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and personal interest, must never hope to possess."
I have been told likewise, that there is another set of pretended philosophers, of the same country, whose tenets, concerning this subject, are of a still more illiberal and ungenerous cast.
The proposition they attempt to establish, is, that “ friendship is an affair of self-interest entirely ; and that the proper motive for engaging in it, is not in order to gratify the kiod and benevolent affections, bu for the benefit of that assistaoce and support which are to be derived from the connexion.”. Accordingly they assert, that those persons are most disposed to have recourse to ausiliary alliances of this kind, who are least qualified by nature, or fortune, to depend upon their own strength and powers : the weaker'ses, for instance, being generally more inclined to engage in friendships,than the male part of our species,and i hose who are depressed by indigence, or labouring under misfortunes, than the wealthy and the prosperous.
Excellent and obliging sages, these, undoubtedly! To strike out the friendly affections froin the moral world, would be like extinguishing the sun in the natural: each of thein being the source of the best and most grateful satisfactions that Heaven has confered on the suns of men. But I should be glad to know, what the real value of this boasted exemption from care, which they promise their dis iples, jusly 4.00unts to ? an exemption flattering to self-love, I confess; but which, upon many occurrences in human life, should be rejected with the utmost disdain. For nothing, surely,can be more inconsistent with a well-poised and Danly spirit, than to decline engaging in any laudable action, or to be discouraged from persevering in it, by an apprehension of the trouble and solicitude, with which it may probably be attended. Virtue herself, indeed, ought to be totally renounced, if it be right to avoid every possible means that may be productive of uneasiness : for who, that is actuated by her principles, can observe the conduct of an opposite character,without being affected with some degree of secret dissatisfaction? Are not the just, tie brave, and the good, necessarily exposed to the disagreeable emotions of
dislike and aversion, when they respectively meet with instances of fraud, of cowardice, or of villainy ? It is an essential property of every well-constituted mind, to be affected with pain, or pleasure, according to the nature of those moral appearances that present themselves to observation.
If sensibility, therefore, be not incompatible with true wisdom, (and it surely is not, unless we suppose that philosophy deadens every finer feeling of our nature,) what just reason can be assigned, why the sympathetic sufferings which may result from friendship, should be a sufficient inducement lor banishing that gererous affection from the human breasti? Extinguish all. emotions of the heart, and what difference will remain, I do not say between man and brute,but between man and a mere inanimate clod ? Away then with those austere philosophers, who represent virtue as hardeaing the soul against all the softer impressions of humaniiy! The fact, certainly, is much otherwise. A traly good man is, upon many occasions, extremely susceptible of tender sentiments, and his heart expands with joy, or shrinks with sorrow, as good or ill fortune accompanies his friend. Upon the whole, then, it may fairly be concluded, that, as in the case of virtue, so in that of friendship, those painful sensations, which may sometimes be produced by the one, as well as by the other, are equally insufficient grounds for exclud. ing either of them from taking possession of our bpsom s.
They who insist that “utility is the first and prevailing motive, which induces mankind to enter into particular friendships," appear to me to divest the association of its most amiable and engaging priociple. For, to a mind rightly disposed, it is not so much the mere receiving of benefits, as the affectionate zeal from which they flow, that gives them their best and most valuable recommendation. It is so far indeed from being verified by tact, that a sense of our wapta is the original cause of torming these amicable alliances, that, on the contrary, it is observable, that none have been more distinguished in their friendships than those, whose power and opulence, but, above all, whose au
perior virtue, (a much firmer support,) bave raised them above every necessity of having recourse to the assistance of others.
The true distinction then, in this question, is, that " although friendship is certainly productive of utility, yet utility is not the primary motive of friendship.” Those selfish sensualists, therefore, who, lulled in the lap of luxury, presume to maintain the reverse, have surels no claim to attention; as they are neither qualified by reflection, nor experience, to be competent judges of the subject.
Is there a man upon the face of the earth, who would deliberately accept of all the wealth, and all the affluence this world can bestow, if offered to him upon the severe terms of his being unconnected with a single mortal whom he could love, or by whom he should be beloved ? This would be to lead the wretched life of a detested tyrant, who, amidat perpetual suspicions and alarms, passes his miserable days a stranger to ev. ry tender sentiment; and utterly precluded from the heartfelt satisfactions of triendship.
Melmoth's translation of Cicero's Lælius.
