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But it is not either the nature of man, or the duty profane to examine too closely, Datur non intelligi. of the philosopher, to despair, concerning any import- tur. But a revelation unconfirmed by miracles, and ant problem, unul, as in the squaring of the circle, a faith not commanded by the conscience, a philoso the impossibility of a solution has been demonstrated. pher may venture to pass by, without suspecting How the esse assumed as originally distinct from the himself of any irreligious tendency. scire, can ever unite itself with it; how being can Thus, as materialism has been generally taught, it transform itself into a knowing, becomes conceivable is utterly unintelligible, and owes all its proselytes on one only condition; namely, if it can be shown to the propensity so common among men, to mistake that the vis representativa, or the sentient, is itself a distinct images for clear conceptions; and, vice versa, species of being ; i. e. either as a property or attri- to reject as inconceivable whatever from its own nabute, or as an hypostasis or self subsistence. The ture is unimaginable. But as soon as it becomes former is, indeed, the assumption of materialism; a intelligible, it ceases to be materialism. In order to system which could not but be patronized by the phi- explain thinking, as a material phenomenon, it is losopher, if only it actually performed what it pro necessary to refine matter into a mere modification mises. Put how any affection from without can me of intelligence, with the two-fold function of appeartamorphose itself into perception or will, the mate-ing and perceiving. Even so did Priestley in his conrialist has hitherto left, not only as incomprehensible troversy with Price! He stript matter of all its maas he found it, but has aggravaled it into a compre- terial properties; substituted spiritual powers, and hensible absurdity. For, grant that an object from when we expected to find a body, behold! we had without could act upon the conscious self, as on a nothing but its ghost! the apparition of a defunct consubstantial object; yet such an affection could substance ! only engender something homogeneous with itself. I shall not dilate further on this subject; because Motion could only propagate motion. Matter has no it will (if God grant health and permission) be treatinward. We remove one surface but to meet with ed of at large, and systematically, in a work, which another. We can but divide a particle into particles; I have many years been preparing, on the PRODUCand each atom comprehends in itself the properties TIVE Logos human and divine; with, and as the of the material universe. Let any reflecting mind introduction to, a full commentary on the Gospel of make the experiment of explaining to itself the evi. St. John. To make myself intelligible as far as my dence of our sensuous intuitions, from the hypothesis present subject requires, it will be sufficient briefly that in any given perception there is a something to observe-1. That all association demands and prewhich has been communicated to it by an impact or supposes the existence of the thoughts and images an impression ab extra. In the first place, by the to be associated. 2. The hypothesis of an external impact on the percipient or ens representans, not the world exactly correspondent to those images or modiobject itself, but only its action or effect, will pass fications of our own being, which alone (according into the same. Not the iron tongue, but its vibra- to this system) we actually behold, is as thorough tions, pass into the metal of the bell. Now in our idealism as Berkeley's, inasmuch as it equally (perimmediate perception, it is not the mere power or haps, in a more perfect degree) removes all reality act of the object, but the object itself, which is imme- and immediateness of perception, and places us in a diately present. We might, indeed, attempt to ex. dream-world of phantoms and spectres, the inexpliplain this result by a chain of deductions and conclu- cable swarm and equivocal generation of motions in sions ; but that, first, the very faculty of deducing our own brains. 3. That this hypothesis neither inand concluding would equally demand an explana- volves the explanation, nor precludes the necessity, tion; and, secondly, that there exists, in fact, no such of a mechanism and co-adequate forces in the perintermediation by logical notions, such as those of cipient, which at the more than magic touch of the cause and effect. It is the object itself, not the pro- impulse from without, is to create anew for itself the duct of a syllogism, which is present to our conscious correspondent object. The formation of a copy is ness. Or would we explain this supervention of the not solved by the mere pre-existence of an original ; object to the sensation, by a productive faculty set in the copyist of Raphael's Transfiguration must repeat motion by an impulse ; still the transition, into the more or less perfectly the process of Raphael. It percipient, of the object itself, from which the im- would be easy to explain a thought from the image pulse proceeded, assumes a power that can permeate on the retina, and that from the geometry of light, and wholly possess the soul,
if this very light did not present the very same diffi" And like a God, by spiritual art,
culty. We might as rationally chant the Brahmin Be all in all, and all in every part."
creed of the tortoise that supported the bear, that Coulcy.
