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CHAPTER VIII.

PUBLIC SPEECHES

SEOTION I.

Cicero against Verres.

The time is come, Fathers, when that which has long been wished for, towards allaying the envy your order has been subject to, and removing the imputatioos against trials, is effectually put in your power.-An opinion has long prevailed, not only here at home, but likewise in foreign countries, both dangerous to you and pernicious to the state,-that,in prosecutions, men of wealth are always safe, however clearly convicted. There is now to be brought upon his trial.before you, to the confusion, I hope, of the propagators of this slanderous imputation, one whose life and actions condemn him in the opinion of all impartial persops; but who according to his owo reckoning and declared dependence upon his riches, is already arquitted; I mean Caius Verres. I demand justice of you, Fathers, upon the robber of the public treasury, the oppressor of Asia Minor and Pamphylia, the invader of the rights and privileges of Romans, the scourge and curse of Sicily. If that sentence is passed upon him which his crimes deserve, your authority, Fathers, will be venerable and sacred in the eyes of the public: bat if his great riches should bias you in his favor, I shall still gain one point, to make it apparent to all the vorld, that what was wanting in this case, was not a criminal nor a prosecutor, but justice and adequate punishment.

To pass over the shameful irregularities of his youth, wbat does his quærorship, the first public employment he held, what does it exhibit, but one cnotinued scene of yillanies? Caeius Carbo plundered of the public mon

ey by his own treasurer, a consul stripped and betray. ed, an army deserted and reduced to want, a province robbed, the civil and religious rights of a people violated. The employment he held in Asia Minor and Pamphylia, what did it produr e but the ruio of those countries in which houses, cities, and temples, were robbed by him. What was his conduct in his prætorship here at home! Let the plundered temples, and public works beglected, that he might embezzle the money intended for carrying them on, bear witoess. How did he discharge the office of a judge? Let those who suffered by his injustice answer. But his prætorship in Sicily crowns all his works of wickedaess; and finishes a lasting monument to his infamy. The mischiefs done by him in that unhappy country,during the three years of his iniquitous administration, are such, that many years, under the wisest and best of prætors, will not be sufficient to restore things to the condition in which he found them, for it is notorious, that, iter. ing the time of his tyranny,the Sicilians neither enjoy. ed the protection of their own original laws; of the regulations made for their benefit by the Roman sep. ate, upon their coming under the protection of the commonwealth; nor of the natural and unalienable rights of men. His pod has derided all causes in Sicily for tbese three years.

And his decisions have broken all law,all precedent, all right. The sums he has, by arbitrary taxes and unbeard-of impositions,extorted from the industrious poor, are not to be computed.The most faithful allies of the commonwealth have been treated as enemies. Ronan citizens have, like slaves, been put to death with tortures. The most atrocious criminals, for money, have been exempted from the deserved punishments, and men of the most unexceptionable characters, condemned and banished unheard. The harbours, though sufficiently fortified, and the gates of strung towns, have been opened to pirates and ravagers. The soldiery and sailors, belongiog to a province under the protertion of the commonwealth, have been starved to death; whole fleets, to the

great detriment of the province, suffered to perish. The ancient monuments of either Sicilian or Roa

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man greatness, the statues of heroes and princes, have been carried oft; and the temples stripped of the imaa ges.-Having by his iniquitous sentences, filled the prisons with che most industrious and deserving of the people, he then proceeded to order numbers of Roman citizens to be strangled in the gaols: so that the esclamation, “ I ain a citizen of Rome!” which has often, in the most distant regions, and among the most barbarous people,been a protection, was of no service to them; but, op the contrary, brought a speedier and a more severe punishment upon them.

