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Maria was already gone: her body was found as cold mark of an idler ; but l engrave them on the maas if she had been dead for some hours. The flower ble monument, sacred to the memory of the departed had been snapped in the storm, before the scythe of Great, is something worse than idleness. The spuri violence could come near it.
of genuine Biography is in nothing more coaspicurus, than in the firmness with which it withstand the cravings of worthless curiosity, as distinguisted fra
the thirst after useful knowledge. For, in the is ESSAY II.
place, such anecdotes as derive their whole and scie interest from the great name of the person cotees
ing whom they are related, and neither illastrale ta The History of Times representeth the magnitude of actions general character nor his particular actions, wyane
and the public faces or deportment of persons, and passeth scarcely have been noticed or remembered escept by and matters . But such being
the workmanship of God. men of weak minds; it is not unlikely therefore, the that he doth hang the greatest weight upon the smallest they were misapprehended at the time, and it is most wires, maxima e minimis suspendens: it comes therefore to probable that they have been related as incorrectly pass, that Histories do rather set forth the pomp of business
as they were noticed injudiciously. Nor are the com than the true and inward resorts thereof. But Lives, if they be well written, propounding to themselves a person soquences of such garrulous Biography mere's Dept to represent in whom actions both greater and smaller, pub- tive. For as insignificant stories can derive no real lic and private, have a commixture, must of necessity con respectability from the eminence of the person who tain a more true, native, and lively representation.
happens to be the subject of them, but rather an additional deformity of disproportion, they are ape
have their insipidity seasoned by the same bad feeMankind in general are so little in the habit of sions that accompany the habit of gossiping in gene looking steadily at their own meaning, or of weighing ral; and the misapprehension of weak men merang the words by which they express it, that the writer, with the misinterpretations of malignant men bare who is careful to do both, will sometimes mislead his not seldom formed the ground of the most gretig i readers through the very excellence which qualifies calumnies. In the second place, these trifles are a him to be their instructor: and this with no other versive of the great end of Biography, which is to is fault on his part, than the modest mistake of suppos- the attention, and to interest the feelings, of men as ing in those, to whom he addresses himself, an intel. those qualities and actions which have made a perz lect as watchful as his own. The inattentive Reader cular life worthy of being recorded. It is, no dia adopts as unconditionally true, or perhaps rails at his the duty of an honest Biographer, to portray the pe> Author for having stated as such, what upon exami- minent imperfections as well as excellencies of nation would be found to have been duly limited, and Hero; but I am at a loss to conceire how this can be would so have been understood, if opaque spots and deemed an excuse for heaping together a mulutade false refractions were as rare in the mental as in the of particulars, which can prove nothing of any se bodily eye. The moito, for instance, to this Paper that might not have been safely taken for granted a has more than once served as an excuse and authori- all men. In the present age (emphatically the age ty for huge volumes of biographical minutiæ, which of personality !) there are more than ordinary Doeve renders the real character almost invisible, like clouds for withholding all encouragement from this site of dust on a portrait, or the counterfeit frankincense of busying ourselves with the names of others, teache which smoke-blacks the favorite idol of a Catholic is still more alarming as a symptom, than it is trocbis village. Yet Lord Bacon, by the words which I have some as a disease. The Reader must be still less 10 marked in italics, evidently confines the Biographer quainted with contemporary literature than met to such facts as are either susceptible of some useful a case not likely to occur—if he needs me to inits general inference, or tend to illustrate those qualities him, that there are men, who trading in the silles which distinguish the subject of them from ordinary anecdotes, in unprovoked abuse and senseless end men; while the passage in general was meant to gy, think themselves nevertheless employed bach guard the Historian against considering, as trifles, all worthily and honorably, if only all this be done * in that might appear so to those who recognize no great good set terms," and from the press, and of public eta ness in the mind, and can conceive no dignity in any racters: a class which has increased so rapidly of incident, which does not act on their senses by its ex- late, that it becomes difficult to discover what cba ternal accompaniments. Things apparently insignifi- racters are to be considered as private. Alas! : cant are recommended to our notice, not for their these wretched misusers of language, and the mess own sakes, but for their bearings or influences on of giving wings to thought, the means of mulapra things of importance ; in other words, when they are the presence of an individual mind, had ever knowa insignificant in appearance only.
