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I.-Alphabetical List of Articles contained in this Volume.

Answers to Arithmetical Questions in The Scholar, 13, 84, 137, 175, 213,264. 310, 377, 425, 470, 507,568 Answers to Arithmetical Questions in the Little Learner, 137, 175, 213, 260, 310, 377

Answers to Algebra Questions in The Scholar, 23, 175, 213, 310 Answers to Pupil Teacher's Examination Papers, 24. 64, 125, 161, 219, 265, 311, 354, 451, 551 Certificate Answers, 402, 447. Chemistry of the Non-Metallics, 11, 80, 119, 157, 173, 217, 259, 334, 378, 465, 494

Correspondence, 236

Discipline of the Mind. By W. C. Coupland, M.A., B.Sc., 8, 78, 177, 214, 255, 332, 381, 411, 468, 491

Elementary Science, 22, 60, 112, 156, 203, 251, 302, 347, 395, 443, 497, 539 Friedrich Frobel. By his Pupil, Herr Heinrich Hoffmann, Altona, President of the Frobel Verein, 3, 59, 107, 188, 230, 257, 299, 367, 401 Gossip, 433

Health and Education at South Kensington, 235

How to Teach Botany. By J. W. Wren, 191, 379 Hygiene. By Alfred Carpenter, M.D. (Lond.), M.R.C.P. (Lond.), C.S.S. (Camb.), Vice-President of the British Medical Association:

I. Food, I

II. Food, 57

III. Diet Tables, 105

IV. Water, 153

V. Water, 201

Mineral Waters

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tion, 329

Lessons in English. By Alexander Bain, LL.D., 4, 109 Matriculation Hints. By H. A. Reatchlous, M.A., B.Sc., 93, 139, 173, 212, 276, 323, 376, 431, 476, 521,567

Merit Grant in Infant Schools. By Mrs. Mortimer, 42, 75, 114, 158, 205, 252, 306, 351, 399,445, 493, 549 Music. By Ralph Dunstan, Mus. Bac. (Cantab.), L. Mus., T.C.L., Member of the Council of the Tonic Sol-fa College, 15, 117 Publications Received, 47, 92, 144, 193, 236, 282, 338, 375, 414, 470, 522, 561 Publications Reviewed, 48, 94, 146, 196, 232, 279, 335, 383, 425, 477, 523, 569 Physiology. By Arthur Newsholme, M.D. (Lond.), Gold Medallist, University Scholar, Physician to the City Dispensary, and Medical Officer of Health for Clapham, 17, 62, 123, 176, 207, 263, 301, 353, 396, 467, 505, 545 PRACTICAL TEACHER Prize Story, 517, 547

Competition, 324

President of the National Union of
Flementary Teachers, 138
Query Column, 37, 85, 141, 181, 237,
283, 325, 369, 417, 471, 510, 562

Recent Inspection Questions, 47, 63, 189, 209, 277, 309, 366, 413, 450, 506, 546

Scholarship Answers, 499, 542
School Songs in both Notations.
By T. Crampton :-
Bells, 20
Squirrels, 21

Spotty and Dotty, 82
Come, Boys, be Merry, 83
May-day Ramble, 121
Behaviour, 122
Spring-time, 174
Polar Bear, 175
The Little Pedlar, 210
The Farmer's Call, 211
Grandfather's Clock, 261
A Boy is a Boy, 262
Holiday Song, 304
Song for Marching, 305
The Child's First Grief, 349
'Tis Spring-time, 350

London Town, 415

We Love to Sing our Cheerful
Song, 416

The Useful Plough, 463
The Farmer's Boy, 464
Tin-maker Man, 508
Humpty-Dumpty, 509
The Water-Mill, 541
Science Notes, 14

Vere Foster's Copy and Drawing Books, 201

Poynter's Drawing Books, 292

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Beveridge, James, 570
Baker, W. G., 280

Burt, Llewellyn E., 282
Binns, W. J., 526
Bird, Charles, 526

Carey, A., F.R.G.S., 94
Cupples, Mrs. G., 95
Colville, David, 145

Chinnock, E. J., M.A., LL.B., 194
Clapin, Rev. A. C., M.A., 235
Curtis, C. H. O., 281
Casartelli, Rev. L. C., M.A., 282
Collingwood, H., 477
Carteret-Bisson, F. S. Dumaresq de,