supported the elephant, that supported the world, to And how came the percepient here? And what is the tune of “This is the house that Jack built." The become of the wonder-pressing MATTER, that was to sic Deo placitum est we all admit as the sufficient perform all these marvels by force of mere figure, cause, and the divine goodness as the sufficient weight, and motion? The most consistent proceeding reason ; but an answer to the whence? and why? of the dogmatic mateñalist is to fall back into the is no answer to the how; which alone is the physicommon rank of soul-and-bodyists ; to affect the mys- ologist's concern. It is a mere sophisma pigrum, and terious, and declare the whole process a revelation (as Bacon hath said) the arrogance of pusillanimity, given, and not to be understood, which it would be which lifts up the idol of a mortal's fancy, and com
mands us to fall down and worship it, as a work of initio, identical and co-inherent; that intelligence divine wisdom, an ancile or palladium fallen from and being are reciprocally each other's Substrate 1 heaven. By the very same argument the supporters presumed that this was a possible conception (i. e, that of the Ptolemaic system might have rebuffed the it involved no logical inconsonance) from the length Newtonian, and pointing to the sky with self-com- of time during which the scholastic definition of the placent* grin, have appealed to common sense whe. Supreme Being, as actus purissimus sine ulla poleg ther the sun did not move, and the earth stand still. tialitate, was received in the schools of Theology,
both by the Pontifican and the Reformed divines. The early study of Plato and Plotinus, with the coton
mentaries and the THEOLOGICA PLATONICA, of the CHAPTER IX.
illustrious Florentine; of Proclus, and Gemistius Is philosophy possible as a science ? and what are its condi- Pletho; and, at a later period, of the “ De Immense
tions ?–Giordano Bruno--Literary aristocracy, or the ex. et Innumerabili,” and the “ De la causa, principio e istence of a tacit compact among the learned as a privileged uno," of the philosopher of Nola, who could boast of order--The author's obligations to the Mystica-To Eman
a Sir Philip Sydney and Fulke Greville among his uel Kant-The difference between the letter and the spirit of Kunt's writings, and a vindication of prudence in the patrons, and whom the idolaters of Rome burnt as a teaching of philosophy-Fichte's attempt to complete the atheist in the year 1660; had all contributed to pre critical system-Its partial success and ultimate failure-- pare my mind for the reception and welcoming of the Obligations to Schelling ; and, among English writers, to Cogito quia sum, et sum quia Cogito; a philosophy of
seeming hardihood, but certainly the most ancient, After I had successively studied in the schools of and therefore, presumptively, the most natural. Locke, Berkeley, Leibnitz, and Hartley, and could Why need I be afraid ? Say rather how dare I be find in neither of them an abiding place for my rea- ashamed of the Teutonic theosophist, Jacob Behmen! son, I began to ask myself, is a system of philosophy, Many, indeed, and gross were his delusions; and as different from mere history and historic classifica- such as furnish frequent and ample occasion for the tion, possible? If possible, what are its necessary triumph of the learned over the poor ignorant skot conditions ? I was for a while disposed to answer maker, who had dared to think for himself. Bai the first question in the negative, and to admit that while we remember that these delusions were soch the sole practicable employment for the human mind as might be anticipated from his utter want of all in was to observe, to collect, and to classify. But I soon tellectual discipline, and from his ignorance of rational felt, that human nature itself fought up against this psychology, let it not be forgotten that the latter defect wilful resignation of intellect; and as soon did I find, he had in common with the most learned theologiaas that the scheme, taken with all its consequences, and of his age. Neither with books, nor with bookcleared of all inconsistencies, was not less impracti- learned men, was he conversant. A meek and shy cable, than contra-natural. Assume, in its full extent, quietist, his intellectual powers were never stimothe position, nihil in intellectu quod non prius in lated into severous energy by crowds of proselytes, or &nsa, without Leibnitz's qualifying præter ipsum in- by the ambition of proselyting. Jacob BEHMEN was lellectum, and in the same sense in which it was an enthusiast, in the strictest sense, as not merely disunderstood by Hartley and Condillac, and what Hume tinguished, but as contra-distinguished, from a fanatic. had demonstratively deduced from this concession While I in part translate the following observations concerning cause and effect, will apply with equal from a contemporary writer of the Continent, let me and crushing force to all thet other eleven categori- be permitted to premise, that I might have transcribed cal forms, and the logical functions corresponding to the substance from memoranda of my own, which them How can we make bricks without straw? Or were written many years before his pamphlet was build without cement? We learn all things indeed given to the world, and that I prefer another's words by occasion of experience; but the very facis so learnt to my own, partly as a tribute due to priority of pubforce us in ward on the antecedents, that must be pre-lication, but still more from the pleasure of sympathy, supposed in order to render experience itself possible. in a case where coincidence only was possible. The first book of Locke's Essays (if the supposed
Whoever is acquainted with the history of philoso error, which it labors to subvert, be not a mere phy, during the two or three last centuries, cannot thing of straw; an absurdity, which no man ever but admit, that there appears to have existed a sort did, or, indeed, ever could believe) is formed on a of secret and tacit compact among the learned, not to Eboisua E Tepononséws, and involves the old mistake pass beyond a certain limit in speculative science. of cum hoc: ergo propter hoc.
