« AnteriorContinuar »
Be thou, O Holy Spirit! nigh;
be saved, O most holy Virgin, but through thee ;
there is no one from whom we can obtain mercy but
through thee. Mary opens her bosom of mercy to
all, so that the whole universe receives out of her
fulness; the captive, redemption; the sick, health;
the afflicted, comfort; the sinner, pardon ; the just,
grace; the angels, joy; the whole Trinity, glory."
Such are the divine honours and blasphemous ad.
dresses ascribed to the Virgin at this day by the
members of the Church of Rome in the city of
Florence ; of whom St. Paul would have said, as he
did of the inhabitants of Athens, “ Ye men of Flo-
rence, I perceive that in all things ye are too super.
stitious." But what would the apostle have said had
he entered the Nicholini chapel in Florence, in which
there is a dome beautifully painted in fresco, having
for its subject the coronation of the Virgin Mary?
In the centre of the piece the Virgin is seated; whilst
on one side stands a venerable old man, intended to
represent our heavenly Father; on the other, a young
man, the intended representative of our Saviour ;
both of whom are engaged in placing a crown on the
head of the Virgin Mary; whilst the third person in
shewn to the traveller with no small degree of osten-
tation, as a sublime representation of the honour due
to the Virgin. St. Paul, it is most probable, would
have found no other difference between the idolatrous
worship paid to the great Diana at Ephesus, and that
paid to the Virgin Mary at Florence, except that the
former was paid to an imaginary heathen goddess, the
latter to a deified mortal woman. But in both cases
the honour due to the one true God is invaded ; and
the command delivered by our Saviour, that the Lord
our God only should be worshipped, is equally broken,
though in a somewhat different way.--Daubeny's Pro-
The Wild Ass.- The wild ass, or para, celebrated
by Job, is generally understood to be the onager, an
animal which is to this day highly prized in Persia
and the deserts of Tartary, as being fitier for the saddle
than the finest breed of horses. It has nothing of the
dulness or stupidity of the common ass; is extremely
beautiful; and, when properly trained, is docile and
tractable in no common degree. It was this more
valuable kind of ass that Saul was in search of when
he was chosen by the prophet to discharge the duties
of royalty. “ Who hath sent out the wild ass free?
or who hath loosed the bands of the wild ass? whose
house I have made the wilderness, and the barren
sand his dwellings. He scorneth the multitude of
the city, neither regardetli he the crying of the driver.
We must beg our poetical friends to grant themselves and us
a little respite. We weekly receive as many verses as would
which we are unable to insert.
We had written the above lines when the enclosure of A
HALF-A-GUINEA the Set. Single Numbers and Parts may at
all times be had from the commencement.
LONDON :-Published by JAMES BURNS, 17 Portman Street,
Portman Square; W. EDWARDS, 12 Ave-Maria Lane, St.
lar moral law in which he has been bred, THE RESPONSIBILITY OF CHRISTIANS TO
any reference to the name of Christ, ATTEMPT THE CONVERSION OF THE HEATHEN.
procure for himself eternal life. But its
object in pronouncing this condemnation was BY THE Right Rev. John KAYE, D.D. to strike at the root of that doctrine, which is Lord Bishop of Lincoln.
the foundation of the worst errors of the Church
of Rome, the doctrine of human merit; and No. II.
