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therefore to be comfirmed in the doctrine of our Lord and of his apostles, that so whatsoever ye do, ye may prosper both in body and spirit, in faith and charity, in the Son and in the Father, and in the Holy Spirit, in the beginning and in the end.'
The Epistle of the church in Smyrna, relating the martyrdom of St. Polycarp, who was the pupil of St John, p. 248, has this passage. 'To that end, he, (the adversary) suggested it to Nicetes, the father of Herod and brother of Alee, to go to the governor, and hinder him from giving us the body of the martyred Polycarp to be buried. 'Lest,' says he, 'forsaking him that was crucified, they should begin to worship this Polycarp.' And this he said at the suggestion and instance of the Jews, who also watched us, that we should not take him out of the fire; not considering, that neither is it possible for us ever to forsake Christ, who suffered for the salvation of all such as shall be saved throughout the whole world, the righteous for the ungodly, nor worship any other besides him*. For him, indeed, as being the Son of God, we do adore: but for the martyrs, we worthily love them, as the disciples and followers of our Lord,' Stc.
The Shepherd of Hermas, (the claims of which are so ably vindicated by Bp. Bull in his Def. Fid. Nic.,) has this passage, p. 373. 'The Son of God is indeed more ancient than any creature, insomuch that he was in council with his Father at the creation of all things.'
From the Apostolical Fathers, we pass on to the famous apology of Justin Martyr, presented on behalf of the Christians to the emperor Antoninus Pius, about A. D. 140, availing ourselves of the translation of the Rev. Mr. Chevallier, first published in England, and recently issued from the Protestant Episcopal Press, New York. The greater part of this work is occupied by a scriptural argument derived chiefly from the prophecies. Two passages, on the subject of the Trinity and the Dehjv of Christ, must suffice us.
§ 6. p. 129 of the N. York Ed. < We confess indeed,' says this primitive writer, 'that we are unbelievers of such pretended gods, (i. e. those of the heathen) but not of the most true God, the Father of righteousness and temperance, and of all other virtues, in whom, is no mixture of evil. But we worship and adore him, and his Son, who came out from him, and hath taught us respecting these things, and respecting the host of the other good angels, who follow him and are made like unto him, and the prophetic Spirit, honoring them in reason and truth.'
Again, § 83 p. 186. 'The Jews therefore,' saith he, 'who always thought that it was the Father of all things who spake to Moses, whereas he who spake to him was the Son of God, who is also called the angel and the apostle, are justly upbraided both by the prophetic Spirit and by Christ himself, as knowing neither the Father nor the Son. For they who say the Son is the Father, are proved not to know the Father, nor that the Father of all things hath a Son, who, being the first begotten Word of God, is also God. He also formerly appeared to Moses and to the prophets in the form of fire and of an incorporeal image: but now in the time of your empire,' (i. e. the Roman empire) 'as we have already said, was made man, and born of a virgin, according to the will of the Father, for the salvation of those who believe in him.' Justin's faith, as being trinitarian and scriptural, is here sufficiently plain.
From Justin Martyr, we pass on to the works of Irenaeus, where we find the following.
Lib. 2. Contr. Haeres. Cap. 25. § 3. (h) 'For thou, O man, art not self existent, nor hast thou always co-existed with God, like his own Word.
Lib. 2. Cap. 28. § 6. (i) 'If therefore any one should ask us, How is the Son produced from the Father? we say to him, That birth, or generation, or production, or manifestation, or whatever other name it may be called, being indeed ineffable, no one knows: not Valentinus, nor Marcion, nor Saturninus, nor Basilides, nor the Angels, nor the Archangels, nor Principalities, nor Powers: none except the Father who alone generated, and the Son who was alone begotten.'
Lib. 3. Cap. 6. (k) 'Therefore, neither does the Lord, nor the Holy Spirit, nor the apostles call him God, definitively and absolutely, who is not God, truly God: nor do they call any one Lord in his own person, except him who has dominion over all, God the Father and his Son, who received the dominion of every condition from his Father, according to that text; the Lord said wnto my Lord, sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy foot
rh) Non enim infectus es, O homo, neque semper co-existebas Deo, Btcut proprium ejus Verbum.
(i) 'St quis itaque nobis dixeret: Quomodo ergo Filius prolatus a Patre est? dicimus ei quia prolatienem istam, sive generationem, sive nuncupationcm, sive adapertionem, aut quolibet quis nomine vocaverit generationem ejus inerrabilem existentem, nemo novit; non Valentinus, non Marcion, neque Saturninus, neque Basilides, neque Angeli, neque Archangeli, neque Principes, neque Potestates, nisi solus qui generavit Pater, et qui natus est Filius.'