Dalgleish, W. K., B.A., 233
Doudney, Sarah, 431
Deane, David J., 525
Davies, H. G., 525
Everett, J. D., 145
Elwes, Alfred, 233
Ewing, R. M., 336

Fawkes, F. A., F.R.H.S., 194
Fenn, G. Manville, 529
Frowde, H., 429
Gardiner, Alfonzo, 195, 427
Gutteridge, M., B.A., 338
Grant, Jno. C., 528
Gilman, A., M.A., 529
Hassell, J., 48

Harrison, W. J., F.G.S., 145, 280, 385

Hiley, R. W., M.A., 232
Hewitt, W., B.Sc., 233
Hunter, Rev. J., M.A., 384
Heywood, D., C.M., 431
Harrison, F. B., 478
Hutcheson, J. C., 478
Henty, G. A., 479
Hickmans, D., 526

Hunt, Frédéric, 527
Horn, J. S., 528
Hall, Marie, 529
Irvine, W. B., 50
Jones, John J., 281
Japp, A. H., LL.D., 384
Kay, D., F.R.G S., 95
Kerr, Eliza, 97

Kemp, Wm. Noel, F.C.S., 385
Montfort, Lillie, 194
Mason, C. P., B.A., 234
Macartney, R. H., 235
Murché, V. T., 335, 337
Major, H., B.A., 337
McConaughy, J. E, 337

Mackay, J. S., M.A., F.R.S.E., 383

Mill, John Stuart, 385

Mackie, Alexander, M.A., 386
Morell, J. D., A.M., LL.D., 428
Macleod, Alexander, D.D., 479
Meade, L. T., 480
Noble, E., 527

Owen, T. Morgan, M.A., 196
Openshaw, Rev. T. W., M.A., 429
O'Reilly, Mrs. R., 430
Ormon-Cooper, L., 569
Prince, J. J., 95

Paterson, H. Sinclair, M.D., 232
Parry, T., F.R.G.S., 232, 428, 525
Parkington, P., 234
Prentiss, Mrs., 279
Prentice, Ridley, 337

Payne, C. H., D.D., LL.D., 428
Pringle, Dr., 429

Ploetz, Carl, 429

Rey, Hector, 48

Rice, W., F.R.G.S., 569
Rousseau, J. G., 50
Robinson, W., 50

Ricks, George, B.Sc., 233, 528
Rice, E., 279

Riches, Arthur, F.R.A.S., 385
Reaney, Mrs. G. S., 431, 525
Rowsell, Mary C., 478
Spickernell, G. E., 49
Scott, Rev. J. J, M.A., 49
Scholes, S. E., 95

Singleton, J. E., 97, 523
Sully, James, M.A., 193

Stanford, C. V., Mus. Doc., 338
Schmidt, F., Ph.D., 426
Schinzel, Edward, 426

Schlomka, C., M.A', Ph.D., 426

Step, Edward, 480

Séguin, Sileth G., 528

Senior, M. H., 530

Thomas, Rev. R. O., 234

Thorpe, R. O. T., M.A., 337

Thayer, W. M., 386
Tait, S. B., 525

Wall, Rev. G. W., M.A., 233
Wood, Rev. J. G., 335
White, John T., D.D., 384
Watson, W., 528

Yonge, Charlotte M., 50, 427, 523

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Practical Teacher


VOL. IV. No. 1.


Knowledge is proud that he has learned so much,
Wisdom is humble that he knows no more.'-CowPER.


MARCH, 1884.

Chairman of the Council of the Sanitary Institute.

Ir should be known to our readers that the Science and Art Department at South Kensington has introduced into its list the subject of hygiene. Examinations will be held upon hygiene about the same time in the year as those connected with the other subjects which are in the list published by the Department.