how great a thing the possession of any one ampie An inquisitiveness into the minutest circumstances truth is, and how mean a thing a mere faet is esces and casual sayings of eminent contemporaries, is in- as seen in the light of some comprehensive trath; ff deed quite natural ; but so are all our follies, and the they had but once experienced the unborrowed fae more natural they are, the more caution should we placency, the inward independence, the home-brad exert in guarding against them. To scribble trifles strength, with which every clear conception of te oven on the perishable glass of an inn window, is the reason is accompanied: they would shrink from the
own pages as at the remembrance of a crime. For a crime it is, (and the man who hesitates in pronounc
EXTRACT FROM NORTH'S EXAMEN. ng it such, must be ignorant of what mankind owe The Lord Chief Justice Saunders succeeded in the o books, what he himself owes to them in spite of room of Pernberton. His character, and his begin. uis ignorance) thus to introduce the spirit of vulgar ning were equally strange. He was at first no better :candal and personal inquietude into the Closet and than a poor boy, if not a parish-foundling, without he Library, environing with evil passions the very knowing parents or relations. He had found a way Sanctuaries, to which we should flee for refuge from to live by obsequiousness in Clement's Inn, as I rehen! For to what do these Publications appeal, member, and courting the attorneys' clerks for scraps. whether they present themselves as Biography or as The extraordinary observance and diligence of the anonymous Criticism, but to the same feelings which boy, made the society willing to do him good. He the scandal-bearers and time-killers of ordinary life appeared very ambitious to learn to write, and one of seek to gratify in themselves and their listeners ? the attorneys got a board knocked up at a window on And both the authors and admirers of such publica- the top of a stair-case; and that was his desk, where tions, in what respect are they less truants and desert- he sat and wrote after copies of court, and other hands ers from their own hearts, and from their appointed the clerks gave him. He made himself so expert a task of understanding and amending them, than the writer that he took in business, and earned some most garrulous female Chronicler, of the goings-on pence by hackney-writing. And thus by degrees he of yesterday in the families of her neighbors and pushed his faculties and fell to forms, and by books townsfolk ?
that were lent him, became an exquisite entertaining The Friend has reprinted the following Biograph. clerk; and by the same course of improvement of himical sketch, partly indeed in the hope that it may be self, an able counsel, first in special pleading, then at the means of introducing to the Reader's knowledge, large: after he was called to the Bar, had practice in in case he should not have formed an acquaintance the King's Bench Court equal with any there. As with them already, two of the most interesting bio- to his person he was very corpulent and beastly, a graphical Works in our language, both for the weight mere lump of morbid flesh. He used to say, by his of the matter, and the incuriosa felicitas of the style. troggs, (such an humorous way of talking he affectI refer to Roger North’s Examen, and the Life of his ed) none could say he wanted issue of his body, for brother, the Lord Chancellor North. The pages are he had nine in his back. He was a fetid mass, that all alive with the genuine idioms of our mother offended his neighbors at the bar in the sharpest detongue.
gree. Those whose ill-fortune it was to stand near A fastidious taste, it is true, will find offence in the him, were consessors, and in the summer time, almost occasional vulgarisms, or what we now call slang, martyrs. This hateful decay of his carcase came which not a few of our writers, shortly after the Re- upon him by continual sottishness; for to say nothing storation of Charles the Second, seem to have affect- of brandy, he was seldom without a pot of ale at his ed as a mark of loyalty. These instances, however, nose, or near him. That exercise was all that he are but a trifling drawback. They are not sought for, used; the rest of his life was sitting at his desk or pip as is too often and too plainly done by L'Estrange, ing at home; and that home was a tailor's house, in Collyer, Tom Brown, and their imitators. North Butcher Row, called his lodging, and the man's wife never goes out of his way either to seek them or to was his nurse or worse; but by virtue of his money, avoid them; and in the main his language gives us of which he had made little account, though he got the very nerve, pulse, and sinew of a hearty, healthy a great deal, he soon became master of the family; conversational English.
