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REMARKS TO TEACHERS
READING is here designed to be made, not simply an exercise, but a study requiring much time and attention.
Each Lesson is preceded by a Rule, which should be committed to memory. Many of the Rules have no particular adaptation to the Lessons following them. They are common rules which need to be known in order to read any lesson correctly.
Each Lesson is followed by a list of Errors, which the scholar is lable to commit in reading the Lesson. They are numbered according to the paragraphs in which the words occur. When two or more such words belong to one paragraph, they are separated in the list of Errors by semicolons.
While the scholar is studying his Lesson, he should carefully attend to these Errors, that he may avoid them when he reads. If he does not well understand any one of them, he should be allowed to ask assistance. Many of them occur only in conversation.
Several Questions, and occasional observations, follow the Errors Those which refer to paragraphs in the Lessons, are numbered accordingly. These Questions will help to keep up a perpetual review of the Rules and other instructions.
After the Questions, there are eighteen words for spelling. The first six are printed in Italic letters, to remind the scholar that they are o be defined. It is very important that children should early learn to use a dictionary, and should acquire the habit of referring to it for definitions and pronunciation. If any children who use this book, are too young to learn the definitions, this exercise may be deferred till a later period. The larger scholars may learn to spell and define all the words in their Lessons, so that the teacher may select such as he pleases. Whenever the scholar can define words from the manner in which they are used, such definitions are to be preferred. To learn the Lessons so as to be able to spell the words at the end, define six of them, and answer all the Questions, and repeat the Remarks, when there are any, and also the Rule at the beginning of the Lesson, will require considerable study, and some aid from the teacher ; but no other lesson is better entitled to this labor and attention: children from eight to twelve years of age cannot be better employed.
The teacher must not imagine that the book points out all the errors that should be avoided, asks all the questions wbich should be asked, selects all the words that should be spelled and defined, or gives all the rules and instructions which the scholar will need. It is designed, not as a full substitute for his instructions, but as a useful assistant.
When scholars are called to recite, it will probably be best to let them read the Lesson first, omitting all the Notes, except in Lessons VIII. and X. where directions for reading them are given. The Notes that are addressed to teachers, should be omitted by the scholars.
The teacher will need to look at the Rule, the Errors, and the Questions and Remarks, to see whether the scholar avoids the Errors, and reads according to the instructions.
After the Lesson is read, the Questions are to be answered, the Rule is to be recited, six words are to be defined, and eighteen are to be spelled. Where scholars recite in classes, it will not be necessary for each one to recite the whole. Each scholar will be compelled to learn the whole, if the teacher requires each one to be ready to answer every Question, and avoids asking the Questions in the order in wrich the scholars stand.
The teacher will also need to attend very critically to the reading, to see that the scholars continue to avoid the Errors and to observe the Rules which have once been presented. If he does this faithfully, he will find that the book has not taken too much labor from his hands
In order to make scholars attend strictly to their lessons during the time of reading, it is useful to hold them all responsible for keepin the place while each one reads, so that any one whom the teache calls hy name shall instantly take the sentence which is being read and continue it in the proper tone from the place where it was left, a the call of the teacher. Thus, a sentence may be divided among dozen scholars, and the proper pauses and inflections observed, if they are prompt in taking it in a proper manner from each other ; and any one who is so inattentive as to be unable to do this, should be chargea as a defaulter.
The class of scholars for whom this book is designed, is generally larger than any other in our common schools ; and therefore :hese Lessons are generally pretty long. Where it is necessary, the teacher can assign only a part of the paragraphs, and only a part of the Questions and words for definition and spelling.
Many Notes for the benefit of such teachers as need them, are interspersed with the Lessons : and the Preface is designed to be read. Very much, however, is left to the judgment of each one, who may try this new mode of teaching children how to read.
N. B. Impediments in speech are commonly produced by holding the tongue in a wrong position while sounding certain letters, and they can generally be corrected by showing the scholar how to hold bis tongue while sounding such letters. For example ; lisping is caused by raising the end of the tongue to the inner side of the upper teeth, while sounding s or soft c. Make the scholar read or speak very slowly, and keep the end of his tongue down when sounding these letters, and he will very soon avoid lisping. So, what is called stuttering or stammering, is generally caused by raising the end of the tongue, and holding it fast against the teeth or the roof of the mouth, while sounding t or d, when they are not at the end of words. Keep the end of the tongue down, and this fault will be avoided. In all cases not pro duced by defective organs, it is easy to discover the cause of the im pediments, by trying to speak in the manner that the scholar does, and noticing how you place your tongue. Then observe how you place it when speaking properly; and explain the difference to the scholar. You are then ready to correct his habit, by giving him exercises in pronouncing difficult words, and persisting in making him kee; his tongue in the proper position, till he will remember to do it. Then let him read common lessons so slowly that he will have time to notice all the words that are difficult for him, and to prepire his organs for pronouncing them. You will cu“ him entirely, if you persevere in this way for a few weeks.
