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may be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the Prophet, Out of Egypt I have called my Son. Behold a Virgin shall conceive in her womb, andshdll bring forth a Son, and shall call his name Emmanuel, which is, being interpreted, God with us. Of this Emmanuel who is from the Virgin, .David said: 'Thou wilt not turn away the face of thy Christ. The Lord hath sworn to David the truth, and he will not shrink from it, of the fruit of thy body I will set upon thy seat. And again: God is known in Judea, and his place is established in peace, and his tabernacle in Sion. One and the same God, therefore, is he, who was predicted by the Prophets, and announced in the Gospel, and his Son who was the fruit of David's body, that is of the Virgin who descended from David, and who was Emmanuel, and whose star Balaam foretold when he prophesied: A star shall rise out of Jacob, and a leader shall rise in Israel. Matthew also declares that the wise men. coming from the East said: We have seen his star in the East and come to adore him: and being led by the star into the house of Jacob to Emmanuel, they showed, by those gifts which they offered, who he was that they adored: for they offered to him myrrh,
to vocavi filium meum. Ecce Virgo in utero accipiet, et pariet fili. um, et vocabunt nomen ejus Emmanufl, quod eat interpretatum, Nobis, cum Deus. De hoc, qui est ex Virgine Emmanuel, dixit David; Non avertas faciem Christi tui. Juravit Dominus David veritatem, et non spernet eum, defructu ventris tui ponam super sedem tuam. Et iterum: Notus in Judea Deus, et factus est in pace locus ejus, et habitaculum ejus in Sion. Umts igitur et idem Deus, qui a Prophetis praedicatus est, et ab Evangelio annuntiatus, et hujus Filius qui ex fructu ventris David, id est, ex David Virgine, et Emmanuel: cujus et stellam Balaam quidem sic prophetavit: Orietur Stella ex Jacob, et surget dux in Israel. Mat. thaeus autem Magos ab Oriente venientes ait dixisse: Vidimus enim ttellam ejus in Oriente, et venimus adorare eum: deductosque a Stella in domum Jacob ad Emmanuel, per eaquae obtulerunt munera ostendisse, quis erat qui adorabatur: myrrham quidem, quod ipse erat, qui pro jnor. /
because it was he who should die for the human race and be buried: and gold, because he was the King, of whose kingdom ther*should be no end, and frankincense, because he was God, who was known in Judea, and became manifest to them who sought not after him.'
Once more, let us cite a passage where Irenaeus mentions the Trinity. Lib. 4. cap. 7. § 4. (m) 'On this account', (namely, because no one cometh to the Father but by the Son), 'the Jews departed from God, not receiving his Word, but thinking that they were able to know the Father without the Word, that is, without the Son; being ignorant of that God who in a human figure had spoken to Abraham, and again to Moses, saying: J have seen the sorrows of my people in Egypt, and have come down to deliver them. For those things, the Son, who is the Word of God, established from the beginning, the Father having no need of angels, that he might make the world, and form man for whom it was made—but having an abundant and ineffable ministry. For his own offspring and his image, minister to him in all things, that is, his Son and Holy Spirit—the Word and Wisdom—to whom all the heavenly hosts are in subjection.'
tali humano genere moreretur et sepeliretur: Aurum vero, quoniam Rex, cujus regni finis non est; Thus vero, quoniam Deus, qui et notus in Judea factus est, et manifestus eis qui non quaerebant eum."
(m) Propter hoc Judaei excesserunt a Deo, Verbum ejus non recipientes, sed putantes per seipsum Patrem sine Verbo, id est sine Filio, posse cognoseere; Deum nescientes eum qui in figura loquutus est humana ad Abraham, et iterum ad Moysem, dicentes, Videns villi vexationem populi met in Egypto, et descendi libfrare eos. Haec enim Filius, qui est Verbum Dei, ab initio praestruebat, non indigente Patre Angelis, nti faceret conditionem et formaret hominem, propter quem et conditio ftebat: Sed habente copiosum et inenarrabtle ministerium. Ministrat enim ei, ad omnia sua progenies et figuratio sua, id est, Filius, et Spiritus Sanctus, Verbum et Sapientia; quibus serviunt, et subjecti sunt omnes angeli.'
Trusting that these extracts, which are only a small specimen, sufficiently demonstrate that Irenaeus, in A. D. 170, that is, in the very next generation after the Apostolic age, maintained the Divinity of Christ, and the Trinity, on the foundation of Scripture, let us pass on to Tertullian whose testimony brings us to A. D. 200.
(n) Tertul. De Oratione, § 2. 'In the Father,' says he, 'we invoke the Son, for he saith, 'I and the Father are one.'
(o) Tertul. De Patientia, § 3. 'God suffers himself to be born in the womb of the mother, and waits, and bears the period of youth, and being adult does nothing to be recognized, but is ever disdainful to himself, and is baptised by his servant, and repels the assault of the tempter by words alone.' All this is in plain reference to the Gospel history.