The privilege of free thought, so highly extolled, has The term Philosophy, defines itself as an affection at no time been held valid in actual practice, except ate seeking after the truth; but Truth is the correla- within this limit; and not a single stride beyond it tive of Being. This again is no way conceivable; has ever been ventured without bringing obloquy on but by assuming as a postulate, that both are, ab the transgressor. The few men of genius among the
learned class, who actually did overstep this bound* "And coxcombe vanquish Berkeley with a grin." --Pope. ary, anxiously avoided the appearance of having so
| Videlicet; quantity, quality, relation, and mode, each done. Therefore, the true depth of science, and the consisting of three subdivisions. Vide Kritik der reineu Vernunft
. p. 95, and 106. See, too, the judicious remarks in penetration to the inmost centre, from which all the Locke and Hume.
lines of knowledge diverge, to their ever distent cir
cumference, was abandoned to the illiterate, and the and so unusual, the man's body should sympathize ample, whom unstilled yearning, and an original with the struggles of his mind; or that he should at ebulliency of spirit, had urged to the investigation of times be so far deluded as to mistake the tumultuous che indwelling and living ground of all things. sensations of his nerves, and the co-existing spectres These, then, because their names had never been of his fancy, as parts or symbols of the truths which enrolled in the guilds of the learned, were persecuted were opening on him? It has indeed been plausibly by the registered livery-men as interlopers on their observed, that in order to derive any advantage, or to rights and privileges All, without distinction, were collect any intelligible meaning, from the writings of branded as fanatics and phantasts; not only those these ignorant mystics, the reader must bring with whose wild and exorbitant imaginations had actually him a spirit and judgment superior to that of the engendered only extravagant and grotesque phan- writers themselves : tasms, and whose productions were, for the most "And what he brings, what needs he elsewhere seek ?" part, poor copies and gross caricatures of genuine in
Paradise Regained. spiration; but the truly inspired likewise, the origin- -A sophism, which, I fully agree with Warburton, als themselves! And this for no other reason but is unworthy of Milton; how much more so of the because they were the unlearned men of humble and awful person, in whose mouth he has placed it? One obscure occupations. When, and from whom among assertion I will venture to make, as suggested by my the literati by profession, have we ever heard the di- own experience, that there exist folios on the human vine doxology repeated, “I thank thee, O Father! understanding, and nature of man, which would have
Lord of Heaven and Earth! because thou hast hid a far juster claim to their high rank and celebrity, if : these things from the wise and prudent, and hast re- in the whole huge volume there could be found as
vealed them unto babes ?" No! the haughty priests much fulness of heart and intellect as burst forth in of learning not only banished from the schools and many a simple page of GEORGE Fox, Jacoe BEHMEN marts of science all who had dared draw living wa- and even of Behmen's commentator, the pious and ters from the fountain, but drove them out of the very fervid William Law. temple, which, mean time, “buyers and sellers, and The feeling of gratitude which I cherish towards money-changers” were suffered to make “a den of these men has caused me to digress further than 1 thieves."