not to decide upon the future destinies of the Though the opinion respecting the future heathen. Them it leaves, where they may be destinies of the heathen world, which I have safely left, to the mercy and to the justice endeavoured to vindicate from the conse- of God, who, the apostle tells us, " will accept quences unfairly charged upon it, has re- the actions of men according to what they ceived the sanction of many learned and pious have, not according to what they have not” men, it would perhaps have been better if all (2 Cor. viii. 12). had imitated the discreet forbearance of our If we examine more closely the train of own Church, nor entered into the discussion reasoning which the framers of our Articles of a question which the Scriptures have left pursued upon this question, it will appear undetermined. For, however it may suit the to have been somewhat of the following purposes of sceptical writers to misrepresent kind :*—Men are born in a state of alienathe opinions entertained by the framers of tion from God, in consequence of the transour Articles, it is certain that they have pro- gression of their first parents, and are of nounced no decision upon this interesting themselves unable to please him. From subject. One of the ablest advocates of infi- this state of enmity they have been relieved delity in modern times has, indeed, affirmed by the death of Christ, so that they who are the doctrine of our Church to be, "not only baptised into his name and believe in him, that no heathen, however virtuous, can escape are no longer under condemnation, but are an endless state of the most exquisite misery, placed in the capacity of performing works but also, that every one who presumes to acceptable in the sight of God, and of maintain that any pagan can possibly be attaining unto everlasting life. Since, then, saved, is himself exposed to the penalty of the good actions even of Christians are so eternal perdition."* " But in what passage of imperfect, that they are only accepted through our Articles is such a doctrine contained ? the merits of Christ; can we venture to The Church, it is true, condemns the pre- ascribe a greater degree of efficacy to heathen sumption of all who affirm that man can, by virtue ? Can we venture to ascribe to it a simple obedience to those principles and such perfection as will fit it to endure the rules of conduct which he has derived either Divine scrutiny, or establish for its possessor from the light of nature, or from the particu- a title to an eternal reward ? Such a sup• Home's History of England, Edward VI. A.D. 1551.
lley's Lectures, b. iv. art. xiii. sect. 1. VOL. IV.-NO. LXXXVI.
position would imply, not only that the an increased desire to promote the success Gospel confers no advantage upon those by of those to whom our common Master has whom it is embraced, but that it even places allotted a severer, a more perilous service--them in a worse condition than the Gentiles the task of encountering the adversary of who have never heard the name of Christ. mankind in regions over which he has hitherto We pronounce, therefore, all heathen virtues ruled with undisputed authority, and of breakfaulty and defective in themselves, and in- ing the chains of vice and superstition by capable of enduring the severity of God's which he has succeeded in holding the miserjudgment; and we condemn that presump- able inhabitants captive. tion, which, when the Scripture hath set out I cannot but think that, as a people, we have unto us only the name of Jesus Christ whereby not felt that lively interest in the conversion men must be saved, would substitute in the of the heathen world, which either its own place of that holy name the performances of importance, or a just sense of gratitude for weak and sinful men. But we should our- the national blessings conferred upon us, ought selves be guilty of presumption as great as to have inspired. that which we condemn, were we to say that, Let us carry our thoughts back for a mobecause the heathen cannot obtain salvatio ment to the period of our blessed Saviour's through their own unassisted efforts, they appearance upon earth, and consider what will therefore be eternally excluded from the was then the situation of this country; a mercy of God. Far, then, from meriting the subject of meditation not unsuitable for the imputations of dogmatism and intolerance present festival of the Church. Sunk in the which have been cast upon them, the framers grossest ignorance and superstition, the worof our Articles appear to have exercised upon shipper of deities whom he hoped to propithis question the same temper and modera- tiate by shedding the blood of human victims, tion which marked every other step of their the ancient Briton could boast no higher progress. Whether, however, we imitate place in the scale of civilisation than the their discreet forbearance, or adopt the islander of the Pacific Ocean in the present more decided language of those who affirm day. Had the eloquent writer, from whom that the Gentiles, who have never heard the we have received the earliest account of the name of Christ, will nevertheless be parta- state of our country, been told that a time kers in the benefits derived from his death; would arrive when the descendants of the in either case, a mere comparison of the despised barbarians whom he beheld, would moral condition of the heathen and of the become a great and powerful nation; that Christian world sufficiently proves that it is their fleets would cover the seas, their enterour bounden duty to diffuse, as far as lies prising industry leave no corner of the globe in our power, the knowledge of the Gospel unexplored; and their dominion be extended throughout the earth. But when to this over countries of which, when he wrote, the consideration we add the positive injunctions existence was not even suspected ; — had the of Scripture, no further doubt can remain as Roman
