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ESS A Y

CONCERNING Hww.n.1804
Human Understanding ;

CONCERNING

WITH

Thoughts on the Conduct of the Understanding.

BY JOHN LOCKE, ESQ.

COLLATEP WITIDESMAIZEAUX'S EDITION.

To which is prefixed,

THE LIFE OF THE AUTHOR.

IN THREE YULUMES.
All in this book

VOL. I.

EDINBURGH:

PRINTED BY AND FOR MUNDELL & SON, ROYAL BANK CLOSE

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CONTENT S.

The Dedication. Epitle to the Reader. Life of the Author.

BOOK 1.-CHAP. I,

OF INNATE NOTIONS,

2. Design.

The Introducion. Sect. 1. An Inquiry into the Understanding, pleasant and useful. 3. Method 4. Useful to know the Extent of our Comprehension. 5. Our Capacity proportioned to our State and concerns,

to discover things useful to us. 6. Knowing the Extent of our Capacities, will hinder us

from useless Curiosity, Scepticism, and Idlenefs. 7. Occasion of this Essay. 8. What Idea stands for.

CHAP. II. '

No Innate Speculative Principles. Sect. 1. The Way shown how we come by any Knowledge,

fufficient to prove it not innate. 2. General Assent, the great Argument. 3. Universal Consent, proves nothing innate. 4. What is, is; and it is impossible for the fame thing to be .. and not to be; not universally assented to: S. Not on the Mind naturally imprinted, because not

known to Children, Idiots, &c. vs 7. That Men know them when they come to the Use of Reason, answered.

6, 7. That

8. If Reason discovered them, that would not prove them

innate, 9-11. It is false, that Reason discovers them. 12. The coming to the Use of Reason, not the Time we

come to know there Maxims. 13. By this, they are not distinguished from other knowable

Truths. 14. If coming to the Use of Reason, were the Time of their

Discovery, it would not prove them innate. 15, 16. The Steps by which the Mind attains several Truths. 17. Affenting as soon as proposed and underttood, proves

them not innate. 18. If such an Afient be a Mark of innate, then that One

and Two are equal to Three; that Sweetness is not

Bitterness; and a thousand the like, must be innate. 19. Such less general Propositions known before these uni

versal Maxims. 20. One and One equal to Two, &c. not general nor use.

ful, answered. 21. These Maxims not being, known sometimes till proposed,

proves them not innate. 22. Implicitly known before proposing, signifies that the

Mind is capable of understanding them, or else sig

nifies nothing. 23. The Argument of assenting on first hearing, is upon a

false supposition of no precedent teaching. 24. Not innate, because not universally assented to. 25. These Maxims not the firit known. 26. And so not innate. 27. Not innate, because they appear least, where what is irr

nate shows itself clearest. 28. Recapitulation.

CHAP. III.

No Innate Practical Principler. Sect. 1. No moral Principles so clear and so generally received,

as the forementioned speculative Maxims. 2. Faith and Justice not owned as Principles by all Men. 3. Obj. Though Men deny them in their Practice, yet

they admit them in their Thoughts, answered.

4. Moral Rules need a Proof, ergo not innate.
5. Instance in keeping Compacts.
6. Virtue generally approved, not because innate, but be.

cause profitable.
7. Mens actions convince us, that the Rule of Virtue is

not their Internal Principle. .
8. Conscience no Proof of any innate moral Rule.
9. Instances of Enormities practised without Remorse.
10. Men have contrary practical Principles.
11-13. Whole Nations reject several moral Rules.
14. Those who maintain innate practical Principles, tell us

not what they are.
15-19. Lord Herbert's innate Principles examined.
20. Obj. Innate Principles may be corrupted, answered.
21. Contrary Principles in the World.
22-26. How Men commonly come by their Principles..
27. Principles must be examined.

CHAP. IV.

Other Confiderations about innate Principles, both speculative

and pradical.
SECT.

1. Principles not innate, unless their Ideas be innate.
2, 3. Ideas, especially those belonging to Principles, not

born with children.
4, 5. Identity, an Idea not innate.
6. Whole and Part, not innate Ideas.
7. Idea of Worship, not innate.
8-11. Idea of God, not innate.
12. Suitable to God's goodness, that all men should have an

Idea of him, therefore naturally imprinted by him ;

answered.
13-16. Ideas of God various in different men.
17. If the Idea of God be not innate, no other can be sup-

posed innate.
18. Idea of Substance, not innate.
19. No Propofitions can be innate, since no ideas are innate.
20. No Ideas are remembered till after they have been in-

troduced.
21. Principles not innate; because of little Use or little Cer-
taipty.'

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