had foreseen or proposed; but to have passed them And yet it would not be easy to discover any sub- over in an historical sketch of my literary life and stantial ground for this contemptuous pride in those opinions, would have seemed to me like the denial literati, who have most distinguished themselves by of a debt, the concealment of a boon. For the writtheir scom of Behmen, DE THoyras, George Fox, ings of these mystics acted in no slight degree to pre&c.; unless it be, that they could write ortographical- vent my mind from being imprisoned within the outly, make smooth periods, and had the fashions of au- line of any single dogmatic system. They contributed thorship almost literally at their finger's ends, while to keep alive the heart in the head; gave me an inthe latter, in simplicity of soul, made their words distinct, yet stirring and working presentiment, that immediate echoes of their feelings. Hence the fre- all the products of the mere reflective faculty partook quency of those phrases among them, which have of death, and were as the rattling twigs and sprays been mistaken for pretences to immediate inspiration; in winter, into which a sap was yet to be propelled as for instance, “ it was delivered unto me,” “ I strove from some root to which I had not yet penetrated, if not to speak," " I said, I will be silent," " but the word they were to afford my soul either food or shelter. If was in
my hearl as a burning fire," " and I could not they were too often a moving cloud of smoke to me forbear.” Hence, too, the unwillingness to give of by day, yet they were always a pillar of fire throughfence; hence the foresight, and the dread of the cla- out the night, during my wanderings through the mors which would be raised against them, so fre- wilderness of doubt, and enabled me to skirt, without quently avowed in the writings of these men, and crossing, the sandy deserts of utter unbelief. That expressed, as was natural, in the words of the only the system is capable of being converted into an irrebook with which they were familiar. “Woe is me ligious PANTHEISM, I well know. The Ethics of that I am become a man of strife, and a man of con- Spinoza may, or may not, be an instance. But, at no tention I love peace: the souls of men are dear time could I believe, that in itself, and essentially, it unto me: yet because I seek for light, every one of is incompatible with religion, natural or revealed; them doth curse me!" 0! it requires deeper feeling, and now I am most thoroughly persuaded of the conand a stronger imagination, than belong to most of trary. The writings of the illustrious sage of Konthose to whom reasoning and fluent expression have igsberg. the founder of the Critical Philosophy, more been as a trade learnt in boyhood, to conceive with than any other work, at once invigorated and disci. what might, with what inward strivings and commo- plined my understanding. The originality, the depth, tion, the perception of a new and vital TRUTH takes and the compression of the thoughts; the novelty and possession of an uneducated man of genius. His subtlety, yet solidity and importance, of the distincmeditations are almost inevitably employed on the tions; the adamantine chain of the logic; and, I will eternal, or the everlasting; for the world is not his venture to add, (paradox as it will appear to those friend, nor the world's law.” Need we then be sur-who have taken their notion of EMANUEL Kant, from prised, that under an excitement at once so strong Reviewers and Frenchmen,) the clearness and evi. 36
dence of the “CRITIQUE OF THE PURE Reason;" of himself, by declaring what he meant, how could be the “JUDGMENT;" of the “ METAPHYSICAL F.LEMENTS decline the honors of martyrdom with less offence or NATURAL Philosophy," and of his RELIGION than by simply replying, “ ) meant what I said ; and WITHIN THE BOUNDS OF PURE Reason,” took posses- at the age of near four score. I have something else, sion of me as with a giant's hand. After fifteen years and more important to do, than to write a commentfamiliarity with them, I still read these and all his ary on my own works." other productions with undiminished delight and in- FICHTE's Wissenschaftslehre, or Lore of Ultimate creasing admiration. The few passages that remain- Science, was add the key-stone of the arch; and ed obscure to me, after due efforts of thought, (as the by commencing with an act, instead of a thing or sada chapter on original apperception, and the apparent slance, Fichte assuredly gave the first mortal blow to contradictions which occur, I soon found were hints Spinozism, as taught by Spinoza himself; and sup and insinuations referring to ideas, which Kant either plied the idea of a system truly metaphysical, and of did not think it prudent to avow, or which he con- a metaphysique truly systematic : (i. e. having its sidered as consistently left behind in