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But, however full and clear the knowledge THE RESPONSIBILITY OF CHRISTIANS TO
which we possess respecting our own condiATTEMPT THE CONVERSION OF THE
tion, it will not satisfy our restless curiosity. HEATHEN.
Not content with that which God has revealed, By The Right Rev. John KAYE, D.D. we proceed to inquire into that which he has Lord Bishop of Lincoln.
thought fit to hide from us, and busy our
selves with conjectures respecting the future No. I.
destinies of the heathen world. We reflect The chief design of the Gospel dispensation, upon the multitudes of human beings who when viewed with reference to the mode of lived and died before the appearance of our our justification before God, is to lay down blessed Lord on earth. We consider how this fundamental truth,—that neither by our large a portion of the globe is at this very obedience to the precepts of the moral law, moment peopled by inhabitants to whose nor by any efforts or exertions of our own, ears the glad tidings of salvation have never can we establish a claim to eternal life; but been conveyed. Of the patriarchs indeed, that our sole reliance must be placed on that before the giving of the law, and of many of which Christ has done and suffered for us. the Jews in subsequent ages, it may be said, This is the principle upon which the whole that they looked forward to Christ, and enterscheme of salvation proposed in the New tained some consolatory, though indistinct, Testament proceeds ; for it is explicitly de- conceptions of the deliverance which he was clared that “ there is none other name under to procure for mankind. But even of the heaven given among men whereby we must Jews, far the greater part appear to have be saved," but only the name of our Lord expected in their promised Messiah only a Jesus Christ-words which communicate the temporal deliverer, and to have been as ignoknowledge, not simply of the means, but of rant of his real character and office as the the only means by which man can secure Gentile nations by whom they were salvation.
rounded. What, then, we proceed to ask As far, then, as the professors of Christi- ourselves, will be the final lot of these numeanity are concerned (and the remark applies rous generations of the sons of men ? Must to all who possess the opportunity of acquaint- we interpret the words of Scripture so strictly ing themselves with its doctrines), such posi- as to include in one general sentence of contive declarations of holy Scripture leave no demnation all who have never heard the name room either for doubt or for inquiry. All the of Christ? Must we suppose that the Alinformation which is necessary for the guid- mighty called into existence so many myriads ance of their own conduct is before them; of our fellow-creatures, merely that they might and it must be their own fault if they rest pass a few years upon earth, and then be contheir hopes on any other name than that of signed to endless perdition ? Jesus Christ, and therefore 'miss of the sal- Inquiries like these have, it is probable, vation which he has purchased for them. occasionally suggested themselves to the
VOL. IV.-NO, LXXXV.
minds of all who have seriously reflected responsibility, and render every transgression
It may be deemed, perhaps, a sufficient have lived and died in utter ignorance of the proof of the sophistical nature of this objecGospel, not a single individual will attain to tion to remark, that its direct tendency is to eternal life, appears to contain in it some- convert the very reasoning on which we found thing so harsh and rigorous, something so our hopes, that the heathen will become parrepugnant to our notions of the goodness, takers of Christ's kingdom in heaven, into an and even justice, of God, that we feel a strong argument against attempting to bring them disposition to embrace any solution of the within the pale of his kingdom on earth. difficulty which will enable us to escape But the objection, in fact, is grounded upon from so afflicting, so appalling a conclusion. a very inadequate conception of the ends and Many pious and excellent men have in con- purposes of the Christian dispensation. The sequence been inclined to indulge the hope, design of our Saviour's mission was not merely that the benefits of Christ's death will be to effect the redemption of man, but also to proextended even to those who have never heard vide the means of his sanctification; not merely his name pronounced; and that the heathen, to open to him the gates of everlasting life, though they cannot be saved by the law which but also to enable him to acquire such habits they profess, may nevertheless be saved in and dispositions as will fit him for the enjoythe law through the merits of the Redeemer, ment of the happiness of heaven. With this whose blood is declared in Scripture to be view the Gospel proposes to us, not indeed “ a propitiation for the sins of the whole a new, but a more perfect rule of life; a rule world" (1 John, ii. 2).