(k)'Neque igitur Dominus, neque Spiritus Sanctus, neque Apostoli eum, qui non esset Deus, definitive et absolute Deum nominassent aliquando, nisi esset vere Deus; neque Dominum appellassent aliquem ex sua persona, nisi qui dominatur omnium, Deum Patrem, et Filium ejus, qui dominium accepit a Patre suo omnis conditionis, quemadmodum habet illud: Dixit Dominus Domino meo: Sede a dextris meis, quoadusque postool. For here the Spirit shows the Father conversing with the Son, and giving him the heritage of the Gentiles, and subjecting to him all enemies. As therefore the Father is truly Lord, and the Son truly Lord, the Holy Spirit justly designates them by this appellation of Lord. And again, in the destruction of Sodom, the Scripture says: The Lord rained fire and brimstone upon Sodom and Gomorrah, from the Lord out of heaven. For this signifies the Son who spake with Abraham, having received power to judge the Sodomites, on account of their iniquity. Of similar signification is this passage: Thy throne, O God, is forever; the sceptre of righteousness, is the sceptre of thy Kingdom. Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity, therefore, God, even thy God hath anointed thee, &fc. The Spirit designates both by the appellation God, him who is anointed, the Son, and him who anoints, that is, the Father. And again, God standeth in the synagogue of gods, in the midst he discerns the Gods.' He speaks here of the Father and the Son, and of those who had received the adoption, which are the church. For this is the synagogue of God, which God, that is, the Son
nam inimicos tuos suppedaneum pedum tuorum. Putrem enim Filio colloquutum ostendit: qui dedit ei hereditatcm Gentium, et subjecit ei omnes inimicos. Vere igitur quum Pater stt Dominus, et Filius vere sit Dominus, merito Spiritus Sanctus Domini appellatione signavit eos. Et iterum in eversione Sodomitarum Scriptura ait: Et pluit Dominus super Sodomam et Gomorham ignem et sulfur a Domino de cotlo. Filium enim hie significat, qui et Abrahae colloquutus sit, a Patre accepisse potestatem ad judieandum Sodomitas, propter iniquitatem eorum. Similiter habet illud: Sedes tua, Deus, in ceternvm; virga directionis, mrga reg. ni tui. Dilexisti justitiam, et o'disti iniquitatem, propterea unxit te Deus. Deus tuus. TJtrosque enim Dei appellatione signavit Spiritus, et eum, qui ungitur, Filium, et eum qui ungit, id est, Patrem. Et iterum: Deus sletit in Synagoga Deorum, in medio autem Deos discernit. De Patre, et Filio, et de his qui adoptionem'perceperunt, dicit, hi autem sunt Ecclesia. Haec est enim Synagoga Dei, quam Deus, hoc est, Filius ipse himself, by himself has collected. Of whom again he speaks: The Lord, the God, of Gods hath spoken and called the earth. What God? The same of whom he says: God loill come manifestly, our God, and he will not keep silence: that is, the Son, who, according to the manifestation, came to men, who said, I have openly appeared to those who sought me not. But of what Gods does he speak? Of those to whom he said: I said ye are gods, and ye are all the sons of the. Highest. Those namely, who have received the grace of adoption bv which we cry Abba, Father.
In the same book, (Lib. 3. Cap. 9.) we have throughout the same kind of scriptural argument, as to the Deity of Christ, and, indeed, scarcely any thing else but scriptural argument. Our limits will hardly allow it, but we must be indulged m citing a few more instances of the scriptural orthodoxy of this primitive Saint. It will be observed, of course, that in his quotations of scripture, Irenaeus sometimes varies from our version; but in nothing of importance: and, as translators, we follow him, preferring however, where it is sufficiently close, the common version.
(1) 'Again,' continues this eminent Father, ' Matthew, speaking of the angel, says, The angel of the Lord appeared in a dream to Joseph: of what Lord, he explains; That it
per semetipsum collegit. De quo iterum dicit: Deus Deorum Dominus loquutus est, et vocavit terratn. Quis Deus? de quo dixit: Deus manifeste veniet, Deus mtster, et now silebit: hoc est, Filius, qui secundum manifestationem hominibus advenit, qui dicit: Palam apparui his, qui mt turn quarunt. Quorum autem Deorurri? Quibus dicit: Ego dixi, Dii estis, etfilii Altissimi omnes: his scilicet, qui adoptionis gratiam adepti sunt, per quam clamamus; Abba Pater.'
(I) 'Iterum autem de Angelo dicens Matthaeus, ait: Angelus Dom. ini apparuit Joseph in somnis. Cujus Domini, ipse interpretatur: Uti adimpleatur quod dictum est a Domino per prophetam: Ex Egyp.