a pure analysis, spring and principle within itself.) But this fonda not of human nature in toto, but of the speculative in mental idea he overbuilt with a heavy mass of mere tellect alone. Here, therefore, he was constrained to notions, and psychological acts of arbitrary reflection commence at the point of reflection, or natural con- Thus his theory degenerated into a crude egoismus, sciousness : while in his moral system he was permit- a boastful and hyperstoic hostility 4 NATURE, as life ted to assume a higher ground (the autonomy of the less, godless, and altogether unboly: while his reik will) as a POSTULATE deducible from the uncondi- gion consisted in the assumption of a mere ORDO ORtional command, or in the technical language of his DINANS, which we were permitted esdevice to call school) the categorical imperative, of the conscience. God; and his ethics in an ascetic, and almost monkHe had been in imminent danger of persecution dur ish mortification of the natural passions and desires. ing the reign of the late king of Prussia, that strange In Schelling's “NATUR-Philosophie," and the compound of lawless debauchery, and priest-ridden "SYSTEM DES TRANSCENDENTALEN IDEALISMUS," I superstition; and it is probable that he had little in- first found a genial coincidenc@ with much that I had clination, in his old age, to act over again the fortunes toiled out for myself, and a powerful assistance in and hair-breadth escapes of Wolf. The expulsion of what I had yet to do. the first among Kant's disciples, who attempted to complete his system, from the university of Jena, with * The following burlesque on the Fichtean Egoismus may, the confiscation and prohibition of the obnoxious work, perhaps, be amusing to the few who have studied the system,
and to those who by the joint efforts of the courts of Saxony and Hano-tolerable a likeness of Fichte's idealism as can be expected
unacquainted with it, may convey s ver, supplied experimental proof, that the venerable from an avowed caricature. old man's caution was not groundless. In spite, there- The categorical imperative, or the annunciation of the new fore, of his own declarations, I could never believe it Teutonic God, EISENKAITAN: a dithyrambic Ode, be was possible for him to have meant no more by his Querkope Von Klubslick, Grammarian, and Subrector in
Gymnasio.**** Noumenon, or Thing in ITSELF, than his mere words express; or, that in his own conception he confined Eu! Dei vices gerens, ipse Divus, the whole plastic power to the forms of the intellect,
(Speak English, Friend !) the God Imperativus,
Here on this market-cross aloud I cry: leaving for the external cause, for the materiale of our
I, I, I! I itself I! sensations, a matter without form, which is doubiless The form and the substance, the what and the why, inconceivable. I entertained doubts likewise, whe- The when and the where, and the low and the high, ther, in his own mind, he even laid all the stress,
The inside and outside, the earth and the sky,
I, you, and he, and he, you and I, which he appears to do, on the moral postulates.
All souls and all bodies are I itself I ! An Idea, in the highest sense of that word, cannot
All itself I! be conveyed but by a symbol ; and, except in geomne
(Fools, a truce with this startling!) try, all symbols of necessity involve an apparent con
Ali my I! all my I!
He's a heretic dog who bul adds Betty Martin ! tradiction. Qúrnst EvvéTOISEV: and for those who
Thus cried the God with high imperial tone : could not pierce through this symbolical husk, his
In robe of stiffest state, that scoff"d at beauty, writings were not intended. Questions which can
A pronoun-verb imperative he shone not be fully answered without exposing the respond- Then substantive and plural-singular grown, ent 10 personal danger, are not entitled to a fair an- He thus spake on : Behold in 1 alone
(For ethics boast a syntax of their own) swer; and yet to say this openly, would in many
Or if in ye, yet as I doth depute ye, cases furnish the very advantage which the adver- In 0! I, you, the vocative of duty ! sary is insidiously seeking after. Veracity does not I of the world's whole Lexicon the root! consist in saying, but in the intention of communical
of the whole universe of touch, sound, night,
The genitive and ablative to boot: ing truth ; and the philosopher who cannot utter the
The accusative of wrong, the nom'native of right, whole truth without conveying falsehood, and at the And in all cases the case absolute ! same time, perhaps, exciting the most malignant pas- Self construed, I all other moods decline: gions, is constrained to express himself either mythi
Imperative, from nothing we derive us ;
Yet as a super-postulate of mine, cally or equivocally. When Kant, therefore, was im- Unconstrued antecedence I assign portuned to settle the disputes of his commentators To X, Y, Z, the God infinitivus !