which, by shedding a clearer light over the Nor are there wanting passages in the nature and grounds of moral duty, tends at New Testament which tend in some degree once to give a right direction to the operato countenance this opinion. Our Saviour tions of the moral principle, and to confirm it himself tells us, that what God will require in its superiority over all the principles by of men will be proportioned to the advan- which man is impelled to action. It is from tages which he has conferred upon them the voice of the monitor within, that, inde(Luke, xii. 48); and St. Paul speaks in pendently of revelation, man becomes acfavourable terms of the condition of those quainted with the fact of his responsibility. among the Gentiles, who, " though they had | The approbation or disapprobation which our not the law, yet did by nature the things conscience now pronounces upon all that we contained in the law" (Rom. ii. 14). Both have done, or that we design to do, is maniwhich passages imply that the heathen, how- festly intended to warn us of a stricter scruever imperfect their good actions might be tiny which we must undergo, and of a more in themselves, might be accepted in the sight righteous judgment which will be pronounced of God; an acceptance which they still could upon us hereafter. The aim, therefore, of only obtain through the merits of Christ. every system of morality must be so to enBut while, on the one hand, the supposition lighten and to inform the conscience, that that the benefits of Christ's death extend its decisions may be in all respects conformeven to those who have lived and died in able to those immutable laws which God has ignorance of his name, tends to relieve the established in his government of the moral anxiety of the reflecting mind respecting the world. Yet how defective is the knowledge future destinies of the heathen world; on of those laws which man can acquire by the the other, an inference has been drawn from exertions of his unassisted reason! Here, it which would, if well founded, create a then, it is that revelation comes to his aid; doubt respecting the utility of missionary defines the boundaries which separate good labours. If the above representation of from evil; and thus imparts to the decisions the condition of the heathen world is cor- of conscience some portion of the unerring rect, why, we are asked, is it necessary to certainty of the Divine judgment. make any extraordinary efforts for their con- From overlooking the plain distinction version ? If even in their present state they between the principle of conscience as it can obtain, through the merits of Christ, the exists in itself, and its application in parpardon of their sins and acceptance with God, ticular cases, some men have been led to what additional advantage can they derive deny its authority altogether. from becoming Christians ? Why attempt to they say, that actions which by one nation comnunicate to them the knowledge of a more are regarded with feelings of disgust and perfect moral law than that under which they abhorrence, are considered by another not now live, and thereby at once increase their only as innocent, but even laudable. Can See Burnet on the 18th Article; but the words in the Latin
we, then, safely commit ourselves to the guidare in lrge aut secla.
ance of a principle which is thus variable
and uncertain in its decisions? If God in- Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold tended us on all occasions to follow the dic- behind him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns : tates of conscience, surely he would have
and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered him
up for a burnt-offering instead of his son.” “And God taken care that it should on all occasions
blessed Abraham, and said, I will multiply thy seed speak the same language. But, as we have as the stars in heaven, and as the sand which is on the already remarked, the design with which the sea-shore ; and in thy seed shall all the nations of the principle of conscience is implanted in our
earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice : nature, is to remind us that we are account
and thy seed shall possess the land of promise for
ever." able beings. Its office, to borrow the ex- Therefore, in remembrance of the ram being caught pression of the apostle (Rom. ii. 15), is to
in the thicket by his horns, this horn is blown in the bear testimony; but the precise character of synagogues. When God hears the sound of the ram's the testimony which it bears must depend his promise, that all his seed should be saved ; for
horn, they pray that he would have pity according to upon the character of the moral law in which every Jew prides himself as being a child of Abraham. we have been instructed. The more perfect The purport of the new-year's day is this: they keep that law, the more accurately will the deci
it for two days in succession, according to the taber
nacle notion, on the supposition that they have lost sions of conscience correspond with the final
one day in their reckoning. sentence of the almighty Judge.