and being no changeling he never removed, but was This is The FRIEND's first reason for the insertion true to his friends, and they to him to the last hour of of this Extract. His other and principal motive may his life. So much for his person and education. As be found in the kindly, good-tempered spirit of the for his paris, none had them more lively than he ; wit passage. But instead of troubling the Reader with and repartee in an affected rusticity were natural to the painful contrast which so many recollections force him. He was ever ready and never at a loss; and on my own feelings, I will refer the character-makers none came so near as he to be a match for sergeant of the present day to the Letters of Erasmus and Sir Mainerd. His great dexterity was in the art of speThomas More to Martin Dorpius, that are commonly cial pleading, and he would lay snares that often annexed to the Encomium Moriæ ; and then for a caught his superiors who were not aware of his traps. practical comment on the just and affecting senti- And he was so fond of success for his clients, that raments of these two great men, to the works of Roger ther than fail, he would set the court with a trick; North, as proofs how alone an English scholar and for which he met, sometimes, with a reprimand which gentleman will permit himself to delineate his con- he would ward off, so that no one was much offended temporaries even under the strongest prejudices of with him. But Hales could not bear his irregularity party spirit, and though employed on the coarsest sub of life; and for that, and suspicion of his tricks, used jects. A coarser subject than L. C. J. Saunders can to bear hard upon him in the court. But no ill-usage not well be imagined; nor does North use his colors from the bench was too hard for his hold of business, with a sparing or very delicate hand. And yet the being such as scarce any could do but himself. With final impression is that of kindness.
į all this he had a goodness of nature and disposition in 80 great a degree, that he may be deservedly styled a Philanthrope. He was a very Silenus to the boys,
ESSAY III. as in this place I may term the students of the law, to make them merry whenever they had a mind to it. He had nothing of rigid or austere in him. If any Proinde si videbitur, fingant isti me latrunculis interim se near him at the bar grumbled at his stench, he ever
causa lusisse, aut si malint, equitasse in arundige inc.
Nam quæ tandem est iniquitas, cum omni vizitat de converted the complaint into content and laughing
suos luss us concedamus, studiis nullum omnino lusuma with the abundance of his wit. As to his ordinary mittere: maxime si ita tractentur ludicra, ut es bis zu dealing, he was as honest as the driven snow was quando plus frugis referat lector non omnino Bares ebese white; and why not, having no regard for money, or
quam ex quorundum tetricis ac splendidis argumedis.
ERASMI, Praf. ad cor. Ez desire to be rich ? And for good-nature and condescension there was not his fellow. I have seen him Translation. They may pretend, if they like, tbat I 2 for hours and half-hours together, before the court sat,
myself with playing Fox and Goose, or, if they prefe
equitasse in arundine longa, that I ride the cock bote in stand at the bar, with an audience of Students over
my grandam's crutch. But wherein, I pray, consists the against him, putting of cases, and debating so as suit- unfairness or impropriety, when every trade and prslusam ed their capacities, and encouraged their industry.
is allowed its own spot and travesty, in extending the And so in the Temple, he seldom moved without a
permission to literature : especially if trifles are so badiad.
that a reader of tolerable quickpeas may occasionais de parcel of youths hanging about him, and he merry rive more food for profitable reflection than from suy & and jesting with them.