We are of opinion that this is an important step in the right direction; that grants from the State exchequer for this purpose will be repaid to the country a thousandfold if it leads to the popularisation of the truth regarding the general health of the people. To assist this object, and to place in the hands of the teachers of the country a means whereby they may prepare students for this examination, we propose to supplement the work which has been already done in that direction by some further instructions upon General Hygiene.' If our readers will refer to the observations which have been made in 'School Hygiene,' School Surgery,' and the 'Teacher's Health,' and follow them up by carefully considering the additions which will be supplemented in this and the succeeding numbers, there will be information sufficient to enable students who can fairly grasp the subjects treated of, to pass the examination with credit to themselves and their school. It should be known that no payments will be made upon the results of the instruction of pupils in this subject who have not passed the examinations of the Department in Animal Physiology.

We propose to consider seriatim the main points in general hygiene' which have been omitted from former volumes, and which are put forth in the syllabus which has been issued by the Department as necessary for candidates to know. We propose to take them somewhat in the following order :

(1) Food and its Adulterations, including classification; economical and wasteful diets, and calculations of diets, etc.

(2) Water and Beverages.-This will include different kinds of waters; sources of contamination; filters, constant and intermittent service; fermented and un



fermented drinks; aerated waters and other beverages, such as tea, coffee, cocoa, etc., etc.

(3) Examination of Air.-Microscopical and chemical; the general changes which take place in air consequent upon meteorological conditions; its deleterious conditions; the quantity required for each person, etc.

(4) Removal of Waste and Impurities.-Principles of ventilation, natural and artificial; antiseptics, deodorisers; cesspools, main sewers, traps, dry and wet methods of removal of sewage, etc., etc.

(5) Shelter and Warming.-Sufficiency for all; injurious clothing and modes of dressing; poisonous dyes; materials for construction of walls and roofs; foundations, floors, dangerous papers and other wall coverings; fireplaces, stoves, and grates, smoke abatement, products of combustion, radiation, warming by hot air and water, etc.

(6) Local Meteorological Conditions.-Elevation, wind, rain, moisture, ozone, etc.

(7) Personal Hygiene.-Influence of age, sex, temperament, idiosyncrasy, heredity, etc.

(8) Prevention of Disease.-Consumption, scrofula, rickets, rheumatic fever, marsh diseases, endemics, epidemics, etc.

(9) Nuisances.

(10) Vital Statistics.

(11) Sanitary Laws, etc., etc.

In each of these subjects reference will be made to the best books which have been published for further information, so that a student anxious to go deeper into the study of each may be directed to the best sources of instruction with the least loss of time. In this way we hope to lay the foundation for a true knowledge of hygienic laws, by which the health of the people may be materially aided, and a great stride made towards the removal of disease from among the masses. It cannot be too generally known that nine-tenths of the common ailments to which people are daily subject are not absolute diseases, but are functional derangements consequent upon an interference with the proper and uncontaminated supply of air, water, or food, or else to a non-removal of debris from the curtilage of the body itself, or from its immediate neigh-' bourhood. The resulting contaminations produce functional disturbances; nature rebels at the treatment to which the body is subject, and an explosion takes place; the intruding contamination or its result


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is expelled, and the corporeal atmosphere purified. If these functional disturbances are of frequent occurrence, organic disease of one or more of the organs most generally implicated eventually arises; the individual becomes a confirmed invalid, and the whole community suffers more or less in consequence.

It will be shown in the chapter upon vital statistics how the incidence of disease affects the interests of the public generally. I will only just refer at this point of my work to the fact that there are large establishments in the country, in which children are brought up in general obedience to sanitary law, the inmates being orphans, or those having been deserted by their parents, or are the children of diseased people who cannot work for the support of their offspring, and in whom poverty and depraved habits have led to the production of much hereditary evil. In these establishments the mortality is not more than 2'5 per 1000, and fatal epidemics are almost unknown; whilst in other districts where the masses are crowded together, and hygienic laws disregarded, the mortality equals 40 to 50 per 1000, and scarcely half the children born attain to the age of five years. This single fact tells its own story, and proves how great must be the incidence of preventable diseases among the people.