Now this is the firm belief of every Jew in the I shall conclude my remarks upon this world : when a Jew is born, the angels of God, that is subject, by applying to it an observation
to say, two, one to preside over evil, and one over good made by the most illustrious of my prede- deeds, and one for good deeds; therefore whatever
deeds; each angel has got a measure, one for evil cessors, when treating of a different ques- measure is full first, is the sign. So each presiding tion: “ The supposition that the benefits of angel brings, in the course of the year, his account Christ's death may extend even to the hea
before God; then, on new-year's day, God decrees
who shall live or who shall die the following year; for then, by no means implies that, with reference
you will find as I proceed, that God may alter his to their prospects in a future life, they stand decree, although either of the measures may be full. on a footing equally advantageous with Chris- It is a rule among ninety-nine Jews out of every tians. It is manifest, on the contrary, that hundred, that if it should so happen, that any family the means which they possess of obtaining a
contention, of any description, should exist at those
times, they make friends, and even if any law-suit be correct knowledge of their duty, and thus pending among them, they stop all proceedings; as perfecting their moral nature, must be com- they ask, How can they expect God to forgive them, paratively scanty and inadequate.” That if they do not forgive one another ? So that it freknowledge can be derived from the Scrip-Only, until the day of atonement is past
quently occurs, that law-suits are postponed, and that tures alone; and the necessary consequence They are taught by the rabbies to believe, that God is, that we are placed under the strictest ob- delights for them to provide good food for their ligation to omit no opportunity of bringing festivals, such as meat, fish, and wine ; for they conthem out of their present state of ignorance and he being heavenly, and the body earthly, they and darkness into the glorious light of the
compare the body to a tenement, in which the soul Gospel.
dwells; and as it is well known according to nature, every tenant, whether he be high or low, likes to
dwell in a comfortable house, having every conveJEWISH FESTIVAL ON NEW-YEAR'S DAY.t niency, so, upon the same ground, by the Jews feeding The first festival of the Jews is on new-year's day, the
their body well, keeping up their strength, they con
sider the soul delights in it. Ps. Ixiii. 5, “ My soul first day of the seventh month Tisri, which is about
shall be satisfied as with marrow and fatness, and my the month of September or October. Eight and twenty
mouth shall praise thee with joyful lips." days before new-year's day, it is a custom in every synagogue for the chief rabbi, or one of the congregation kingdom there are not synagogues enough to accom
I must not omit to inform my readers, that in this who is looked upon as a man of integrity and piety, to blow a ram's horn, which is manufactured to a peculiar
modate the wliole body of the Jews, provided they shape, of which, was I to give you a description, and
were to congregate the year round, as they do on their
set festivals ; for it often occurs that seat-holders in the ceremonies attending it, it would fill a small volume; suffice it to say, the ram's horn is not to be
the synagogue do not attend, except on these occa. biosn until the rabbi has approved of it, according to
sions; such as new-year's day-day of atonement -nule. The foundation of blowing it, is in commemo
the feast of the tabernacle-passover—and pentecost;
although, in many respects, the expenses to some ration of Abraham offering his son Isaac upon the aitar on Mount Moriah, when Abraham took the private individuals for their seats, &c. &c., which I krufe to slay his son, as in Gen. xxii. 10-13: "And
shall treat more largely upon hereafter, amount very Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the knife
frequently as high as forty and fifty pounds yearly; to slay his son. And the angel of the Lord called unto him
for it is a form amongst the seat-holders to be called out of heaven, and said, Abraham, Abraham ; and he
up to have a portion of the Scriptures read to them on sud, Here am I. And he said, Lay not thy hand upon
particular Sabbaths; and as their attendance is not
regular, the secretary of the synagogue, when it comes the lad, neither do any thing unto him: for now I
to their rotation, apprises them of it by summons, know that thou fearest God, seeing thou hast not
that their presence is expected at the synagogue, withheld thy son, thine only son from me. And
under a certain fine for non-attendance. And accord• Rutler's Analogy, part ii. c. 6.
ing to the rules and regulations of the synagogue, it # Abridged from " Ceremonies of the Jews," by Hyam Isaacs, often happens that many of them reside at distances
As the matter is very interesting. we hope Ieders will make allowance for the extreme inaccuracy of
from their places of worship; so between the intermebe anthor's style.-ED.