I ask now, Verres, what thou hast to advance against this charge? Wilt thou pretend to deny it? Wilt thou pretend, that any thing false, that even any thing aggravated, is alleged against thee? Had any prince, or any siate, committed the same outrage against the privilege of Roman citizens, should we not think we had sufficient ground for demanding satisfaction? What punishment ought then, to be inflicted upot, a tyrannii al and wix ked piætor, who dared, at no greater distance than Sicily, within sight of the Italian coast, to put to the infamous death of crucifixion, that unfore tunate and innocent citizen, Publius Gavius Cosanus, only for his having a seried his privilege of citizenship, and declared his intention of appealing to the justice of his country, against the cruel oppressor, who had unjustly confined nira in prison at Syracuse, whence he had just inade his escape! The unhappy man, arrested as he was going to embark for his native country, is brought before the winked piæ or. With eyes darting fury, and a countenance distorted with cruelty, he orders the helpless victim of his rage to be stripped, and rods to be brought ; accusing bin, but without the least shadow of evidence, or even of sus. picion, of having come to Sicily as a spy. It was 10 vaio that the unhappy man cried out, “I ain a Roman citizen : I have served under Lucius Pretius, who is nosý at Panorinus, and will attest iny innocence." The blood-thirsty prætor, deaf to all be could urge in his own delence, ordered the infamous punishment to be inflicted. Thus, Fathers, was an innocent Roan citizen publicly mangled with scourgiog; whilst

the only words he uttered, amidst his cruel sufferings were, "I am a Roman citizen !" With these he hoped to defend himself from violence and infamy. But of so little service was this privilege to him, that, while he was thus asserting his citizenship, the order was given tor his execution,- for his execution upon the cross!

O liberty!- sound once delightful to every Roman ear!-- 0 sacred privilege of Ronan citizenship!once sacred !-- now trampled upon !- But what then ! Is it come to this ? Shall an inferior magistrate, a gorernor, who holds his whole power of the Roman people, in a Roman provioce, within sight of Italy, biod, scourge, torture with fire and red hot plates of iron, and at last put to the infamous death of the cross, a Ruman citizen ? Shall weither the cries of innocence expiring in agony, nor the tears of pitying spectators, nor the majesty of the Roman commonwealth, oor the fear of the justice of his country, restrain the licentious and wanton cruelty of a monster, who, in confidence of his riches, strikes at the root of libety,and sets man. kind at defiance ?

I conclude with expressing my hopes, that your wisdom and justice, Fathers, will not, bs suffering the atrocious and unexampled insolence of Caius Verres to escape due punishment, leave room to apprehend the danger of a total subversion of authority, and the introduction of general anarchy, and confusion.

CICERO'S ORATIONS.

SECTION II

Speech of Adherbal to the Roman Senate, imploring

their protection against Jugurtha.

Fathers ! Ir is known to you, that king Micipsa, my father, on his death-bed, left in charge to Jugurtha, his adopted son, conjunctly with my unfortunate brother Hiempsal and myself, the children of his own body, the administration of the kingdom of Numidia, directing us to consider the senate and people of Rome as proa

prietors of it. He charged us to use our best endeav. ours to be serviceable to the Roman corrmonwealth ; . assuring us, that your protection would prove a defence against all enemies; and would be iostead of armies, fortificaiions, and treasures,

While my brother and I were thinking of nothing but how to regulate ourselves according to the directions of our deceased, father--Jugurtba the most infamous of mankind !-breaking through all ties of gratitude and of common humanity, and trampling on the authority of the Roman commonwealth, procured the murder of my unfortunate brother; and has driven me from my throne and native country, though he knows I inherit, from my grandlather Massinissa, and my fa: ther Micipsa, the friendship and alliance of the Ro. mans.

For a prince to be reduced, by villainy, to my distressful circumsiances, is calamity enough ; but my misfortunes are heightened by the conside tion that I find myself obliged to solicit your assistance, Fathers, for the services done you by any ancestors, not for any I have been able to render you in my own person. Jugurtha has put it out of my power to deserve any thing at your hands; and has forced me to be burden. some, before I could be useful to you. And yet, if I had no plea, but my undeserved misery-a once powerful prince, the descendant of a race of illustrious monarchs, now, without any fault of my owa, destitute of every support, and reduced to the necessity of begging foreigt assistance, against an enemy who has seized my throne and my kingdom-it my unequalled distresses were all I had to plead-it would become the greatness of the Roman com'nonwealth, to protect the injured, and to check the triumph of daring wickedness over helpless innocence, But to provoke your resentment to the utmost, Jugurtha has driven me from the very dominions, which the senate and people of Rome gave to my ancestors ; and, from which, my grandfather, and my father, under your umbrage, expelled Syphax and the Carthaginians. Thus, Fathers, yoor kindness to our family is defeated; and Jugurtha, ia injuring me, thrope contempt upon you.

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