when he first set foot upon to the course which is prescribed to all the the shores of our island, been told that such professors of Christianity, but especially to would be its future fortunes, he might have those who have taken upon them the minis- been excused for receiving with an increduterial office. The command to go and teach lous smile a prediction which appeared so all nations was neither confined to the per far to transcend the utmost limits of probasons of the apostles, nor to the times in which | bility. Yet the time has arrived when we they lived. We who have succeeded them see every part of the above description fully as labourers in the Lord's vineyard are bound, realised, and when our national greatness will according to our several opportunities, to bear a comparison with that of Rome in the enlarge its limits, till at length the promise plenitude of her power. But while we exult made by our blessed Lord to his Church shall in the distinguished rank which we hold be fulfilled, and the glad tidings of salvation among the nations of the earth, does it never be conveyed to the remotest corners of the occur to us to inquire whether this envied globe. The extension of Christ's kingdom distinction has not been conferred for some is an object of which we can never be allowed particular end ? If we look back to the to lose sight. Though he has not called us history of the ancient empires, we shall find personally to undertake the office of con- that each in its season of prosperity was verting the heathen-though he has assigned made subservient to the accomplishment of us the easier duty of upholding his dominion some great plan which the Almighty had amidst a people who have, through a long devised in his secret counsels. While the series of ages, acknowledged themselves his Roman generals marched on from conquest subjects; we ought, on this very account, to to conquest, and thought only of increasing feel an increased solicitude for the welfare, their country's power and glory, their victories served, under the controlling hand of and the most ardent admiration was expressed of the Providence, to pave the way for the easier revolution which Voltaire had produced ; and they all
said that it formed the brightest ray of his glory. introduction of Christianity into the different
“ He has given the tone to his age, and has conprovinces which they subdued. Can we, trived to be read in the hall as well as in the drawingthen, suppose that God has raised this king- room.' One of the company told us, chuckling with dom to its present pitch of maritime great ing him, "Look ye, sir, though 1 be but a poor
laughter, that his hair-dresser had said, while powderness for the mere purpose of advancing the journeyman barber, 'I have no more religion than interests of commerce, and facilitating the another man.” It was concluded that the revolution exchange of commodities between distant would soon be consummated, and that it was absocountries ? Shall we not rather conclude, lutely necessary for superstition and fanaticism to that our power was given us for a nobler give place to philosophy. The probability of this
epoch was then calculated, and which of the present end,—to be made the instrument of improving company would live to see the reign of reason. The the moral and spiritual condition of our elder part lamented they could not flatter themselves fellow-creatures, and diffusing the light of with such hopes, while the younger rejoiced to think - revelation throughout the world?
that they should witness it. The Academy, above all,
was congratulated for having prepared the grand If such, then, are the purposes for which work, and been the stronghold, the centre, and our national prosperity has been conferred, moving principle of liberty of thought. let us ask ourselves whether we have faith- One only of the guests had not shared in the fully endeavoured to accomplish them? Let delights of this conversation; he had even ventured, us compare the exertions which we have noble enthusiasm. It was Cazotte, an amiable and hitherto made, and the good we have effected, ingenious man, but unfortunately infatuated with the with the means placed in our hands. The
reveries of the illuminati. He renewed the conversa. result of such a comparison would, I fear, he,' be assured you will see this grand and sublime
tion, and in a very serious tone, “Gentlemen," said afford but slender ground for self-congratu- revolution. You know that I am something of a lation. But I would gladly encourage the prophet, and I say again, that you will all see it.” belief, that our past indifference and insensi
He was answered in one chorus, “it is not necessary bility have been succeeded by a better spirit
, perhaps it may be necessary to be something more
to be a great conjuror to foresee that." " True, but and that a sincere desire to communicate for what I am now going to tell you. Have you any idea the blessings of true religion to the heathen of what will result from this revolution? what will be world now pervades every class of the com- the immediate consequences? what will happen to munity.
every one of you now present?" "Oh,” said Condorcet, with his silly and saturnine laugh, “let us know all about it,-a philosopher can have no objec
tion to meet a prophet.” “You, M. Condorcet, will THE FRENCH REVOLUTION.
expire on the pavement of a dungeon ; you will die Among the papers of M. de la Harpe, whose con
by the poison which you will have taken to escape
from the hands of the executioner ;-the poison which version has been related in a former Number, was
the happy state of that period will render it absolutely found the following account of a remarkable prophecy necessary that you should carry always about with concerning the horrors that awaited unhappy France.
you." By some it was regarded as a fictitious prediction.