diate times of the year those that cannot afford to rent
a seat, occupy those seats indiscriminately; therefore, from the ninth hour to sunrise : as you will find in as the Jews congregate on their particular festivals, Gen. i. 5: " And God called the light day, and the such as passover, new-year's day, and the year of darkness he called night, and the evening and the atonement, every travelling Jew, and distant house- morning were the first day.” Time is reckoned from holder makes it a point of conscience, it possible, to evening to morning; for even at present times, one be present at their nearest synagogue on those par- half-hour before the sun sets is reckoned for a day; so, ticular times, when the Jews congregate in set places on the same ground, a half-hour, or a quarter after in different parts of the kingdom, such as London, the sun rises in the morning is reckoned for a day. Exeter, Bath, Bristol, Liverpool, Manchester, Ply- For we read that Christ was three days in his grave; mouth, Falmouth, &c. &c.
he was taken down from the cross at the ninth hour, I must not omit to mention this also, that as the and was buried before sunset, which, upon a fair greatest body of them cannot find accommodation in calculation, from the time he was taken down from the London, they have temporary places fitted up for cross, until the time he was put into the sepulclire, service; and for this temporary accommodation, they could not be long before sunset; still if only a quarter pay a trifle, which just covers the expenses for the of an hour, or at farthest one hour, yet it is reckoned fitting up. Such as have it not in their power, have for a day. You read that on the third day Christ rose their sittings free of expense. It is delightful in the
early in the morning, which is still reckoned for a extreme to see the love and lenity that is manifested day. At the present time every male child is towards each other amongst the Jews, knowing that circumcised on the eighth day : for instance, if a they cannot, or do not receive it from the world at
mother should give birth to a male child, we will say large: being despised and rejected among all nations. on a Monday ten minutes before the sun sets, then Among the poor and rich, young and old, there is such
the child is circumcised on Monday the eighth day brotherly love which no tongue can express, and following ; but if the child be brought forth ten minutes which is more particularly manifested on new-year's after sunset, then the child is circumcised on Tuesday day, under the idea that God is sitting on his judg- the eighth day following. ment-seat to try every Jew; for on that day their
Perhaps it may be said by the world at large, that doom is fixed by God; that is to say, who shall live, the Jews are more nice than wise: I have oftentimes or who shall die, the following year, and in what prayed to God, that those who call themselves Chrismanner they shall depart this life-those that shall tians, would be as strict in the Gospel of Jesus Christ die by fire, by water, by famine, by sword, or pesti- as the Jews are to the law. It must be remarked that lence, &c. &c. On this day of the new year, children the Jewish Sabbath commences on the Friday evening go to their parents, relations and friends, neighbours at sunset; now consider,-in the winter season, when and acquaintances; they make a point to meet each
the days are at the shortest period, the Sabbath comother, and greet each other with this salutation, as it is
mences at four o'clock, and remains so for about cight customary in this season to hail each other with these
weeks; as the day lengthens, they rise an hour, until it words : " May you be inscribed for a happy year ;" comes to seven o'clock, the evening service commen(which puts one in inind at a court of assizes, as cing at sunset. The evening preceding the new-year's prisoners when they are arraigned at the bar, gene- day, the Jews go to synagogue for Divine worship, and rally the clerk of the arraigns says to the prisoners, offer up a number of appropriate prayers of a liturgical “Will you be tried by your God and your country?” kind.... The prisoner generally says, “ I will be tried by my When the master of the house comes home from the God and country ;" when it is the custom for the
synagogue, they are prepared for the festival supper. clerk of the arraigns to make this reply, “ May God It is a custom which prevails among the Jews at the send you a happy deliverance.")
