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and the great fabrick of social happiness, entirely rest How could you, as a philosopher, in the sober hours of re flection; answer for this to your conscience, even supposing you had doubts of the truth of a system, which gives to virtue its sweetest hopes, to impenitent vice its greatest fears, and to true penitencep its best consolations; which restrains even the least approaches to guilt, and yet makes those allowances for the infirmitiese of our nature, which the Stoick pride denied to it, but which its real imperfection, and goodness of its infinitely benevolent Creator, so evidently require?
Bayle. The mind is free; and it loves to exert its freedom. Any restraint upon it is a violence done to its nature, and a tyranny, against which it has a right to rebel.
Locke. The mind, though free, has a governour within itself, which may and ought to limit the exercise of its freedom. That governour is reason.
Bayle. Yes:--but reason, like other governours, has a policy more dependent upon our uncertain caprice, than upon any fixed laws. And if that reason, which rules my mind or yours, has happened to set up a favourite notion, it not only subunits iîmplicitly to it, but desires that the same respect should be paid to it by all the rest of mankind. Now I hold that any man may lawfully oppose this desire in another; and that if he is wise, he will use his utmost endeavours to check it in himself.
Locke. Is there not also a weakness of a contrary nature to this you are now ridiculing? Do we not often take a pleasure in showing our own power, and gratifying our own pride, by degrading the notions set up by other men, and generally respected?
Bayle. I believe we do; and by this means it often happens, that, if one man builds and consecrates” a temple to folly, another pulls it down.
Locke. Do you think it beneficial to human society, to have all temples pulled down?
Bayle. I cannot say that I do.
Locke. Yet I find not in your writings any mark of distinction, to show us which you mean to save.
Bayle. A true philosopher, like an impartial historian, must be of no sect.
Locke. Is there no medium between the blind zeal of a sectary, and a total indifference to all religion?
Bayle. With regard to morality, I was not indifferent.
Locke. How could you then be indifferent with regard to the sanctions religion gives to morality? How could you publish what tends so directly and apparently to weaken in mankind the belief of those sanctions? Was not this sacrificing the great interests of virtue to the little motives of ranity?
Bayle. A man may act indiscreetly, but he cannot do wrong, by declaring that, which, on a full discussion of the question, he sincerely thinks to be true.
Locke. An enthusiast, who advances doctrines prejudicial to society, or opposes any that are useful to it, has the strengih of opinion, and the heat of a disturbed imagination, to plead in alleviation of his fault. But your cool head and sound judgment, can have no such excuse. I know very well there are passages in all your works, and those not few, where you talk like a rigidu. moralist. I have also heard that your character was irreproachably good. But when, in the niost laboured parts of your writings, you sap the surest foundations of all moral duties; what avails it that in others, or in the conduct of your life, you appeared to respect them? How many, who have stronger passions than you had, and are desirous to get rid of the curb that restrains them, will lay hold of your skepticism, to set themselves loose from all obligations of virtue! What a misfortune is it to have made such a use of such talents! It would have been better for you and for mankind, if you had been one of the dullest of Dutch theologians, or the most credulous monk in a Portuguese convent. The riches of the mind, like those of fortune, may be employed so perversely, as to become a nuisance and pest,* instead of an ornament and support, to society.
Bayle. You are very severe upon me.But do you count it no merit, no service to mankind, to deliver them from the fraudsy and fetters of priestcraft, from the deliriums of fanaticism, and from the terrpurs and follies of superstition? Consider how much mischief these have done to the world! Even in the last age, what massacres, what civil wars, what convulsions of government, what confusion in society, did they produce! Nay, in that we both lived in, though much more enlightened than the former, did I not see them occasion a violent persecution in my own country? and can you blame me for striking at the root of these evils?
Locke. The root of these evils, you well know, false religion: but you struck at the true. Heaven a hell are not more different, than the system of faith I defended, and that which produced the horrours of which you speak. Why would you so fallaciously confound them together in some of your writings, that it requires much more judgment, and a more iligent attention, than ordinary readers have, to separate them again, and to make the proper distinctions? This, indeed, is the great art of the celebrated free-thinkers. They recommend themselves to warm and ingenuous minds, by lively strokes of wit, and by arguments really strong, against superstition, enthusiasm and priestcraft. But, at the same time, they insidiously throw the colours of these upon the fair face of true religion; and dress her out in their garb, with a malignant intention to render her odious or despicable, to those who have not penetration enough to discern the impious fraud. Some of them may have thus deceived themselves, as well as others. Yet it is certain, no book that ever was written by the most acute of these gentlemen, is so repugnant to priestcraft, to spiritual tyranny, to all absurd superstitions, to all that can tend to disturb or injure society, as that gospel they so much affect to despise.
Bayle. Mankind are so made, that, when they have been over-heated, they cannot be brought to a proper temper again, till they have been over-cooled. My skepticism might be necessary, to abate the fever and phrenzy of false religion.
Locke. A wise prescription, indeed, to bring on a paralytical state of the mind, (for such a skepticism as yours is a palsy, which deprives the mind of all vigour, and deadens its natural and vital powers,) in order to take off a fever, which temperance, and the milk of the evangelical doctrines, would probably cure?
Bayle. I acknowledge that those medicinesd have a great power. But few doctors apply them untainted with the mixture of some harsher drugs, or some unsafe and ridicu. lous nostrums of their own.
