely changed as that of any on the face of the globe. This Volume comprises accounts of two journies the first from Scanderoon, by the passes of Asia, to Bylan, Karamut, Kepse (the ancient Seleucia), to Latachia and Aleppo; the second in 1774 from Scanderoon by Aleppo and Bagdad, then across Mesopotamia to Helah on the Euphrates, and down that river to Bussora, in the regular course to India by sea, along the coast of Malabar. From Bombay Mr. P. returned to Europe by way of Suez, Cairo, and Alexandria ; and died at Leghorn in 1785.

He appears to have bestowed much attention on the natural productions,the climate, and general appearance, of the countries through which he passed; and as physical phenomena are not liable to frequent and violent alterations, we are obliged, to him for an acquaintance with many particulars of certain subjects, that had not been so attentively examined by preceding or subsequent travellers. He is not by any means to be considered as a philosophical naturalist; but he derived important advantages which others could not partake, from his official situation, and the length of his abode in various

towns and regions. To a mind previously stored with aps propriate knowledge, the course of a journey so extensive, and over regions so interesting, as well by their permanent distinctions and the manners of their inhabitants, as by the remaing of their early history, must have suggested inany lively and important remarks. We cannot think this praise strictly merited by Mr. Parsons's narrative: it contains a tolerably distinct representation of what the author saw; but we apprehend that something more will be thought necessary for a work of this kind to obtain distinction, in the present state of knowledge among us. His industry, however, in keeping a very copious journal, is worthy of commendation; and we would much ra. ther peruse a simple statement of real occurrences, than a work greater pretensions, arrayed in a style of delusive splendour and prepared with too much art for the public eye.


The Editor, we doubt not, has discharged his duty with fidelity; he only professes to have expunged irrelevant and private observations, and to have corrected granimatical inaccuracies. The style of the work, the reader will find as honest and plain, as might be expected from a writer whose education had been chiefly nautical and cominercial. The following description of a horde of Arabs in march, will recall the recollection of those patriarchal migrations, the history of which has been the delight of our early years.

It was entertaining to see the horde of Arabs decamp, as nothing could be more regular.

First went the sheep and goatherds, each with their flocks in divisions, according as the chief of each family directed; then followed the camels and asses, loaded with the tents, furniture, and kitchen utensils; these were followed by the old men and women mounted on asses, surrounded by the young men, women, boys and girls, on foot. The children that cannot walk, are carried on the backs of the young women, or the boys and girls; and the smallest of the lambs and kids are carried under the arms of the children. To each tent belong many dogs, amongst which are some greyhounds. Some tents have from ten to fourteen dogs, and from twenty to thirty men, women, and children, belonging to it. The procession is closed by the chief of the tribe, whom they call emir and father, (emir means prince), mounted on the very best horse, and surrounded by the heads of each family, all on horses, with many servants on foot. Between each family is a division, or space of one-hundred yards or more, when they migrate, and such great regularity is observed, that neither camels, asses,' sheep, nor dogs, mix, but each keeps to the division to which it belongs, without the least trouble. They had been here eight days, and were going four hours journey to the north west to another spring of water. This tribe consisted of about eight hundred and fifty men, women, and children; their flocks of sheep and goats were above five thousand, besides a great number of camels, horses, and asses. Horses and greyhounds they breed and train up for sale; they neither kill nor sell their ewe lambs. At set times a chapter in the coran is read by the chief of each family,

either in or near each tent, the whole family being gathered round and very attentive. On their march a profound silence is strictly observed. If there is happiness in the world, these people seem to enjoy it in perfection; their food being simple, they desire no better; sickness is scarce ever known among them, as they mostly die of old age. The Arabs are Ishmaelites, which they are very fond of telling to Europeans, thinking and indeed, believing, that their origin is not known to the inhabitants of Europe. There are no people who seem so fond, or rather so proud of their origin, as the Arabs. The sheik of our caravan was more inquisitive and particular in his enquiries after European customs, than any Arab or Turk that I had hi therto been acquainted with, which brought him often to my tent, when he would be very communicative. He told me that he was the elder son of the emir, or chief of a numerous tribe; that he had two brethren, who followed the same employment with himself, with each of whom, as well as with himself, there were about one hundred and twenty young men of their tribe; that his father pursued the same occupation in his grandfather's time, though he then resided on the district allotted to the tribe from time immemorial, and which lies on the other side of the desart to the south, about five hundred miles distant from Bagdad; that the district is large from which they migrate, furnishing sufficient herbage for their cattle and flocks, without travelling any considerable distance. That the young men of his and his two brothers' caravans serve for three years; after which they return. to the tribe with the money they have saved, where those who are not married procure themselves wives, while an entire new set of men return to serve another three years in the same service, bringing with them a recruit of young camels for the use of the caravan, on which they ride; that himself did not intend to go with them next year, as he designed to marry.' p. 111.