At first this excited great astonishment; but it was However this may be, to use the words of Mr. Crich
soon recollected that Cazotte was in the habit of dream
ing while he was awake; and the laugh was as loud as ton, in his Converts from Infidelity, and from whose
ever. “M. Cazotte, the tale you have just told us is work this translation is taken--"without entering not so pleasant as your own pretty romance : but what into the controversy of its reality, or attaching any has put this dungeon, this poison, and these hangmen importance to it as a biographical document; it may philosophy and the reign of reason?” “ Precisely that
in your head? What connexion can these have with be considered worthy of insertion, as a striking pic- which I am telling you. It will be in the name of ture of that flippant and impious levity which then philosophy, of humanity and liberty; it will be under prevailed so universally in the literary circles of
the reign of reason, that what I have foretold will Paris."
happen to you. For it will then indeed be the reign It appears to me as if it were but yesterday, and it
of reason, as she will then have temples erected to was nevertheless in the beginning of 1783—we were
her: nay, throughout all France, there will be no at the table of a brother academician, who was of the
other places of worship but the temples of reason.”
• In faith,” said Chamfort, with his sarcastic smile, highest rank, and a man of talents. The company
you will never be one of the priests in these temwas numerous, and of all kinds ; courtiers, advocates, ples." " I hope not; but you, M. Chamfort, you will academicians, &c. We had been, as usual, luxuri
be well worthy of that distinction; for you will cut ously entertained. The wines of Malvoisie and Constance, added to the natural gaiety of good company
your veins with twenty-two strokes of a razor, and yet that kind of social freedom which sometimes stretches
you will survive for some months.” They all stared beyond proper decorum. In short, we were in a state
at him, and again burst into laughter. “You, M.
Vicq-d'Azyr, you will not open your veins yourto allow of any thing that would produce mirth. Chamfort bad been reading some of his impious and
self; but you will cause them to be opened six times libertine tales; and the fine ladies had heard them
in one day, during a paroxysm of the gout, to without once making use of their fans. A deluge
make the surer work; and you will die during the The
night. of pleasantries on religion then succeeded.
As for you, M. Nicolai, you will die on
the scaffold; and you M. Bailly; and you M. Malesconversation afterwards took a more serious turn;
herbesSee Constable's Miscellany.
"Oh heavens !" said Roucher, “it appears his
vengeance is levelled solely against the Academy: he M. Cazotte, we have liad enough of these melancholy has just made a most horrible execution of the whole conceits; you have carried them too far, even to the of it. Now tell me my fate, in the name of mercy." exposing of yourself and the company in which you “You too will die upon the scaffold.” “Oh!" it was
Cazotte made no answer, and was preparing to universally exclaimed, “he has sworn to exterminate retire, when Madame de Grammont, who still wished, us all." "No, it is not I who have sworn it." “ What if possible, to banish serious impressions, and restore then, are we to be subjugated by the Turks or the good humour and gaiety ainong them, advanced toTartars?” By no means; I have told you, that you wards him, and said, "My good prophet, you have will then be governed by reason and philosophy alone. been so kind as to tell us all our fortunes, but you Those who will treat you thus will all be philosophers have said nothing respecting your own." After a will have continually in their mouths the same phrases few minutes' silence, and with his eyes fixed on the that you have been uttering for the last hour—will ground, " Madam,” he replied, “ have you read the repeat all your maxims-and quote, as you have done, siege of Jerusalem, as related by Josephus ?" "To the verses of Diderot and Voltaire."
is Oh! the man
But you may is out of his senses !” they whispered each other; for suppose,
if you please, that I know nothing about it." during the whole conversation his features never " Then you must know, madam, that, during the underwent the least change. “Oh, no!" said another, siege, a man for seven successive days went round
don't you perceive that lie is laughing at us; and, the ramparts of that city, in sight of the besiegers and you know, he always blends the marvellous with his the besieged, crying continually, in a loud and inaupleasantries.” “Yes," said Chamfort, “but his mar- spicious voice, Woe to Jerusalem! and on the seventh vels are never enlivened with gaiety. He always day he cried, Woe to Jerusalem, and to myself! and at looks as if he were going to be hanged. But, when, that very moment, a huge stone, thrown by the Mr. Prophet, will all this happen?” “Before six machines of the enemy, struck him, and dashed liim years pass, all that I have told you shall be accom- to pieces.” After this reply, M. Cazotte made his plished.”