STOPS USED IN READING AND WRITING.
Comma, marked thus Period, marked thus Semicolon
Note of Interrogation
? Colon : Note of Admiration
! A comma (,) requires a pause about as long as it takes to
A semicolon (;) requires a pause about as long as it takes io count one, two.
A colon (:) requires a pause about as long as it takes to count one, two, three.
A period (.) requires a pause about as long as it takes to count one, two, three, four. The voice should stop at a period, us though the sense of the sentence was completed.
A note of interrogation (?) is used at the end of a question. It quires about as long a pause as a period.
A note of admiration or exclamation (!) is used after words that express something wonderful or affecting. It requires about as long a pause as a period.
OTHER MARKS USED IN WRITING AND PRINTING, Apostrophe
Paragraph Asterisk or Star
 ! Quotation Dash
The apostrophe () denotes the omission of a letter : as lov'd for loved. It also marks the possessive case of nouns • as, the king's palace.
The asterisk or star (*) is used to refer to something in the margin, or the bottom of a page. When several stars occur together, thus, ****, they denote that something is omitted, which the writer did not choose to insert.
The caret (1) is placed underneath the line, where some thing has been omitted through carelessness, and afterwards
been inserted : as, I have to London.
The crotchet or brackel, () generally includes some word or words, that are used to explain other words : as, The King [William] is very sick. Sometimes the printer puts some words in brackets, which the writer omitted, in order to give what he thinks is the proper meaning of a sentence.
The dash (-) is used to divide the parts of a sentence, and sometimes to give some part of the sentence greater force, or to separate an explanation from the words that are explained : as, We have now to lament the death of a great prince - prince who possessed every virtue. In such cases as this, the dash requires a pause a little longer than a comma, The dash sometimes stands for a word or a part of a word, which the writer sees fit to omit : as, Mr. T.
gave me a book ; My friend has gone to New York.
The hyphen (-) is used to se parate syllables, and the parts of compound words : as, vir-tue, night-walker.
The index (6) points to something that should be carefully attended to.
The obelisk or dagger(t), the double dagger (+) and parallel (II) refer like an asterisk to some note in the margin or bottom of the page.
The paragraph (T) denotes the beginning of a new subject, and is used chiefly in the Bible. Sometimes the paragraph is used like a star or obelisk.
The figures 1, 2, 3, &c. are sometimes used to refer to the margin or bottom of the page ; but they commonly divide a discourse into distinct parts or paragraphs. Thus, the figures divide the chapters of the Bible into verses; and they divide the Lessons in this book and in many others, into paragraphs.
The section ($) is sometimes used to divide a discourse into different parts, and sometimes it refers to notes, like a star.
A parenthesis () is used to include a sentence or a part of a sentence that is within another, and should generally be read in a quicker and lower tone of voice.
The quotation (“ ») marks the beginning and end of an extract from another author.
The accent (') shows which syllable of a word is to be accented, or sounded with the most force.
The brace} is used to link several things together. It often joins three lines in poetry that agree in rhyme.
Rule. When you are reading, you should look forward a little, as you do when walking, to see what is before you, and what things will make you pause a little, and where you must stop.
1. LITTLE Edward thought much about the Lord, and tried to do right. When he was only four years old, he did not like to go to bed without saying his prayers. It was a very pleasant sight, after he had eaten nis little porringer of milk, and had his night-gown tied nicely, to see him kneel by his mother's side, and lisp his evening hymn, and the Lord's Prayer.
2. He loved his father dearly, and when his mother sold him that God was his Father in Heaven, he also loved Him; and when he repeated his prayer, he really wished that the Lord would do good to his father, and mother, and himself, and all persons.
3. It was a pleasure to look in Edward's face ; for he had so much sweetness and innocence in him, that it shone out at his eyes ; and they were so clear, and pright, and blue, that his countenance was like the sky in a happy summer's morning.