work of grand or gloomy argument ? It will be readily conceived that this man was never cut out to be a Presbyter, or any thing that is Irus, the forlorn Irus, whose nourishment cos severe and crabbed. In no time did he lean to fac- sisted in bread and water, whose clothing of one tas tion, but did his business without offence to any. He tered mantle, and whose bed of an arm-full of art, put off officious talk of government or politics with this same Irus, by a rapid transition of fortune, be jests, and so made his wit a catholicon or shield to came the most prosperous mortal under the sun. I cover all his weak places or infirmities. When the pleased the Gods to snatch him at once out of the court fell into a steady course of using the law against dust, and to place him by the side of princes. 'Ee all kinds of offenders, this man was taken into the beheld himself in the possession of incalculable tre king's business; and had the part of drawing, and sures. His palace excelled even the temple of the perusal of almost all indictments and informations gods in the pomp of its ornaments ; his least sumpt that were then to be prosecuted, with the pleadings ous clothing was of purple and gold, and his table thereon, if any were special; and he had the settling might well have been named the compendium of the large pleadings in the quo Warranto against luxury, the summary of all that the volup!uous inst London. His Lordship had no sort of conversation nuity of men had invented for the gratification of the with him but in the way of business and at the bar; palate. A numerous train of admiring dependazz but once, after he was in the king's business, he followed him at every step: those to whom te dined with his Lordship, and no more. And there vouchrased a gracious look, were esteemed already he showed another qualification he had acquired, and in the high road of fortune, and the favored indird that was to play jigs upon an harpsichord; having ual who was permitted to kiss his hand, appeared 15 taught himself with the opportunity of an old virginal be the object of common envy. The name of Ira of his landlady's; but in such a manner, not for de sounding in his ears an unwelcome memento and fect, but figure, as to see him were a jest. The king perpetual reproach of his former porerty, he for this observing him to be of a free disposition, loyal, reason named himself Ceraunius, or the Lightning friendly, and without greediness or guile, thought of fasher, and the whole people celebrated this splendi him to be Chief Justice to the King's Bench at that change of title by public rejoicings. The poet, aber nice time. And the ministry could not but approve a few years ago had personified porerty itself onder of it. So great a weight was then at stake, as could his former name of Irus, now made a discovery whid not be trusted to men of doubtful principles, or such had till that moment remained a profound secret, be! as anything might tempt 10 desert them. While he was now received by all with implicit faith and sat in the Court of King's Bench, he gave the rule warmest approbation. Jupiter, forsooth, had become to the general satisfaction of the lawyers. But his enamored of the mother of Ceraunius, and assumed course of life was so different from what it had been, the form of a mortal in order to enjoy her lore. his business incessant and withal crabbed; and his Henceforward they erected altars to him, they store diet and exercise changed, that the constitution of by his name, and the priests discovered in the catraz's his body, or head rather, could not sustain it, and he of the sacrificial victim, that THE GREAT Cerarsis fell into an apoplexy and palsy, which numbed his this worthy son of Jupiter, was the sole pillar of the parts; and he never recovered the strength of them. western world. Toxaris, his former neighbor, : He outlived the judgment in the quo Warranto ; but man whom good fortune, unwearied industry, and was not present otherwise than by sending his opinion rational frugality, had placed among the richest et by one of the judges, to be for the king, who at the zens, became the first victim of the pride of this new pronouncing of judgment, declared it to the court demi-god. In the time of his poverty, Irus bed r accordingly, which is frequently done in like cases. pined at his luck and prosperity, and irritable from
distress and envy, had conceived that Toxaris had getting up in the morning before day-light, &c. Then looked contemptuously on him; and now was the on the evening before Christmas day one of the partime that Ceraunius would make him feel the power lors is lighted up by the children, into which the pa of him whose father grasped the thunder-bolt. Three rents must not go. A great yew bough is fastened advocates, newly admitted into the recently estab- on the table at a little distance from the wall, a mul lished order of the Cygnet gave evidence that Toxa- titude of little tapers are fastened in the bough, but aris had denied the gods, committed peculations on so as not to calch it till they are nearly burnt out, and the sacred Treasury, and increased his treasure by coloured paper, &c. hangs and flutters from the twigs acts of sacrilege. He was hurried off to prison and - Under this bough the children lay out in great order sentenced to an ignominious death, and his wealth the presents they mean for their parents, still concealconfiscated to the use of Ceraunius, the earthly re-ing in their pockets what they intend for each other presentative of the deities. Ceraunius now found Then the parents are introduced--and each presents nothing wanting to his felicity but a bride worthy of his little gift—and then bring out the rest one by one his rank and blooming honors. The most illustrious from their pockets, and present them with kisses and of the land were candidates for his alliance. Eu embraces.