bow and retired. " Here, indeed, we have abundance of miracles," said M. de la Harpe, who now spoke ; " but do you
Here M. La Harpe's note of this singular convivial set me down for nothing ?" “ You will yourself be a meeting breaks off. How literally Cazotte's prophemiracle, as extraordinary as any I have related : you cies, whether real or pretended, were accomplished, will then be a Christian !" Great exclamations fol
every reader knows who is acquainted with the horrors lowed this. " Al!" replied Chamfort, “ all my fears
of the French Revolution. are vanished; if we are not doomed to perish until La Harpe becomes Christian, we shall all be immortal.” “As for us women," said the Duchess of Gram
Biography. mont, “it is very fortunate that we are considered as nothing in these revolutions ; not that we are to have
TIIE LIFE OF BISHOP IIALL. no concern in them, but that in such cases it is understood they will leave us to ourselves; and our
[Continued from No. LXXXV.) sex"-"Your sex, ladies, will then be no defence Soon after the commencement of the seventeenth or guarantee to you; and whether you interfere or
century the most violent controversies agitated the not, you will be treated precisely as the rest, without any difference whatever." “But what does all this
Low Countries, respecting some of those doctrina! mean, M. Cazotte? you are surely preaching to us
points, chiefly with reference to the divine decrees about the end of the world ?" "I know no more of on which Calvinists and Arminians differ. In order that, my lady duchess, than yourself; but this I know, to aliay, if possible, these unhappy disputes, the tend.. that you will be conducted to the scaffold, with many
ency of which was most detrimental to true religion, other ladies, in the cart of the executioner, and with your hands tied behind your back." "I hopes together a national synod at Dort ; and, at the same
the states of the united provinces resolved to call good sir, that, in that case, I shall at least be allowed a coach hung with black." No, madam ; time, requested the aid of foreign princes to send a and ladies of higher rank than you will be drawn number of divines to attend it for the purpose of in a cart to execution, and with their hands tied
giving advice. In 1618, King James selected Dr. like yours." “ Ladies of bigher rank! what, do you Carleton, bishop of Llandaff; Dr. Hall; Dr. Davenant mcan princesses of the blood ?" " Greater still, madam."
Margaret professor at Cambridge; and Dr. Ward, Here a very sensible emotioit was excited through- master of Sidney College, to proceed to the contiout the company; the master of the house wore a very nent, and to be present at the synod. After remaingrave and solemn aspect; they began to discover they | ing there for about two months, Dr. Hall was comhad carried their pleasantry rather too far : Madame de Grammont wishing to disperse the cloud that
pelled to leave from bad health. “ The unquietness seemed to be approaching, took no notice of this last
of the nights in those garrison towns,'' to use his own answer, but contented herself with saying, in a language, “working upon the tender disposition of sprightly tone, " You see he will not even leave me a my body, brought me to such weakness through want confessor." “No, madam, neither you nor any other of rest, that it began to disable me from attending the person will be allowed that consolation. The last
synod.” Before his departure, however, he preached victiin who, as the greatest of all favours, will be permitted to have a confessor on the scaffold, will be
a Latin sermon to the synod, from Eccles. vii. 16, in Here he paused for a moment. " And who
which he endeavoured, as much as possible, to allay then,” they cried, is the happy mortal that will be the violence of controversy.
“ What have we to do," indulged with this special and ghostly prerogative ?” said he, “ with the disgraceful titles of remonstrants “Yes, the only prerogative that will then be left him --it will be the king of France !"
and contra-remonstrants, Calvinists and Arminians ? The master of the house here rose abruptly, and
We are Christians, let us be like-minded; we are one the whole company were actuated by the same im
body, let us be of one mind." He returned to the pulse. He advanced towards M. Cazotte, and said to Hague, in the hope that quiet and rest might recruit him in an earnest and impressive tone, “My dear his strength; but finding himself becoming weaker,