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before that most illustrious Prince Constantine your father, in which confession there is so much learning and wisdom, that it has been promulgated every where to the ears and N minds of all men, to which the Arian heresy is hostile and mortally opposed; since, by it not only that but all other heresies are removed. With regard to which we judge it rash to add any thing, and perilous to take any thing away, for if any thing be done, the enemies of truth will be at liberty to do as they please,' &c.

§ 24. Having thus traced the Trinitarian faith, from the Creed of Irenaeus, the Bishop of Lyons, who flourished about fifty years from the death of the Apostle John, down to the latter part of the fourth century—having seen it pervading the whole Catholic or 'Universal Church while it was under persecution, then raising the standard of orthodoxy under the emperor Constantine at the Council of Nice, and lastly resisting the power and influence of his son Constantius at the Council of Rimini, and having found it so firmly established that its very enemies, the Arians, with the emperor at their head, were compelled to retain the name and appearance of the Trinitarian doctrine in their confessions of faith, and actually fulminated the strongest anathemas against the opposers of it, we conclude this chapter by asking the enemies of Trinitarianism to point out only one Council which adopted their sentiments—to show us only one public confession of faith which ventured to approve them. If they cannot do this, is it unreasonable to say that whatever affinity they may claim

vov toxtftutvwv, wv ij dtdaoxaXla rt xat Ro tpQovttfta dttjX&t xat txtjQv/&tj ft$ naaag avdQwnwv axoag Rt xat dtavoiac iirtg avrmaXog ftovtj xat oJitTtjo r^g Jiquov atoiotwg vnijoit' if ilt ov ftovov avrtj, aXXa xat at Xotnat atQtottg xa^gt^tjow iv t) ovrtug xat Ro nQoa&ttvat rt afaXtQov, xat Ro atptXto&at tittxtvdvvov vnaQ/tc tu? ttntQ xat dartQov ytvotro, \arat, rotg f/^oofg adtta Rov Ttotttv antQ (lovXotvro.

with a few heretics which the Councils of the Arians themselves condemned, and whatever alliance they may make with modern philosophy, the time is at hand when every intelligent mind must see that the Primitive Church is absolute, decided, and unanimous against them.


The topics to which this chapter is devoted arise from the course of argument presented by the second discourse of the series, and are as follows, viz:

1. The illustrations employed to show that there is nothing absurd or unreasonable in the doctrine which maintains the Trinity of the Persons to be consistent with the Unity of Essence in the Godhead.

2. The Plurality of Persons intimated by the phraseology of the Old Testament.

t§i 1. The ancient fathers used many illustrations of the Trinitarian doctrine, in argument with heretics and unbelievers, of which we may extract a few specimens for the reader's satisfaction. In the copious commentary of Gelasius of Cyzicen on the council of Nice, (see Mansi Sacr. Concil. Tom. 2.) we have sundry examples from the disputation between the orthodox and the philosophers.

Thus, (p. 861.) Leontius, arguing with an Arian philosopher on the subject of the Holy Spirit, says that He is inseparable from the Father and the Son, as is the Son from the Father, and the Father from the Son. (a) 'Come,' continues Leontius, 'and let us see whether, by comparisons, however weak, you can receive instruction. Your word,

(a) AtvQo dii i t doxu, Xuufiavt xat dI vnodttyuarwv, i t xat aa&tvtartQwv, JTftjOraf imo&^xag, 6 Xuyog 6 aog, xat rcwrof uvdQanov, nQotpoQtxog f«* and that of every man, is pronounced, brought forth in-' separably from the mind, and in .like manner your spirit proceeds from you: nevertheless your word and your spirit cannot be separated from yourself, and this connexr . ion in man, deserves to be considered by you. But in the ineffable essence of God which is above all understanding and is incomprehensible, the Word is not a thing pronounced, but always living and efficacious, sharper than any two edged sword,' Stc.

A more interesting illustration, however, occurs a little farther on in the same disputation, (p. 863.) which for its piety, eloquence and ingenuity deserves to be transcribed more fully than our limits will allow, (b) 'Learn now, O philosopher,' says the same Leontius, ' and although we may act audaciously, yet may the Divine greatness be propitious to us; we undertake this work for the salvation of yourself and of others. Learn, therefore, intellectual things from the objects of sense; from those things which are subject to the understanding, learn kthose which are above it; and from those things which are declared, learn those which are unspeakable* For although all things which we behold and understand, either of things celestial or things upon the earth, or under the earth, cannot be compared with that uncreated, incomprehensible, and immortal

Iart, ytvvarat di artu\rwg ix Rov Gov Vov, ofto'twg xat Ro nvtvua aov, xat txuoQtvtrat tx aov, xat ovx av ovdt rov Xoyov an ovrt Ro nvtvfta aov i'tnotg aXXorQwv Gov. X, r. X.

(b) Mav&avt Ht xai vvv, 'w tptXuaoipt, tt xai roXutjnov notovfttv, aXX'a XXttug ttfttv t; &t'ta fttyuXttortjg viitQ yun r^g ai>g xai ron' Xotnwv aovrtjQiag 6 novog ijuv dtavxtrat, uav&avt roUvv ix rutv aiadtjrotv ntQt rwvvovfiw, xat «x rwv xara voo v ntQt Rwv Vutq Vovv, xat txrwv Xtyoftivtttv ntot rwvvnll) X6yov tt xat aat'yxQtra navra ra rt oowutva, ra rt voovfttva, ron rb avoaviaTv xat imytiotv xat xara/&oviwv xrtauarwv, nQog rtjv iixrtorov ix_ itvtjv xat axaraXtjnrov xat a&avarov rov ©tov ovatav nXtjv Ro iuntaon

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