- Where I witnessed this scene, there were phorbia, the daughter of the noble Austrius, was eight or nine children, and the eldest daughter and honored with his final choice. To nobility of birth the mother wept aloud for joy and tenderness; and nature had added for Euphorbia a rich dowry of the tears ran down the face of the father, and he beauty, a nobleness both of look and stature. The clasped all his children so tight to his breast-it flowing ringlets of her hair, her lofty forehead, her seemed as if he did it to stifle the sob that was rising brilliant eyes, her stately figure, her majestic gait, within him,—I was very much affected. The shahad enchanted the haughty Ceraunius : and all the dow of the bough and its appendages on the wall, bards told what the inspiring muses had revealed to and arching over on the ceiling, made a pretty picthem, that Venus more than once had pined with ture—and then the raptures of the very little ones, jealousy at the sight of her superior charms. The when at last the twigs and their needles began to day of espousal arrived, and the illustrious son of take fire and snap-O it was a delight for them!-On Jove was proceeding in pomp to the temple, when the next day, in the great parlor, the parents lay out the anguish-stricken wife of Toxaris, with his inno- on the table the presents for the children; a scene of cent children, suddenly threw themselves at his feet, more sober joy succeeds, as on this day, after an old and with loud lamentations entreated him to spare custom, the mother says privately to each of her the life of her husband. Enraged by this interrup- daughters, and the father to his sons, that which he tion, Ceraunius spurned her from him with his feet has observed most praise-worthy and that which was and—Irus awakened, and found himself lying on the most faulty in their conduct.—Formerly, and still in same straw on which he had lain down, and with the smaller towns and villages throughout North his old tattered mantle spread over him. With his Germany, these presents were sent by all che parents returning reason, conscience 100 returned. He to some one fellow who in high buskins, a white robe, praised the gods and resigned himself to his lot. a mask, and an enormous flax wig, personates Knecht Ceraunius indeed had vanished, but the innocent Rupert, i. e. the servant Rupert. On Christmas night Toxaris was still alive, and Irus poor yet guiltless. he goes round to every house and says, that Jesus
Can my reader recollect no character now on earth, Christ his master sent him thither—the parents and who sometime or other will awake from his dream of elder children receive him with great pomp of reveempire, poor as Irus, with all the guilt and impiety rence, while the little ones are most terribly frightof Ceraunius ?
ened-He then inquires for the children, and accordP. S. The reader will bear in mind, that this fable ing to the character which he hears from the parent, was written and first published at the close of 1809. he gives them the intended present—as if they came 'δέχθεν δε τε νήπιος έγνω.
out of heaven from Jesus Christ.–Or, if they should have been bad children, he gives the parents a rod, and in the name of his master recommends them to
use it frequently.—About seven or eight years old CHRISTMAS WITHIN DOORS, IN THE
the children are let into the secret, and it is curious NORTH OF GERMANY.
how faithfully they keep it! EXTRACTED FROM SATYRANE'S LETTERS.
Ratzeburg There is a Christmas custom here which pleased
CHRISTMAS OUT OF DOORS. and interested me.—The children make little pres- The whole Lake of Ratzeburg is one mass of ents to their parents, and to each other; and the pa- thick transparent ice—a spotless mirror of nine miles rents to their children. For three or four months in extent! The lowness of the hills, which rise from before Christmas the girls are all busy, and the boys the shore of the lake, preclude the awful sublimity pave up their pocket-money, to make or purchase of Alpine scenery, yet compensate for the want of it Laese presents. What the present is to be is cau- by beauties, of which this very lowness is a necessary tiously kept secret, and the girls have a world of con. condition. Yester-morning I saw the lesser lake comtrivances to conceal it—such as working when they pletely hid by mist; but the moment the sun peepea are out on visits and the others are not with them; l over the hill, the mist broke in the middle, and in a
few seconds stood divided, leaving a broad road all across the lake; and between these two walls of mist the sunlight burnt upon the ice, forming a road of golden fire, intolerably bright! and the mist-walls themselves partook of the blaze in a multitude of shining colors. This is our second frost. About a month ago, before the thaw came on, there was a storm of wind; during the whole night, such were the thunders and howlings of the breaking ice, that they have left a conviction on my mind, that there are sounds more sublime than any sight can be, more absolutely suspending the power of comparison, and more utterly absorbing the mind's self-consciousness in its total attention to the object working upon it. Part of the ice which the vehemence of the wind had shattered, was driven shore-ward and froze anew. On the evening of the next day, at sun-set, the shattered ice thus frozen, appeared of a deep blue and in shape like an agitated sea; beyond this, the water, that ran up between the great islands of ice which had preserved their masses entire and smooth, shone of a yellow green: but all these scattered ice-islands, themselves, were of an intensely bright blood colorthey seemed blood and light in union! On some of the largest of these islands, the fishermen stood pull. ing out their immense nets through the holes made in the ice for this purpose, and the men, their net-poles, and their huge nets, were a part of the glory; say rather, it appeared as if the rich crimson light had shaped itself into these forms, figures, and attitudes, to make a glorious vision in mockery of earthly things.