(p) Tertul. Ad Uxorem, Lib. 2. § 3. 'We are not our own, but bought with a price: and what a price? Even 'the blood of God.' A strong expression, evidently founded upon St. Paul's address to the Ephesians, Acts xx. 23.
(q) Tertul. Adv. Judaeos, § 9. p. 194. ' For he who spake to Moses, was the Son of God, who was always seen. For no one hath seen God the Father at any time, and lived;
(n) 'Item in Patre filjus invocatur: Ego enim, inquit, et Pater unum sumus.'
(o Nacci se Deus in utero patitur matris, et expcctat, et natus adolescere sustinet, et adultus non gestit agnosci, sed contumeliosus insuper sibi est, et a servo suo tingitur, et tentatoris congressus solis verbis repellit.
(p) 'Non sumus nostri, sed pretio empti: et quali pretio? Sangui. ne Dei.'
(q) 'Nam qui ad Moysem Ioquebatur, ipse erat Dei filius, qui et semper videbatur Deum enim Palrem nemo vidit unquam, et vixit: et and therefore it appears that the Son of God himself spake to Moses, and said to the people, Behold I send my angel before your face,' &c.
(r) Tertul. Adv. Hermogen. <§> 20. 'In the beginning was the Word, in which beginning, namely, God made the heaven, and the earth. And the Word was with God, and the Word was God. All things were made by him, and without him nothing was made. Here, therefore, is manifest the Maker, that is God, and the things made, that is all things, and by whom, that is the Word.' In this passage Tertullian compares Gen. i. 1, with the beginning of John's Gospel, showing the same Scriptural plan throughout.
(s) Tertul. De Anima, § 41.v God alone is without sin, and the only man without sin is Christ, because Christ is also God.'
(t)Tertul. De Carne Christi, § 3. Arguing with the heretic Marcion, Tertullian says, 'You have sometimes read and believed that the angels of the Creator were converted into a human shape, and bore such a reality of body, that Abraham washed their feet, and that Lot was drawn by their very hands from Sodom. Think you this may be
ideo constat ipsum Dei filium Moysi es«e loquutum, et dixisse ad populum : Ecue ego mitto angelum meum ante faciam tuam,' &c.
(r^ In principio erat sermo, in quo principio scilicet, Deus facit coelum et terram. Et sermo erat apud Deum, et Deus erat sermo. Omnia per ipsum facta sunt; et sine illo factum est nihil. Cum igitur et hie manifestetur et factor, td est Deus; et facta, id est omnia; et per quem, id est sermo.
(s) Solus enim Deus sine peccato, ct solus homo sine peccato Chriitus, quia et Deus Christus.
(t) Angelos creatoris conversos in effigtem humanam, aliqnando Iegisti, et credidisti, ct tantam corporis gestasse veritatem, ut et pedes eis laverit Abraham, et manibus ipsorum ereptus sit Sodomitis Loth :— done by angels inferior to God, that they may be converted into a human body, and nevertheless remain angels, and yet do you think a similar thing impossible to the far more powerful Deity, as if Christ could not be trufy clothed with mortality, and yet remain God as before?' Here we see again another strong, but perfectly Scriptural argument.
(u) Tertul. Adv. Marcion. Lib. 5. $ 20. p. 486. 'The Marcionites think, truly,' says Tertullian, 'that the Apostle gives them his suffrage, that only the appearance of a man belonged to Christ, where he says, that being ii} the form of God, he thought it not robbery to be equal with God, but emptied himself and received the form of a servant, not in truth, but in the likeness of man, not absolutely man, (say they,) he was found in figure of a man, not the substance of one, that is, not in flesh. As if figure, and similitude, and appearance do not belong to substance! But the Apostle justly calls Christ, elsewhere,, the image of the invisible God. By their argument, therefore, Christ cannot be truly God, if his being in the person of a man proves that he was not truly man.' It is interesting to see how Tertullian uses this Scriptural argument like a two edged sword, destructive, indeed,'to the heresy of
Quod ergo angelis inferioribus Deo licuit, uti conversi in corpulentiam bumanam, angeli nihtlominus permanetent, hoc tu potentiori Deo auferes, quasi non valuerit Christus vere hominem indutus, Deus perseverari?
(u) Plane de substantia Christi putant et hie Marcionitae suffragan Apostolum sibi, quod phantasma carnis fuerit in Christo, quum dicit, quod in effigie Dei constitutus, non rapinam existimavit pariari Deo, sed exhausit semetipsum accepta effigie servi, non veritate: et in simiL. itudine hominis, non in homjne, et figura inventus homo, non substantia, id est non carne: quasi non et figura, et siinilitudo et effigies substantiao quoque accedant. Bene autem quod et alibi Christum, imaginem Dei