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parched earth, exhausted of moisture, a watery load floats invisibly in the atmosphere, until the surcharged air, under some sudden change of temperature, deposits the flood. It is condensed into cloud; and the cloud, in its turn, overcharged with the electric fluid, emits the lightning with pealing thunder, pours down the rain in torrents, and often the wind adds its violence, and the tempest bursting on a half-ripe harvest, lays it prostrate, to ripen and to be reaped with loss. Harmless fulgurations, also, were used to dance over the once ill-drained marshlands,- harmless in themselves, yet the ignis fatuus proverbially deceptive, a fit image of the fallacious visions that mislead the unwary, when the daylight of conmon sense has left them.

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a wandering fire,
Which oft, they say, some evil spirit attends,
Hovering and blazing with delusive light,
Misleads the amazed night-wanderer from his way
To bogs and mires, and oft through pond or pool,
There swallow'd up and lost, from succour far.”

As July advances the orchards grow heavier with full-grown fruits, and the birds, in stealthy broods, light upon the bending boughs, and feast away in spite of guns and rattles.

The cottages are emptied of tenants, and all busy hands are gathering in currants, strawberries, cherries, apricots, and peaches. The grass is cut and carried, and the bare field indicates the approach of Autumn even before Summer has attained maturity. The solstitial flowers are passing away, and the æstival plants begin to blow. Here are fields of dahlia unfolded for the market, and the musk-flower, and musk-mallow, the field-mallow, the marsh-thistle, the evening primrose, and the damask rose, flourish among the later glories of the summer; and their fading predecessors premonish us of the decline that awaits all else that blooms.

River-fishing is now in perfection, and the angler delights himself on the umbrageous bank, hooking up trout, perch, dace, chub, bleak, or gudgeon. Along the coasts the mackerel-fishing is in full activity; and off the Cornish cliffs, the miner, having left the veins of tin and copper, takes to the sea for the time, and helps the fishermen to intercept shoals of pilchards innumerable; while the hungry sea-gulls lie on the waves like snow, or wheel in living clouds over the beach, now thronged with people preparing the fish in heaps for winter store.

The fifteenth day of this month is called St. Swithin's day, and is notable as it marks the probable commencement of a period when the moisture of the season tempers its warmth, and the combination of both quickens the processes of vegetation.

“In this month is St. Swithin's day,

On which if that it rain, they say
Full forty days after it will,
Or more or less, some rain distil.

This Swithin was a saint, I trow,
And Winchester's Bishop also,
Who in his time did many a feat,
As Popish legends do repeat.
A woman having broke her eggs,
By stumbling at another's legs,
For which she made a woful cry,
St. Swithin chanced for to come by;
Who made them all as sound, or more
Than ever that they were before.
Better it is to rise by time,
And to make hay when the sun do shine,
Than to believe in tales and lies,
Which idle Monks and Friars devise."

ASTRONOMICAL FACTS OF JULY, 1852.

RISING AND SETTING OF THE SUN.

h. m.

Truro. London. Manchester. Edinburgh. Tain. Day.

Rises. Sets. Rises. Sets. Rises. Sets. Rises. Sets. Rises. Sets. h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. h. m. 13 57 8 103 49 8 183 36 8 313 21 8 463 9 8 58 114 5 8 53 58

8 123 47 8 23 3 33 8 37 3 21 8 49 21 4 16 7 56 4 10 8 24 0 8 12 3 47 8 25 3 37 8 35

an

THE MOON'S CHANGES.
Full

1st day, 3h. 28m. aftern.
Last Quarter 9th day, 8h. 6m. morn.
New .

17th day, 4h. 15m. morn. First Quarter, 24th day, lh. 2m. morn. Full

31st day, 2h. 12m. morn. Mercury, in the constellations Gemini, Cancer, and Leo, is

evening star throughout the month. On the 11th, at 11h. 32 m., A.M., in conjunction with Venus, at 5h. 44m., S.; on the 26th at 11h. 39m., A.M., in conjunction with a Leonis, (Regulus,) at 0° 2' N. Venus, in the constellations Cancer and Gemini, is an evening star till the 11th, invisible till the 27th, and then a morning star. On the 21st, at 9h. Om., A.M., in inferior conjunction with the Sun; on the 28th, at 3h. 8m., A.M., in aphelion. Mars, in the constellations Leo and Virgo, is an evening star throughout the month ; on the 21st, at 9h. Om., A.M., in inferior conjunction with the Sun, JUPITER, in the constellation Libra, on the 10th, at 10h. 20m., P.M., stationary; on the 15th passes the meridian at 7h. 10m., P.M. ; and sets at 11h. 48m. Saturn, in the constellation Aries, on the 15th passes the meridian at 7h. 24m., A.M. URANUS, in the constellation Aries, on the 15th passes the meridian at 6h. 5lm., A.M.; on the 31st, at 2h. 5m., P.M., in quadrature with the Sun.

H. T. & J. Roche, Printers, 25, Hoxton-square, London.

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YOUTH'S INSTRUCTER

AND

GUARDIAN.

AUGUST, 1852.

GREGORY XII., EX-POPE.

(With a Portrait.) Angelo CORARIO, or Gregory XII. Pope, or Gregory XII. anti-Pope, or ex-Pope, as you may please to call him, is a remarkable example of notoriety without eminence, or of eminent position without any elevation of merit. His name, however, is not without historic value, inasmuch as it marks a condition of the Papacy, that has often recurred, and sometimes for many years together, utterly incompatible with the boast of unity, as well as with a certain validity of sacred orders which the Church of Rome imagines to result from the due election of her Popes, and communication of authority to her Bishops from those Popes, as a continuous fountain of power and sacramental virtue.

The Church of Rome was cleft in twain. The house was divided against itself again and again; and therefore it became certain that it must fall. A part of it did fall; and on the ground thus cleared now stands Protestant Christendom. Conscious of the ruin impending over them, the two “obediences," as they were called,—that is to say, the hostile parties who professed obedience, some to one Pope, and some to the other,-made mutual overtures of reconciliation, in hope of averting that calamity; and thus they preserved a great part of the house. Taught by experience, Romanism has latterly become more and more united, and, by this prudent unity has made, and still is making, great progress

Vol. XVI. Second Series.

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