The lower lake is now all alive with skaters, and with ladies driven onward by them in their ice cars. Mercury, surely, was the first maker of skates, and the wings at his feet are symbols of the invention. In skating there are three pleasing circumstances: the infinitely subtle particles of ice which the skate cuts up, and which creep and run before the skate like a low mist, and in sun-rise or sun-set become colored ; second, the shadow of the skater in the water, seen through the transparent ice; and third, the melancholy undulating sound from the skate, not without variety; and when very many are skating together, the sounds and the noises give an impulse to the icy trees, and the woods all round the lake tinkle.
Here I stop, having in truth transcribed the preceding in great measure, in order to present the lovers of poetry with a descriptive passage, extracted, with the author's permission, from an unpublished Poem on the Growth and Revolutions of an Individual Mind, by WORDSWORTH.
-an Orphic tale indeed,
By day or star-light, thus from my first dawn
Nor was this fellowship vouchsafed to be
And in the frosty season when the sun Was set, and, visible for many a mile The cottage windows through the twilight blazed, I beeded not the summons :-happy time It was indeed for all of us, to me It was a time of rapture! clear and loud The village clock toll'd six! I wheel'd aboat, Proud and exulting, like an untired horse That cared not for its home.-All shod with steel We hiss'd along the polish'd ice, in games Confederate, imitative of the chase And woodland pleasures, the resounding hors, The pack loud bellowing, and the hunted bare. So through the darkness and the cold we tew. And not a voice was idle: with the din Meanwhile the precipices rang aloud, The leafless trees and every icy crag Tinkled like iron, while the distant hills Into the tumult sent an alien sound of melancholy--not unnoticed, while the stars Eastward, were sparkling clear, and in the west The orange sky of evening died away.
Not seldom from the uproar I retired Into a silent bay or sportively Glanced sideway, leaving the tumultuous throng To cut across the image of a star That gleam'd upon the ice: and oftentimes When we had given our bodies to the wind, And all the shadowy banks on either side Came sweeping through the darkness spioning stil The rapid line of motion, then at once Have I reclining back upon my heels Stopp'd short : yet still the solitary cliffs Wheel'd by me even as if the earth bad rollid With visible motion her diurnal round! Behind me did they stretch in solemn train Feebler and feebler, and I stood and watch'd Till all was tranquil as a summer sea.
GROWTH OF GENIUS, FROM THE INFLUENCES OF
BOYHOOD AND EARLY YOUTH
Es ist fast traurig zu sehen, wie man von der Hebraisches
Quellen so ganz sich abgewendet hat. In Ægyptens selbst dunkeln unentrathselbaren Hieroglyphen hat man den Schle sel alter Weisheit suchen wollen : jetzt ist von nichts zu Indiens Sprache und Weisheit die Rede ; aber die Rabbie ische Schriften liegen unerforscht. — SCHELLING. Translation. It is mournful to observe, bow entirely we have turned our backs upon the Hebrew sources. lo the obscure insolvable riddles of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics the Learned have been hoping to find the key of anco doctrine, and now we hear nothing but the language sad wisdom of India, while the writings and traditions of the Rabbins are consigned to beglect without examination.