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sacrifice that 'only son, of whom it had been declared, "A posterity will be derived to thee from Isaac;" reasoning with himself, that God was able even to raise him from the dead: and indeed from a like condition he at first received him. By faith Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau, concerning things to come. By faith Jacob, when he was dying, blest each of the sons of Joseph, and worshipped God, leaning on the lop of his staff-. By faith Joseph, at the end of life, made mention of the departure of the children of Israel, and gave directions concerning his bones.

By faith Moses as soon as he was born, was hid three months by his parents, (for they saw that he was a promising child) in defiance of the order of the king. By faith Moses after he was grown up, refused to call himself the son of Pharoah's daughter, and chose rather to suffer hardships with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a short time; and esteemed such reproach as Christ endured greater riches than the treasures of Egypt; for he was looking forward to his reward. By faith he left Egypt, in defiance of the anger of the king: for he remained firm, as if he had seen his invisible deliverer. By faith he observed the passover, and the sprinkling of blood, that the destroyer of the first-born might not touch them. By faith the Israelites passed through the Red Sea, as on dry land, which the Egyptians attempting, were drowned. By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, after a procession round them for seven days.

And why should I mention any

'Abraham's other son Ishmael, is passed over, as being born of a bond-woman.

* Though this person and others here mentioned, were guilty of great faults and

more examples, for time would CHAP, fail me to tell of Gideon, and of XIL Barak, and of a Samson, and ofJu<Jges Jephtha; of David also, and of'v; &c Samuel and the prophets; who.' Sam. through faith subdued kingdoms,''&cwrought deliverance, obtained pro- 33 mises, stopped the mouths of lions, quenched the rage of fire, escaped 34 the edge of the sword, became strong from weakness, were mighty in battle, put to flight the armies of their enemies, received for women 35 their dead children brought to life again; and some were killed with clubs, not accepting deliverance when offered, that they might obtain a better restoration unto life: some moreover experienced mock- 36 ery and scourges, bonds also, and imprisonments.

They were stoned, they were 37 sawn asunder, they were thrust through with stakes, they were slaughtered by the sword, they went about clothed with sheepskins and goat-skins, destitute, afflicted, cruelly treated; (of whom 38 the world was not worthy ;) wanderers in wildernesses, and mountains, and dens, and holes of the earth. And all these thus celebrat- 39 ed for their trust in God, received not the promises; God having 40. long ago intended this advantage for us, that these promises might not be performed before our days.

Wherefore, since we are sur- CHAP, rounded with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every The exweight, and the sin which easily^"" entangleth us, and run with perse- should ex, verance, the race that is laid out .cire us t0 for us, looking forwards unto Jesus, ^ifgood the guide and complete pattern of qualities, this faith, who for the joy that was set before him, endured the cross,

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Job, v. 17.

Prov. iii. 11.

Patience recommended.


and leal, fortitude, peace, and purity.


despising ihc shame of it, and is seated at the right hand of the

3 throne of God. Now consider with yourselves what a great opposition of sinners he endured, le-st ye be wea

4 ried and faint in your minds. Ye have not yet in your struggles re

5 sisted sin unto blood; and have ye forgotten that encouraging voice, which talketh with you as with sons, " My son, despise not the chastening of the Lord, nor faint under his reproof: for whom the

6 Lord lovcth he chastiscth, and scourgeth every son whom he rcceiveth?"

1 Bear your chastisement with patience: God dealeth with you as with sons: for what son is there whom his father chasteneth not? So

8 then if ye be without chastisement, of which all sons have partaken, then arc ye a spurious race, and

9 not lawful sons. Besides, have our natural fathers chastised us, and we paid them reverence, and shall we not much more submit ourselves to our spiritual father, and

10 live for ever? For they inde d, with a view to a short life, and after their own humour, used to chastise us, but he corrects us for our good, that we might be par

11 takers of his holiness. For the present indeed no chastisement appeareth to be joyous, but grievous; nevertheless afterwards it yieldeth peaceful fruits of righteousness to them who have been exercised by it.

Wherefore lift up the hands which hang down, and strengthen the feeble knees, and make ' straight paths for your feet, that the lame and timid may not be turned out of the way, but rather be healed. 14 Follow after peace with all men, and

holiness, without which no man CHAP, shall sec the Lord; keeping watch, lest any one fall short of the favour IS of God; lest any *root of bitterness as gall, spring up, and by it many be defiled: lest there be any forni- 16 cator or 'profane person as Esau, who for one meal gave up his birth- Genesis, right; for ye know that he wished xxv- 33' afterwards indeed to obtain the 11 blessing, but was rejected: for though he sought it earnestly with tears, he found no way of changing the purpose of his father.