present day, the same as in the days of our Lord, that My dear readers, it is well known to each one who no Jew will sit down to meals with unwashed hands. has the least spark of Christianity, if we do not perse- Mark, vii. 1-3, “ Then came together unto him the vere in the precepts laid down by our Saviour, the Pharisees and certain of the Scribes, which came from longer they live without repentance, the more sin will Jerusalem; and when they saw some of his disciples multiply upon us; but according to the Jewish pre- eat bread with defiled, that is to say, with unwashed cepts and law laid down in the Talmud, Megillah, hands, they found fault; for the Pharisees and all the Mishna, &c., no Jew can have more than one year's Jews, except they wash their hands oft, eat not, holdsin to answer for, or two years at farthest ; for this ing the tradition of the elders.” Having washed their reason, that on the new-year's day God forgives every hands, they say this prayer: “ Blessed art thou, o Jew his sins and trespasses, except those who are Lord, our God, King of the universe! who hath sancdoomed to die the following year. So on that ground titied us with thy commandments, and commanded us the reader will perceive that the Jew who is appointed to wash our hands." Then they seat themselves to die, although God has doomed him to death, yet, round the table, and the master of the liouse says with let it be remembered, according to their idea, sentence an andible voice the sanctitication for the new year. .. is not finally passed upon them until the day of atone- After the sanctification is performed, the master of ment; and even if he were not to depart this life the house breaks bread (whiclı, observe, must be within two or three days before the next new-year's day bread that has not been cut): he cuts it into halves following, then at most he cannot have more than two and parts, distributes it in equal portions, not less years' sins to answer for. Every Jew prays within than ihe size of an olive, to each of the family at table, himself, “ If I am doomed to die this year, may I die and says a short prayer; but particularly on the two early, that my sins may not multiply upon me.” nights of the new year: also a piece of sweet apple is
Let it be remarked, that the evening preceding the dipt in honey, and given to each, when this blessing first day of Tisri, the Jews commence their reckoning, is pronounced, “ Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, and calculate the times and seasons the same now as King of the universe, Creator of the fruit of the tree !” they did in days of old; viz. hours and watches. The And the following ejaculation is added, “ Be it thy day they reckon from sunrise to sunset, and divide it will, O Lord our God, and the God of our ancestors! into twelve equal parts: the night from sunset to to renew this year unto us with sweetness, like unto sunrise, and divide that also into equal parts, and call honey." them the first, second, third, and fourth watches: the After supper the following prayer is used, and first watch from sunset to the third hour of the night; termed “ Grace after meals." the second or middle watch, from the third hour to Ps. cxxxvii. is first read; but on the Sabbath and the sixth ; the third watch or cock-crowing, from the holydays Ps. cxxvi. It is then the custom for the sixth to the ninth; the fourth, or morning watch, person who says grace, to begin thus : " Masters, we will say grace.” Then the company answer, “ Blessed made of a ram's horn, saying the following grace: be the name of the Lord from henceforth and for Blessed art thou, () Lord our God, King of the unievermore!" If there are ten or more present, he who verse! who hath sanctified us with his commandments, says grace begins with, “ We will bless our God, of and commanded us to hear the sound of the trumpet. whose gifts we have eaten." The others answer, Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the uni“ Blessed be our God, of whose gifts we have eaten, verse! that he hath let us live, and hath subsisted us, and through whose goodness we live.” To which and hath let us arrive to this season." the first replies, " Blessed be our God, of whose gifts This also I mention for the information of my we have eaten, and through whose goodness we live.” readers, and likewise to show the strictness and the li but three eat at one table, he who says the grace begins | adherence of the Jewesses to the customs. It must be with, “ We will bless Him of whose gifts we have eaten.” understood, that in all towns in this kingdom, London The other answers, “ Blessed be He of whose gifts we excepted, the synagogues will accommodate the resihare eaten, and through whose goodness we live.” dent Jews; but the synagogues in London will not To which the first replies, “ Blessed be He of whose contain a tenth part of the females: therefore, as the gifts we have eaten, and through whose goodness we Jewesses dare not break their fast in the morning of live. Blessed is he, and blessed his name.” If but the new-year's day, unless they hear the sound of the one or two persons are present, they begin thus, trumpet, it is customary in difierent parts of the towns * Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, King of the where Jews reside in a large body, that many of universe! thou art he who doth feed all the world with them open their houses for the accommodation of the kindness, with grace, with favour, and with mercy;
Jewesses, who giveth food to every creature, and whose mercy To those Jews who are able and thought worthy to endureth for ever; this, through his abundant good- blow the ram's horn, intimation is given, and in what Dess, hath never failed us; nor will it ever fail us, place it is to be blown. No one, unless he is an eyeeven to eternity, because of his great name; for he is witness to the bustle of their going to the different tie God who feedeth and sustaineth all, who dealeth places appointed for blowing the horn, can form an benefcently with all, and who provideth food for all idea of it; for every female above the age of twelve the creatures he hath created. Blessed art thou, () becomes duty-bound to attend to hear the sound. Lord! who feedeth all.”.