This account is followed by a beautiful little anecdote, which we must not exclude.

A little Arab girl brought a young antelope to sell, which was bought by a Greek merchant, whose tent was next to mine, for half a piastre. She had bored both the ears, into each of which she had inserted two small pieces of red silk ribband; she told the purchaser, that as it could run about and lap milk he might be able to rear it up, and that she should not have sold it, but that she wanted money to buy a ribband, which her mo ther would not afford her; then almost smothering the little animal with kisses, she delivered it with tears in her eyes and ran away. The metchant ordered it to be killed, and dressed for supper. in the close of the evening the girl came to take the last farewell of her little pet (knowing that we were to decamp at day break). When she was told it was killed she seemed much surprised, saying that it was impossible that any body could be so cruel as to kill such a pretty creature: on it's being shewn to her with its throat cut, she burst into tears, threw the money in the man's face, and ran away crying' pp. 112. 113.

Mr. P. gives a dreadful account of the plague at Bagdad, of which 300,000 persons died in the course of four months. He describes this city, very minutely.

It has been a favourite opinion, within our knowledge, that the brutalizing spectacle of public executions might be

advantageously superseded by the solemn and mysterious privacy of the Turkish practice, described by Mr. P.; we fear that no adequate profit would be made on the side of morals and public feeling, to compensate for the danger, and the apprehension of danger, which it might occasion, in the hands of a corrupt government, to the rights of the community and the security of individuals.

During the months of June, July, and August, there have been four officers, and twenty-seven privates of the corps of janisaries put to death, which is done by decapitation at the arsenal, and always at two hours after sun setting. The public know nothing about it until the moment their heads are stuck off, which is announced by, the firing a cannon at the arsenal, if a private man; but if an officer, two cannon are fired at his death. People are not at all surprised when such things happen, it being so common; nor do any trouble themselves so far as to enquire the cause of their death.' Р 134.

From Bagdad Mr. P. paid a visit to the Tower of Babel, or Nimrod's Tower, distant about six hours. It is situated in a yast plain, which is now a mere desart: The materials of this edifice are unburnt bricks, now as hard as stone; at the distance of every four feet are layers of reeds, four inches thick, as firm and sound as when first inserted. A Jew rabbi, with whom Mr. P. conversed on this subject, described himself as descending from a family that was brought from Jerusalem at the time of the Captivity.

As we have transcribed Mr. P.'s account of a body of Arabs in motion, we shall now insert his description of one of their camps, or moveable cities.

At five this afternoon we came to the camp of the most potent Arab prince on the shore of the Euphrates, or Persian gulph; it is full three miles in length along the banks of the river. 1 am told there are above eight thousand tents and twenty thousand families; the tent of the prince is near two hundred feet long and seventy broad This encampment reaches farther inland than it does along the banks of the river; it is said to contain near eighty thousand inhabitants, and the cattle of all kinds belonging to it are almost innumerable. We all went on shore here, and walked about an hour. The tents are pitched so as to form regular streets of eighteen to twenty feet broad, which run parallel to each other from the river, quite through the town, with others at right angles in a line with the river the largest tents being nearest to the river. Here i saw above twenty tame ostriches, with red woollen cloth collars about their necks, and small brass belis. I asked the price of a pair, and was told that they belonged to the prince, and were not to be sold; they would come to any one by holding up a piece of bread, which they would take out of the hand as gently as a trained spaniel, and suffer any one to stroke their necks'. p. 148.

During his residence at Bussora, a most curious and unusual phenomenon occurred, of which we shall present his own description.


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