For ye are not come to a moun- 1S tain covered all over with burning Superiority fire, and to blackness and darkness, fj^jJ^and the blast of a sation to


of words ; the law of

and tempest,

trumpet, and a noise or w which the hearers entreated might Mosesnot be addressed unto them: (for 20 they could not endure that strict command, J' If even a beast touch 21 the mountain, it shall be stoned ;*' and so frightful was the appear- 22 ance, that Moses said, " I exceedingly fear and tremble") but ye are come to Mount Sion, and to the city of the living God, to the heavenly Jerusalem, and the general assembly of innumerable angels, and to a church of first-born sons, 23 enrolled in heaven, and to God the judge of all, and to spirits of just men made perfect; and to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, 24 and to a 4 sprinkling of blood, which speaketh better things than that of Abel.

Take care that ye refuse not 25 him who now speaketh to you ; ^f^1"1 for if they escaped not who reject- de^g ed the earthly 5 messenger, much thesevertst less shall we escape who reject the Pu<"s1,"heavenly messenger of God, whose1TM1 voice then shook the earth; but he

1 Those of true Christian goodness and fortitude.

"Apostacy which might extend itself by examp;e.

3 One orrt of Esnu's birthright was, that the Messiah should descend from him.

4 To that high degree of holy fortitude J cellence of his doctrine, which disposes us voluntarily to submit to

such sufferings as Christ endured, and which will procure for us more glorious rewards than what Abel had reason to expect.

5 Moses. .

6 Christ, called heavenly in distinction f; om Moses, on account of the superior ex

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jenesis, viii. i.

^rious uties enirced.

hath now declared, " Once more I I shake not the earth only, but j heaven also." Now these words "once more," signify the removal

27 of those things which are shaken, as worn to decay, that the things not shaken may continue. Where

28 fore let us who have received an unshaken kingdom have thankfulness, and pay religious service'unto God, with reverence and pious

29 fear. For to the impious and irreverent our God is a consuming fire.

Let brotherly love continue. Forget not hospitality; for by this some have entertained angels unawares. Remember those that are in bonds as bound with them, and the distressed as being yourselves also in the body. Let marriage be honourable among all, and the marriage bed be undefined: for whoremongers and adulterers God will punish. Let your manner of life be without covetousness, and be content with your condition; for God hath said, "I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee;" so'that we may boldly say, " The Lord is my helper, and I will not fear what man can do unto me."

7 Remember your guides, who spake unto you the word of God; whose faith imitate, considering the blessed end of their course of life.

8 Jesus Christ is the same yestrpttuity terday, and to-day, and for ever; hrkian ^e not' therefore, carried aside with Jigtoa. a variety of strange doctrines; for

1 By voluntarily submitting to death, in defence and confirmation of that gospel cp

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it is better that the heart should be established in the gracious gospel, than in Jewish meats, by which 9 the followers of them have not been profited.

We have not here a continuing 1 * city, but are looking for one hereafter. Through Christ, therefore, 15 let us offer up continually to God a sacrifice of praise, that is, the fruit of our lips, which render thanks to his name.

Moreover, forget not kind of- 16 fices, and to distribute to the poor ; Beneficence for with such sacrifices God is well ^ssiem'to pleased. Obey your guides, and superior* yield to them; (for they are watch- recom

'c i i • mended.

ing tor your souls, as having an account to give) that they may pre- n side over you with joy, and not with uneasiness, since this were unprofitable for you. Pray for us; 18 for we trust we have a good conscience, wishing to conduct ourselves well in all things.

Now the God of peace, who 20 brought up from the dead, that Benediction shepherd of the sheep, become TM^ua'i*~ great by the 'blood of an everlasting covenant, even our Lord Jesus Christ,make you complete in every 21 good work, to perform his will! doing with you what is pleasing in his own sight, through Jesus C hrist; to whom De glory for ever and ever. Amen.

Now I entreat you, brethren, 22 suffer the word of exhortation. The favour of God be with you all. 25 Amen.


venant, which will never be annulled. 2 U 2


CHAP. TAMES, a servant of God, and of

Address to *^ llle ^0T^ Jesus Christ, unto the


Jews in general.

twelve tribes scattered wisheth health. 2 Account it great joy, my breHerecom thren, when ye fall into various Christian trials, knowing that such proof of perfection, your fidelity produceth patience; and how to an(j let patience have its full effect, o tain it. that ye may ^ perfect and entire,

5 deficient in nothing. Now, if any of you be wanting in wisdom, let him ask of God, who giveth liberally to all without upbraiding,

6 and it will be given him; but let him ask in confidence, without mistrust ; for the* mistrustful man is like a troubled sea, moved by the

7 wind and lossed about. And let not that man think that he will re

8 ceive any thing from the Lord; he is a man of a divided mind, unsteady in all his ways.

9 Now, let the brother of low deThegos- gree glory in his exaltation as a blessing to Christian: but the rich in his rich and 2 lowliness, because as the freshpom. ness of a flower will he pass away;

11 for the sun riseth with its scorching heat, and withereth the blade, and the flower falkth off, and the beauty of its appearance is gone: so also will the rich man fade in his course.