For tradition requires the body of the Jews at large In the morning of the day of the new year, the con- to make use of a trumpet made of a ram's horn; grezation assemble at six o'clock. The service gene- beseeching the Almighty to be propitious to them, in rally lasts six hours. The forms and customs I shall remembrance and through the merits of that great mention in their proper place ; but this I must not event, as mentioned in Numb. x. 10, “ Also in the day omit to mention at the commencement of this work. of the gladness, and in your solemn days, and in the I have already observed that the ram's horn is blown beginning of your months, ye shall blow with the in the synagogue morning and evening for twenty- trumpets over your burnt-offerings, and over the eight days before new-year's day, generally after the sacrifices of your peace-offerings, that they may be to service. At this period, there is no precise rules as you for a memorial before your God: I am the Lord to how many times it should be blown.
your God." Let it be observed, after the blowing of On the new-year's day there are regular rules to be the trumpet in the synagogue, the congregation say, extended to for blowing the horn, as the congregation with a loud voice, the following verse: Happy is the do not break their fast until the ceremony is over. people that know the joyful sound ! O Lord, in the If I were to state the whole ceremony on this point, light of thy countenance shall they walk !" Then it would tire my readers, and not edify them, although commences the liturgy, by praying and beseeching the there is a great stress laid upon it by the Jews. It Almighty, that he would be pleased to have compassion must be observed, that the females are not reckoned on them, through his abundant mercies; and likewise of the congregation for a token. In the synagogue, on the sanctuary, and to build it quickly, and to make the males and females are apart: the males worship the glory thereof great, and to manifest the glory of in the body of the synagogue; and the females in the his kingdom over us speedily; and to gather our disgallery, merely as spectators. In the gallery there persions from among the heathens, and to bring us is a kind of lattice-work before them, which prevents together from the sides of the earth, and to conduct then seeing the male congregation distinctly. Although us unto his city of Zion with songs, and unto Jerusalem, they are not considered any part of the congregation, the habitation of his sanctuary, with everlasting joy ; they are not forbid joining in prayers; but with this and there we will perform unto him the offerings of our injunction-their voice must not be heard in the syna- duty, the continual sacrifices according to their order, gogue. Many of the Christian world have gone so far and the additional sacrifices of this day of memorial, as to say, that they have been given to understand, we will perform and offer before him in love ; accordthat it is an idea among the Jews that a female has no ing to that he hath written to us in his holy law, by soul, which is a mistaken notion : this I shall explain the hand of his servant Moses, Numb. xxix. 1, saying, in its due place. If a female says her prayers, “And in the seventh month, on the first day of the neither good nor harm will result from it.* But month, ye shall have an holy convocation, ye shall do remember, although the Jewesses are exempted from no servile work : it is a day of blowing the trumpets the congregational prayers, it is not so with their forms unto you. And ye shall offer a burnt-offering for a and customs. It must be said, to the credit of the sweet savour unto the Lord; one young bullock, one Jexesses, that, in many respects, they adhere more and seven lambs of the first year, without blemish : strictly to the forms and customs than even the and their meat-offering shall be of four mingled with males.
oil, three-tenth deals for a bullock, and two-tenth deals I will mention a circumstance that occurs likewise for a ram, and one-tenth deal for one lamb, throughout on the morning of the new-year's day, which is called the seven lambs : and one kid of the goats for a sinthe feast of the trumpets. Numb. xxix. 1, " And offering, to make an atonement for you : besides the in the serenth month, on the first day of the month, burnt-offering of the month and his meat-offering, ye shall have an holy convocation ; ye shall do no and the daily burnt-offering and his meat-offering, servile work; it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto and their drink-offering, according to their manner, you.” And therefore immediately after the portion for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the of the law and the prophets has been read, and the Lord.”.. prayer said for the prosperity of the government under On the morning of the second day of the feast, they which they dwell, they blow the trumpet, which is go to synagogue at the same hour as on the first day; • This is the idea of the rabbies.
and after saying nearly the same prayer as the day