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DEF. 24. A diagonal is the straight line joining the vertices of any

angles of a polygon which have not a common arm. DEF. 25. The perimeter of a rectilineal figure is the sum of its sides. DEF. 26. A quadrilateral is a polygon of four sides, a pentagon one

of five sides, a hexagon one of six sides, and so on. DEF. 27. A triangle is a figure contained by three straight lines. DEF. 28. Any side of a triangle may be called the base, and the

opposite angular point is then called the vertex. DEF. 29. An isosceles triangle is that which has two sides equal ;

the angle contained by those sides is called the vertical

angle, the third side the base. DEF. 30. A triangle which has one of its angles a right-angle is

called a right-angled triangle. A triangle which has one of its angles an obtuse angle is called an obtuse-angled triangle. A triangle which has all its angles acute is

called an acute-angled triangle. DEF. 31. The side of a right-angled triangle which is opposite to

the right-angle is called the hypotenuse. DEF. 32. The perpendicular to a given straight line from a given

point outside it is called the distance of the point from

the straight line. DEF. 33. Parallel straight lines are such as are in the same plane

and being produced to any length both ways do not meet. DEF. 34. When a straight line intersects two other straight lines

it makes with them eight angles, which have received special names in relation to the lines or to one another.

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DEE. 39.

Thus in the figure 1, 2, 7, 8 are called exterior angles,

and 3, 4, 5, 6 interior angles ; again 4 and 6, 3 and 5, are called alternate angles ; lastly, I and 5, 2 and

6, 3 and 7, 4 and 8, are called corresponding ang'es. DEF. 35. A parallelogram is a quadrilateral whose opposite sides

are parallel. DEF. 36. A trapezium (or trapezoid) is a quadrilateral that has

only one pair of opposite sides parallel. DEF. 37. A parallelogram, one of whose angles is a right angle, is

called a rectangle. DEF. 38. A rhombus is a parallelogram that has all its sides


square is a rectangle that has all its sides equal. DEF. 40. The orthogonal projection of one straight line on another

straight line is the portion of the latter intercepted between perpendiculars let fall on it from the extremities of the

former. DEF. 41. A circle is a plane figure contained by one line, which is

called the circumference, and is such that all straight lines drawn from a certain point within the figure to the circumference are equal to one another. This point is

called the centre of the circle. DEF. 42. A radius of a circle is a straight line drawn from the

centre to the circumference. DEF. 43. A diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through

the centre and terminated both ways by the circumference. DEF. 44. If any and every point on a line, part of a line, or group

of lines (straight or curved), satisfies an assigned condition, and no other point does so, then that line, part of a line, or group of lines, is called the locus of the point satisfying that condition.




AXIOM 1. Magnitudes that can be made to coincide are equal.

AXIOM 2. Through two points there can be made to pass one, and only one, straight line ; and this may be indefinitely prolonged either way.


d. Any straight line may be made to fall on any other straight line with any given point on the one on any given point on the


B. Two straight lines which meet in one point cannot meet again, unless they coincide.

AXIOM 3. Through the same point there cannot be more than one straight line parallel to a given straight line.


Let it be granted that

1. A straight line may be drawn from any one point to any other

point. 2. A terminated straight line may be produced to any length in a

straight line. 3. A circle may be drawn with any centre, with a radius equal to

any finite straight line.

BOOK 11.




DEF I. The altitude of a parallelogram with reference to a given

side as base is the perpendicular distance between the base

and the opposite side. DEF 2. The altitude of a triangle with reference to a given side as

base is the perpendicular distance between the base and the opposite vertex.

It follows from the General Axioms (d) and (e), as an extension of the Geometrical Axiom 1, that magnitudes which are either the sums or the differences of identically equal magnitudes are equal, although they may not be identically equal.

THEOR. I. Parallelograms on the same base and between the same parallels are equal.

Let ABCD, EBCF be two parallelograms on the same base BC, and between the same parallels AF, BC:

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