On the immortality of the soul. I was yesterday walking alone,in one of my friend's woods ; and lost myself is it very agreeabls, as I was running over, in my mind, the several arguments that establish this great point; which is the basis of morality, and the source of all the pleasing hopes, and secret joys, that can arise in the heart of a reasonable crea. ture. I considered those several proofs drawn,
First, from the gature of the soul itself, and particularly its immateriality ; which, though not absolutely necessary to the eternity of its duration, has, I chink, been evinced to almost a demonstration.
Secondly, from its passions and sentiments ; as, particularly, from its love of existence ; its horror of annihilation ; and its hopes of inmortality ; with that secret satisfaction which it finds in the practice of vir. tue ; and that uneasiness which follows
the mission of vice.
Thirdly, from the nature of the Supreme Being, whose justice, goodness, wisdom, and veracity, are all concerned in this point.
But among these, and other excellent arguments for the inmortality of the soul, there is ore drawn troin the perpetual progress of the soul to its perfection, without a possibility of ever arriving at it : which is a hint that I do not remember to have seen opened and improved by others, who have written on this subject, though it seems to me to carry a very great weight with it. How can it enter into the thoughts of man, that the soul, which is capable of such iminense perfections, and of receiving new improvements to all eternity, shall fall away into nothing, almost as soon as it is created ? Are such abilities made tor no purpose ? A brute arrives at a point of perfection, that he can never pass; in a few years he has all the endowments he is capable of ; and were he to live ten thousand more, would be the same thing he is at present. Were a buman soul thus at a stand in her accomplishments ; were her faculties to be full blown, and incapable of further enlargements; I could imagine she might fall away insensibly, and drop at once into a state of annihilation. But can we believe a thinking being that is in a perpetual progress of improvement, and traveling on from perfeetion to perfection, after having jast looked abroad into the works of her Creator, and made a few discoveries of his infinite goodness, wisdom, and power, must perish at her first setting out, and in the very beginning of her inquiries ?
Man, considered only in his present state, seems sent into the world merely to propagate his kind. He provides himself with a successor ; and immediately quits his post to make room for him. He does not seein born to enjoy life, but to deliver it down to others. This is not surprising to consider in animals, which are formed for our use, and which can finish their business in a short life. The silk-worm, after having spun her task, lays her eggs ant dies. But a man cabnot take in his full measure of knowledge, has not time to subdue his passions, establish bis soul in virtue, and come up to the perfection of his nature, before he is hurried off the stage. Would an infinitely wise Being make
such glorious creatures for so mean a purpose ? Can he delight in the production of such abortive intelligences, such short-lived reasonable beings ? Would he give us talents that are not to be exerted ! Capacities that are never to be grati. fied ? How can we find that wisdom which shines through all his works, in the formation of man, without looking on this world as only a nursery for the next ; and without believ. ing that the several generations of rational creatures, which rise up and disappear, in such quick successions, are only to re. ceive their first rudiments of existence here, and afterwards to be transplanted into a more friendly climate, where they may spread and flourish to all eterni:y?
There is not, in my opinion, a more pleasing and triumphant consideration in religion, than this of the perpetual prog. ress which the soul makes towards the perfection of its nature, without ever arriving at a period in it. To look upon the soul as going on from strength to strength ; to consider that she is to shine for ever with new accessions of glory, and bright. en to all eternity ; that she will be still adding virtue to virque, and knowledge to knowledge ; carries in it something wonderfully agreeable to that ambition, which is natural to the mind of man. Nay, it must be a prospect pleasing to God himself, to see his creation forever beautifying in his eyes ; and drawing nearer to bim, by greater degrees of resemblance.
Methinks this single consideration, of the progress of a finite spirit to perfection, will be sufficient to extinguish all envy in inferior natures, and all contempt in superior.". That cherub, wbich now appears as a god to a human soul, knows very well that the period will come about in eternity, when the buman soul shall be as perfect as he himself now is : nay, when she shall look down upon that degree of perfection as much as she now falls short of it. It is true, the higher na. ture still advances, and by that means preserves his distance and superiority in the scale of being ; but he knows that, how high soever the slation is of which he stands possessed at present, the inferior nature will, at length, mount up to it ; and shine forth in the same degree of glory.
With what astonishment and veneration, may we look into our own souls, where there are such hidden stores of virtue and knowledge, such inexhausted sources of perfection! We know not yet what we shall be ; nor will it ever enter into the lieart of man, to conceive the glory that will be always in reserve for him. The soul, considered with its Crealor, is like one of those mathematical lines, that may draw nearer to an: other for all eternity, without a possibility of touching it : and can there be a thought so transporting, as to consider our. selves in these perpetual approaches to him, who is the standard not only of perfection, but of happiness?