1 nave intmduced this statement as appropriate to troduced in a more philosophical form, and freed the narrative nature of this sketch; yet rather in from all its impurities and visionary accompaniments) reference to the work which I have announced in a by Kant; in whom it was the native and necessary preceding page, than in my present subject. It would growth of his own system. Kant's followers, bowbe but a mere act of justice to myself, were I to warn ever, on whom (for the greater part) their master's my future readers, that an identity of thought, or even cloak had fallen, without, or with a very scanty por. similarity of phrase will not be at all times a certain tion of, his spirit, had adopted his dynamic ideas only proof that the passage has been borrowed from Schel- as a more refined species of mechanics. With exling. or that the conceptions were originally learnt ception of one or two fundamental ideas, which canfrom him. In this instance, as in the dramatic lec- not be withheld from FICHTE 1 SCHELLING we owe tures of Schlegel to which I have before alluded, the completion, and the most important victories, of from the same motive of self-defence against the this revolution in philosophy. To me it will be hap, charge of plagiarism, many of the most striking re- piness and honor enough, should I succeed in rendersemblances; indeed, all the main and fundamental ing the system itself intelligible to my countrymen, ideas, were born and matured in my mind before I and in the application of it to the most awful of subhad ever seen a single page of the German Philoso- jects for the most important of purposes. Whether a pher; and I might indeed, affirm with truth, be work is the offspring of a man's own spirit, and the fore the more important works of Schelling had been product of original thinking, will be discovered by written, or at least made public. Nor is this coin- those who are its sole legitimate judges, by better cidence at all to be wondered at. We had studied tests than the mere reference to dates. For readers in the same school ; been disciplined by the same in general, let whatever shall be found in this, or preparatory philosophy, namely, the writings of Kant; any future work of mine, that resembles, or coincides we had both equal obligation to the polar logic with, the doctrines of my German predecessor, thongh and dynamic philusophy of Giordano Bruno; and contemporary, be wholly attributed to him : provided, Schelling has lately, and, as of recent acquisition, that the absence of distinct references to his books, avowed that same affectionate reverence for the la- which I could not at all times make with truth as debors of Behmen, and other mystics, which I had form- signating citations or thoughts actually derived from ed at a much earlier period. The coincidence of him, and which, I trust, would, after this general acSCHELLING's system with certain general ideas of knowledgment, be superfluous, be not charged on me Behmen, he declares to have been mere coincidence; as an ungenerous concealment or intentional plagiarwhile my obligations have been more direct. He ism. I have not indeed (eheu! res angusta domi!) needs give to Behmen only feelings of sympathy; been hitherto able to procure more than two of his while I owe him a debt of gratitude. God forbid books, viz: the first volume of his collected Tracts, that I should be suspected of a wish to enter into a and his System of Transcendental Idealism; to which. rivalry with SCHELLING for the honors so unequivo- however, I must add a small pamphlet against Fichte, cally his right, not only as a great and original ge- the spirit of which was to my feelings painfully in. nius, but as the founder of the Philosophy of NA- congruous with the principles, and which (with the TURE, and as the most successful improver of the Dy. usual allowance afforded to an antithesis) displayed namic System,* which, begun by Bruno, was re-ins the love of wisdom rather than the wisdom of love.
I regard truth as a divine ventriloquist: I care not * It would be an act of high and almost criminal injustice from whose mouth the sounds are supposed to proceed, to pass over in silence the name of Mr. Richard Saumarez, if only the words are audible and intelligible. “ Albeit, a gentleman equally well known as a medical man and as a I must confess to be half in doubt, whether I should philanthropist, but who demands notice on the present occa. sion as the author of “A new System of Physiology." in bring it forth or no, it being so contrary to the eye of Iwo volumes ociavo, published 1797 ; and in 1812, of " An the world, and the world so potent in most men's Examination of the natural and artificial Systems of Philosn- hearts, that I shall endanger either not to be regarded phy which now prevail,” in ono volume octavo, entitlod,
or not to be understood.” — Milton: Reason of "The Principles of physiological and physical science."
Church Government. The latter work is not quite equal to the former in style or arrangement; and there is a greater necessity of distinguishioz the principles of the author's philosophy from his conjec- progressive power, for the contradictory inert force, has a tores concerning color, the atmospheric matter. comets, &c., right to be known and remembered as the first instaurator of which, whether just or erroneouy, are by no means necessary the dynamic philosophy in England. The author's views, as consequences of that philognphy. Yet even in this depart- far as concerns himself, are unborrowed and completely his ment of this volume, which I regard as comparatively the in- own, as he neither possessed, nor do bis writings discover, ferior work, the reasonings by which Mr. Saumarez invali- the least acquaintance with the works of Kant, in which the dates the immanenre of an infinite power in any finite sub- germs of philosophy exist, and his volumes were published stance, are the offspring of no common mind; and the many years before the full development of these germs by Experiment on the expansibility of the air is at least plausible Schelling. Mr. Saumarez's delection of the Brunonian Aysand highly ingenious. But the merit, which will secure both tem was no light or ordinary service at the time; and I to the book and to the writer a high and honorable name scarcely remember in any work on any subject a confutation with posterity, consists in the masterly force of reasoning, and so thoroughly satisfactory. It is sufficient at this time to have the copiousness of induction, with which he has assailed, and stated the fact; as in the preface to the work, which I have (in my opinion) subverted the tyranny of the mechanic sys- already announced on the Logos, I have exhibited in detail iem in pbyeiology; established not only the existence of final the merits of this writer and genuine philosopher who needeauses, but their necessity and efficiency in every system that ed only have taken his foundations somewhat deeper and merite the name of philosophical ; and substituting life and wider to have superseded a considerable part of my labors.