Locke. What you now say is too true. God has given us a most excellent physick for the soul, in all its diseases; but bad and interested physicians, or ignorant and conceited quacks, administer it so ill to the rest of mankind, that much of the benefit of it is unhappily lost. 18
SECTION I. a Cic-e-ro, sis/-e-ró, a Roman Ora-w Sic-il-ian, sís-sil-yån, a native of
tor, son of a Roman Knight, born Sicily. at Arpinum.
- Un-al-ien-a-ble, ûn-ale/-yén-a-bl, b Ver-res, vêr'-réz, a Roman who not transferable.
governed the province of Sicily y Prec-e-dent, prés'-sé-dént, a rule as prætor.
for example. c Al-lay, ál-la', to abate. z Ar-bi-tra-ry, år'-b8-trå-re, despotd Im-pu-ta-tion, -im-pu-ta'-shủn, ick, absolute.
censure, reproach, reflection. a Com-pute,kom-púta', to calculate, e Ef-fec-tu-al-ly, éf-fék -tshủ-ål-le, to count.
powerfully, efficaciously 16 Al-ly, ál-ll', one united to another, f Pros-e-cu-tion, pros-se-ků'-shủn, to unite.
pursuit, pursuit in law. c A-tro-cious, å-tro-shủs, wicked 8 Con-vict,kon-vikt',to prove guilty. in a high degree, horrid.
Prop-a-ga-tor, prop'--gå-iår, ald Ex-empt, égz-émt', free from, to spreader, promoter.
privilege, to free from. i Slan-der-ous, slån -důr-ús, calum-le Un-ex-cep-tion-a-ble, în-ék-sép'nious, false.
shủn-a-bl, not liable to objection. k Ac-quit, åk-kwit', to set free, to f Har-bour, hår -bür, to entertain,
absolve, to discharge a duty. shelter, a shelter, i Pam-phyl-i-a, påm-fil-lé-a, a pro-g Pi-rate, pi -rat, a sea robber.
vince of Asia Minor anciently h Rav-ag-er, råv'-vidje-tr, one who called Alopsopia.
lays waste, one who spoils. m Scourge, skirje, to lash, whip, ai Det-ri-ment, dét-tr-ment, loss, lash, a whip.
damage, mischief, hurt. n Au-thor-i-ty, åw-thor'-e-té, pow. k Ex-ela-ma-tion, éks-klâ-ma'-shủn,
er, influence. o Bi-as, bi' as, to incline to somel Al-lege, à l-iedje', to affirm, plead
side. p Pros-e-cu-tor, pros'-sd-ků-túr, one m Cru-ci-fix-ion, krôň-se-fik'-shứn,
who pursues another by law. the punishment of nailing to a 9 Ir-reg-u-lar-i-ty, ir-rég-gu-lår -té, deviation from rule.
In Pub-li-us-Ga-vi-us-Co-sa-nus, go Quæs-tor-ship, kwės'-tür-ship, the påb'-lé-ús-gå-vê-ús-ko-sa'-nés. office of a quæstor.
lo Syr-a-cuse, sir'-å-kúze, a celebra& Cne-ius-Car-bo, ne'-yửs-kår’-b6, ted city of Sicily. a Roman Orator.
p Lu-ci-us-Pre-ti-us,lů -sht-üs-pre!. t Treas-u-rer, trẻzh-t-rủi,
she-ús. who has the care of the money of q Pa-nor-mus, på-nör'-mus, this
as an excuse.
name was common to seven differu Vi-o-late, vil-d-låte, to injure, to ent towns in Asia and Europe. infringe.
r At-test, t-test, to witness, to call e Em-bez-zle, ėm-bez-zl, to appro to witness, to avouch.
priate bv breach of trust, to waste.
s In-fe-ri-our, in-fé-ré-úr, lower inju Sub-ver-sion, súb-ver'-shủn, overplace, subordinate.
throw. t Mag-is-trate, mid-jís-trite, a man v An-ar-chy, ån'-år-ké, want of govinvested with authority.
Ciceroa against Verres.b 1. The time is come, Fathers, when that which has long been wished for, towards allaying the envy your order has been subject to, and removing the imputationsd against trials, is effectuallye put in your power. An opinion has long prevailed, not only here at home, but likewise in foreign countries, both dangerous to you, and pernicious to the state,--that, in prosecutions, men of wealth are always safe, however clearly convicted.
2. There is now to be brought upon his trial before you, to the confusion, I hope, of the propagatorsk of this slanderous' imputation, one whose life and actions condemn him in the opinion of all impartial persons, but who, according to his own reckoning and declared dependence upon his riches, is already acquitted;k I mean Caius Verres. Idemand justice of you, Fathers, upon the robber of the public treasury, the oppressor of Asia Minor and Pamphylia, the invader of the rights and privileges of Romans, the scourge" and curse of Sicily.
3. If that sentence is passed upon him which his crimes deserve, your authority" Fathers, will be venerable and sacred in the eyes of the publick: but if his great riches should biaso you in his favour, I shall still gain one point, to make it apparent to all the world, that what was wanting in this case, was not a criminal nor a prosecutor, but justice and adequate punishment.
4. To pass over the shameful irregularities of his youth, what does his quæstorship," the first publick employment he held, what does it exhibit, but one continued scene of villanies? Cneius Carbo, plundered of the public money by his own treasurer,' a consul stripped and betrayed, an army deserted and reduced to want, a province robbed, the civil and religious rights of a people violated."
5. The employment he held in Asia Minor and Pamphylia, what did it produce but the ruin of those countries in which houses, cities, and temples, were robbed by him. What was his conduct in his prætorship here at home? Let the plundered temples, and publick works neglected, that he might embezzle the money intended for carrying them on, bear witness. How did he discharge the office