This incidence is promoted by two distinct causes. First, the ignorance of the masses themselves respecting general hygiene, which ignorance leads them to ignore the evil effects of foul air, foul water, and adulterated and decomposing food, etc., etc., and of the consequent sloth and intemperance which results from and belongs to this state of ignorance. Secondly, the want of knowledge on the part of the persons appointed to remedy the evils which arise from the absence of proper drainage and water supply, and of other mischiefs which it is the duty of the municipal authority to prevent or remedy. The syllabus provided by the Science and Art Department at South Kensington will, if pressed by teachers upon the attention of the advanced pupils in the higher and even in elementary schools, do much to check the incidence of disease in general by providing a lever of knowledge upon all the foregoing points, whilst those who aspire to the offices of Inspectors of Nuisances and Local Surveyors to Sanitary Boards and Sanitary Aid Committees, ought to possess a good general knowledge upon sanitary subjects such as the syllabus provides. I would therefore impress upon teachers the duty of bringing this subject to the notice of their classes, and ask them to point out the advantages which will accrue to those who are seeking employment in the sanitary field, and the great benefit which will result from all candidates for office, if they not only obtain the certificate of the Science and Art Department upon this subject, but also present themselves for examination to the Sanitary Institute of Great Britain. This Institute grants diplomas to its successful candidates, and enrols them as Associates of the Institute. The position is one which it is very desirable that sanitary officers should possess, because it brings them into direct relationship with the first sanitarians of the day, and entitles them to the publications of the Institute, and to the privileges of the Parkes Museum.' This latter is an educational exhibition of the best sanitary appliances of the time; it was founded in memory of the late Dr. Parkes. It is at present established at 74a, Margaret Street, and to it the Associates of the Institute of Great

Britain have free access. They can there study the apparatus which is best fitted for sanitary work, see for themselves the best sanitary appliances in action, and get information as to the successful competitions at the various sanitary exhibitions which are held almost every year in connection with the Congress of the Sanitary Institute.

I press the point of examination in hygiene upon the attention of my readers, because I believe that those who follow the lead thus pointed out will show themselves to be philanthropists in the real sense of the word, the distribution of benevolence without regard to sanitary knowledge having a tendency to pauperise the people.

A study

How much evil has been done under the guise of philanthropy and benevolence! People have become shiftless because the necessity for exertion has not been allowed to exist long enough to call forth the powers of resistance which are dormant in the system, and have, therefore, remained undeveloped. Self-reliance is decreased in each individual, until a mass of helplessness results, which, when there is sudden occasion for exertion in the presence of dangerous epidemics or other diseases, leads to panic and all its horrible consequences. The cry is, something must be done, when a little common sense, foresight, and prudence would have averted the necessity for sudden energy, which is nearly always exerted in a wrong direction. of the laws of hygiene, if they be put into operation, does more to promote thrift and self-reliance, and to combat pauperism and crime, than any other study, not even excepting the principles of religion, because benevolence uncontrolled by strict justice does an immense amount of evil in the world, with which result obedience to hygienic law cannot be charged. Hygiene does not allow of the dogma of doing evil that good may come, whilst it inculcates the duty of considering our neighbour's interests equally with our own; and as cleanliness is next to godliness, it appears to me that they are in reality identical, and almost convertible terms, and that the latter cannot be truly followed unless the former is scrupulously obeyed. With these observations I commend hygiene to the study of my fellow-men, as based upon the true principles of piety and justice to all.


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Food is taken for various reasons. We obtain 'force' out of food; animal warmth is produced by its agency, so are nerve energy, mechanical motion, vitality. These powers are all the consequences of actions which are kept up by food. Grove, in his Correlation of Physical Force,' has shown us how light, heat, electrical action, motion, and chemical affinity are convertible the one into the other, and Mayer gave us right views upon the 'Conservation of Force,' whilst Mr. Joule assessed it at a value by which all the imponderable agents dealt with by Mr. Grove, are brought into comparison with an equivalent. He shows us that a fall of 772 pounds of water from a height of one foot, gives an amount of heat sufficient to elevate the temperature of one pound of water to the extent of one degree Fahrenheit, or conversely the fall of one pound of water from a height of 772 feet produces the same result. We are able to assess the dynamic power of individual foods, to show how they act in conserving the force which they may contain, and to point out which are the best for special purposes or the special wants of the body.

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