12 Happy is the man, thatendureth

1 This epistle was written by James the Less or Younger, so called to distinguish him from James, the son of Zebedee, and brother of John. He was the son of Alpheus, or Cleophas, who married a sister of Mary, the mother of Jesus; and brother of Judas, er Jude. He is believed to have suffered martyrdom in the former part of A. D. 62, and to have written this epistle a short time befoi e his death, from Jerusalem, or some part of Judca. Though many

temptation, for when he hath been CHAP, proved, he will receive the crown of life, which the Lord hath pro- eto7. mised to them that love him. Let? fJ^ no man say, when he is tempted, God. "I am tempted of God ;" for God 13 is unacquainted with evil, nor doth he tempt any man; but each is 14 tempted bv his own evil desire, and is allured by the bait of it. Then 15 when desire hath conceived, it beareth sin, and sin, when her full time is come, bringeth forth death. Do not deceive yourselves, my be- 16 loved brethren. Every good gift, 11 and every perfect benefit, cometh down from above,"from the Father of lights, with whom is no change, nor shadow of turning. By his will 18 he brought us forth unto the doctrine of truth, that we might be a first fruits of his creatures.

So then, my beloved bre- 19 thren! let every man be swift to Heating

hi i r thetrtfh,

car, slow to speech, slow to anger • w,lti,out

for the anger of man accom- obeying*!

plishcth not the righteous designs «i" k^

of God. Wherefore, lay aside all"°""l,

defilement, and wickedness which 21.

is superfluous and unsuitable, and

receive with meekness that word,

which is implanted among you,

which is able to save your souls.

But be ye/ doers of the law of 22

Christ, and not hearers only, de

parts of the epistle are applicable to Jewish converts to Christianity, whom it was the apostles design to exhort to constancy in suffering, and to warn against certain Jewish vices, yet it is probable that it was intended for Jews of every denomination throughout the world, whether Christians or otherwise, and many passages seem to be particularly addressed to unbelieving Jews.

* In possessing that humiliating knowledge of himself, which the gospel teaches.


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cciving yourselves. For if any one be a hearer of the law, and not a doer; he is like a man looking at

24 his natural face in a glass ; for he hath no sooner looked at himself, and gone away, than he forgetteth

25 what sort of a man he was. But whoso looketh with attention into the perfect law of liberty, and keepeth to it, he, being not a forgetful hearer, but a doer of the work commanded, will be happy in his deed.

26 If any one think himself religiBeneficenceous, and bridle not his tongue, but

."""""" deceive his own heart, this man's religion is vain. The religion which is pure and undefiled before our God and Father is this; to take care of orphans and widows in

27 their affliction, and to keep one'sself unspotted from the world.

My brethren! hold not your glorious belief in our Lord Jesus Christ, with respect of persons. For if a man come into your ' assembly with a gold ring and a pur

and terope ranee are principal p»rts of true religion.



court to the rich, "id neglecting the pie robe, and a poor man also come poor cen- in ^fa mean apparel, and ye look with favour on the wearer or the

3 purple robe, and say unto him, "Sit thou here in an honourable place," but say to the poor man, "Stand thou there, or sit here un

4 der my footstool," do ye not then make wrong distinctions among yourselves, and form your judgments from evil * reasonings?

5 Hearken,* my beloved brethren! Hath not God chosen for himself the poor of this world, but rich in faith, to be heirs of that kingdom which he hath promised to them who love him? whereas ye regard the poor man with disdain.

6 Do not the rich domineer over you,

1 For public worship.

• The reasoning here condemned, was that which led the Jewish Christians to be anxious for the conversion of rich men, un

and drag you into courts of justice? Chap. Do they not speak evil of that honourable name by which ye are T


If indeed ye according

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perform the royal 8

tO this Scripture, being con

"Thou shalt love thy neighbour as JEl'uwrf thyself," ye do well : but if ye love. have respect of persons, ye do Lev. wrong,' and are convicted of trans- xugression by this law. For whoso- 10 ever shall keep every other part of the law, but offend presumptuously in one point, he is guilty of an offence similar in kind to that of breaking every commandment. For the same law, which saith, II "Thou shalt not commit adultery," saith also, " Thou shalt do no murder." Now, though thou commit no adultery, and yet commit murder, thou becomest a transgressor of the law. So speak ye, 12 and so act, as those who will be judged by a law of liberty : for the 13 sentence thereof will show no mercy to the unmerciful; but in the case of the merciful, mercy will triumph over punishment.

What doth it profit, my thren, if a man say that he faith, and have not works? faith save him? Suppose a ther or a sister be half-naked, and 15 in want of daily food, should any one say unto them, " Depart in peace! may ye be warm with 16 clothes, and filled with food !" but give them no necessaries' of life; what good is done them? Thus, L7 faith by itself without works is dead. Moreover, a man may say 18 unto thee, "Thou hast faith, and I have works; show me thy faith without thy works, and I will show thee my faith by my works." Thou 19

der the hope of their favour and protection and to neglect the poo ., as if their salvation was a matter of comparatively small importance.

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