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theatre, formerly used for the combats of wild beasts and gladiators. It is built of massive blocks of granite, some of which are eighteen feet long. On all sides are rising seats. to the height of seventy feet, said to be capable of holding 23,000 persons. It is sufficiently perfect to admit of persons walking round, at its highest elevation. Its greatest length is four hundred and forty feet.”
Before leaving Marseilles, he writes, “I have received your very acceptable letter. I was beginning to be very impatient, for I find Marseilles very cold, and wish to get away into Italy. There is a cold wind off the high land here, that is dry and cutting, that is in the shade. In the sun it is much tempered by his rays. The thermometer, in the shade, at eight, A. M., has ranged 34° to 41°; whilst at Hyeres, where it is more sheltered, it was warm enough for me to have a very pleasant bathe in the sea. the coast of Portugal, and at Gibraltar, it stood at about 54° in the forenoon; nearly twenty degrees higher than it is here.
“Second Month 5th. Came to Congenies last night, and was most kindly received by Louis Majolier and family. They speedily got my luggage from the inn, and made me take up my quarters under their hospitable roof.
8th. I am now leading quite a country life, visiting the vineyards of my friends, reading whilst basking in the sun, and reclining on the turf. Visited three schools in the village.
9th. Went to Nismes to see Christine Majolier, daughter of Louis, who has resided seventeen years in England, but came home on account of her health. She is governess to the daughter of a physician, at Nismes.
10th. First day. Called upon several members of our Religious Society. At the forenoon meeting, there were present fifteen men, twenty women, and eight infants.
As they have no servants, the presence of infants, though inconvenient, seems a necessary evil. The deportment of Friends was serious and becoming, and our friend L. M. appeared in testimony; at some length; and I thought, with good effect. In the afternoon, there were only twelve persons present. The meeting held about an hour.
6 It is mournful to observe the indifference of the male population of France, to the duty of attending public worship. Four women to one man, even in the Protestant congregations. It seems to have infected all classes, Protestants as well as Catholics.
“I went to Codagnan, to visit a few Friends there; two of them are decided Friends, and one of thein is a minister.
“ Second Month 11th. Took tea this evening with the Wesleyan Missionary stationed here, a young man of the name of Ocart. They have a congregation of about 100 persons. He preaches also at several of the adjacent villages. They have access, once in three weeks, to the large new Protestant Chapel, or Temple, as it is called. It appears there are sixteen of their Missionaries in France, three of whom preach to the English,-the rest to the French. They have also two in Spain. In answer to my inquiries, he informed me that the Protestant minister gives a New Testament to every child who communicates, for the first time, and a Bible to every couple, when they are married. He complains of the worldly spirit of the people, who urge, as an excuse for the desecration of the Sabbath, that they must work in the fore part at least of that day, in order to provide for their families. He said they were like the Gentiles of old, whose thoughts were chiefly centred on · What shall we eat, and what shall we drink, and wherewithal shall we be clothed ?!”
To his sister, he writes, “I find that thy opinion of this climate is much nearer the truth than mine. Like some
other Englishmen, who think there is nothing good out of their own country, my anticipations were much too low; having, however, this pleasing consequence, that I am most agreeably disappointed. I expected to find it warmer, but still to be winter, and to have what I supposed to be the invariable concomitant of winter, damp days, cloudy weather, and abundance of rain. Judge, then, of my surprise, to find the roads covered with dust, the wells dry, the brooks without water, the land suffering from drought, a cloudless sky, and the thermometer from 96° to 102°, in the middle of the day. I think I have only seen it rain three times since we crossed the Bay of Biscay; and my umbrella has never been unfurled. The thermometer varies from day to day, ranging from 340 to 58°, at three A.M., in the shade, and from 770 to 102° in the sun at noon.
“The air is sometimes cold, especially out of the sun; but it is always dry. Indeed, its dryness renders it too keen, when the thermometer is very low. Couldest thou be here when the grapes are ripe, the sight of them would afford thee a rich treat. Almost every field is planted with vines, and the crop is represented as most prodigious ; especially beautiful in the morning, when covered with dew drops, and sparkling in the sunbeams. They bring them from the fields and vineyards to the winepress, in carts and waggons, so heavily laden that the road is strewed with what are shaken off. Besides the crop of grapes, they generally get one of wheat in the season, from the under growth; and another crop of olives from the same field; three crops in all. The vines are cultivated with the spade and dug three or four times in the year. Of course this requires a number of labourers, and, accordingly, we find the country thickly studded with villages. From a little eminence near Congenies, it is said, that in a clear day, we can count no less than thirty-four. Yet one cannot but
yet reached the latitude of Newcastle. We had the men, twelve in number, mustered in the cabin after dinner, when the captain, after singing a psalm, read a sermon and prayer. The former from “Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.' At the conclusion, he gave them some religious books to read. This has been the first time, since we left Shields, that the weather has been fine enough to admit of any thing like public worship.
18th. Gale of wind against us-sails all close reefed, except one-the tarpauling over the cabin sky-light, which makes it very gloomy. Have kept my bed all day.
19th. Fair wind but light. I have been learning to take the latitude. It was within a mile of being the same as two days ago. My appetite and spirits improved.
“ Twelfth Month 22nd. Wind contrary—at noon increased to a heavy gale. This is the third time the ship has been "hove to,' the rudder lashed to the side, permitting the vessel to be driven as at the mercy of the elements.
23rd. A violent gale from the north. This was a trying day to the captain and crew, who were kept hard at work all day, with scarcely time to take any victuals; with only two sails spread, and these made as snug as possible, we went at the rate of nine or ten knots an hour. The sea continually washing over the quarterdeck, and frequently down into the cabin ; one sea heavier than the rest, carried away a part of the bulwarks, breaking the strong oaken supports or stanchions. The captain, who is an old sailor, says, that with the exception of once, in a hurricane, in coming from the West Indies, he considers this the heaviest gale he has ever experienced. I was favoured to feel a comforting confidence in Divine goodness and protection, for which I desire to be thankful.
29th. The captain informs me, we are now on the verge of the north-east trade winds, which blow
down the coast, and continue along the West Coast of Africa. At three o'clock, we were about opposite Oporto. Being now pretty well, and the weather fine, it is pleasant sailing along at the rate of 120 miles per day, being able to read, write, or work, as best suits my inclination.
30th. First day. This has been spent more like a Sabbath than any previous. The day, has been unusually well adapted to the occasion. The captain read a sermon to the men as before, and then a prayer and thanksgiving after a storm. I have been along to the men this evening, and have read the 25th chapter of Matthew to them. They received me kindly. One of them exhibited considerable acquaintance with the scriptures. They have manifested much apathy with regard to religious subjects. Several of them refused to come to the reading this afternoon, alleging that they must employ their time in washing or mending their clothes : but it is quite evident that the true reason is an aversion to the consideration of religious subjects.
“We have had a dry deck to-day for the first time since leaving Shields.
“Twelfth Month 31st. Saw Lisbon rock, distant about twenty miles. The sun dipped below the horizon about twelve minutes before five o'clock, making the day nine hours and thirty-six minutes long in the last day of the year. There is half-an-hour of good twilight after sun-set.
“1839. First Month 1st. We have nearly reached our greatest southern latitude, and want a change of wind.
4th. A fair wind this morning, which soon brought us within sight of land. I admired the boldness of the rugged hills on both sides of the Straits. On the African side we had the Atlas mountains patched with snow. Nearer we had a chain of hills, with the town of Tangiers. On the European side is Cape Trafalgar, with the bay