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prefigured; the fact of preconcerted connectionwill rest solely upon the authority of the person who advances the assertion. But, if we know, from other sources, that his words are the words of truth, our only enquiry will be, if he either distinctly asserts, or plainly infers, the existence of a designed correspondence.
The fact, then, of a preconcerted connection between two series of events, is capable of being established in three ways: and the historical types have been accordingly arranged in three principal divisions. Some of them afford intrinsic evidence, that the Scriptures, which record them, are given by inspiration of God; the others can be proved to exist only by assuming that fact: but all, when once established, display the astonishing power and wisdom of God; and the importance of that scheme of redemption, which was ushered into the world with such magnificent preparations.
In contemplating this wonderful system, we discern one great intention interwoven, not only into the verbal prophecies and extraordinary events of the history of the Israelites, but into the ordinary transactions of the lives of selected individuals, even from the creation of the world.
Adam was "the figure of him that was
to come." Melchisedec was "made like unto the Son of God." Abraham, in the course of events in which he was engaged by the especial command of Heaven, was enabled to see Christ's day and Isaac was received from the dead “in a figure." At a later period, the paschal lamb was ordained to be sacrificed, not only as a memorial of the immediate deliverance, which it was instituted to procure, and to commemorate, but also as a continued memorial of that which was to be "fulfilled in the kingdom of God." Moses was raised up to deliver the people of Israel; to be to them a lawgiver, a prophet, a priest; and to possess the regal authority, if not the title, of king. But, during the early period of his life, he was himself taught, that one great Prophet should be raised up like unto him: before his death he delivered the same prophecy to the people: and, after that event, the Israelites continually looked for that faithful prophet, who should return answer to their enquiries. Their prophets all pointed to some greater lawgiver, who should introduce a new law into their hearts, and inscribe them upon their minds." The whole people of Israel were
b Rom. v. 14.
Heb. vii. 3.
f Luke xxii. 16. xiv. 41.
John viii. 56.
Jer. xxxi. 33.
i John vi. 32.
1 John iii. 15.
n Heb. viii. 5.
Heb. iii. 1.
also made, in some instances, designedly representative of Christ: and the events, which occurred in their national history, distinctly referred to him. During their wanderings in the wilderness, God left not himself without witness, which should bear reference to the great scheme of the gospel. They ate spiritual meat. It was an emblem of the true bread of life, which came down from heaven. "They drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ." They were destroyed of serpents; and a brasen serpent was lifted up on a pole, that whosoever looked might live. It was a sensible figure of the Son of man, who was, in like manner, to be lifted up; "that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have eternal life."1 Besides, their religious ordinances were only "a figure for the time then present. Their tabernacle was made after the pattern of heavenly things;" and was intended to prefigure the "greater and more perfect tabernacle, not made with hands." The high priest was a living representative of the great "High Priest of our profession:" and the levitical sacrifices plainly had respect to the one great sacrifice
for sins. Joshua the son of Nun represented Jesus in name: and by his earthly conquests in some measure prefigured the heavenly triumphs of his Lord. In a subsequent period, David was no indistinct type of "the Messiah the Prince," for a long time humbled, and at length triumphant over his enemies. And the peaceable dominion of Solomon prefigured that eternal rest and peace, which remaineth to the people of God. In a still later age, the miraculous preservation of the prophet Jonah displayed a sign, which was fulfilled in the resurrection of Christ. And when the temple was rebuilt, Joshua, the son of Josedech, the high priest, and his fellows, were set forth as "men of sign," representative of the BRANCH, which should, in the fulness of time, be raised up to the stem of Jesse.
The illustration, then, to be derived from the historical types of the Old Testament, is found diffused over the whole period, which extends from the creation of the world, to the time when vision and prophecy were sealed. And all the light, which emanates from so many various points, is concentrated in the person of Christ.
In some of these instances, the express circumstances of similarity are pointed out on
Dan. ix. 25.
Zech. iii. 8. Isai. xi. 1.
the authority of Scripture: in others only the general likeness is so established; and the specific detail is to be supplied, by observing the correspondence, in the recorded history of the typical person, and that of Christ. But the conclusions are all founded upon Scripture: and they extend to so many circumstances in the history and offices of Christ, as to form a prominent part among the various proofs which establish the certainty of his Divine commission.
The place of Christ's birth was prefigured as well as predicted: for in the same place, David, a type of Christ, was born. His name was called Jesus: the very same name that was imposed, by Divine command, upon Joshua the son of Nun. In his infancy, he was persecuted, as Moses was. He was called out of Egypt, as the people of Israel were brought out thence, and denominated, with reference to that event, the Son of God.' That he should deliver laws, and that his preaching should be accompanied with miracles and prophecies, was indicated, when it was declared, that he should be the Prophet like unto Moses. And his transfiguration upon the mount, when "his face did shine as the sun," was remarkably
Hos. xi. 1. Matt. ii. 15.
⚫ 1 Sam. xvii. 12.
u Matt. xvii. 2.