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Whilst at Rome, he felt inclined to see the objects which usually interest travellers in that splendid city, and to visit some of the monuments of her ancient greatness, as well as those of Papal superstition, by which she is still distinguished. He was warned before leaving home to be careful to give no countenance, under whatever circumstances he might happen to be placed, to the idolatrous or superstitious usages which are known to exist in countries where the Roman Catholic religion prevails. To take off his hat in places which were superstitiously regarded as holy, he knew would be wrong, and, therefore, he denied himself the gratification which he might otherwise have enjoyed, believing that his curiosity should not be gratified, at the expense of his peace of conscience. On one occasion, however, being with some oth young men, surveying the exterior of the building, called St. Peter's Cathedral, and declining to enter the interior with them, one of his companions took off his hat, and he was persuaded to compromise his testimony. But, when in the cool of the day, in his evening retirement, he was concerned to examine the actions of the day, and to bring them to the light, that it might be seen whether they were wrought in God, he saw that he had been unfaithful, though in what to many is a small matter, and he was deeply humbled under a sense of his transgression.
From Rome he proceeded to Naples, visited the remains of Herculaneum, and some other objects of interest, in this crowded and populous city; and then proceeded to Malta. We will give another extract from his journal :
“Fourth Month 7th. Arrived at Malta late last night. Getting to an English colony, and once more handling shillings and sixpences, seems alınost like home again. After breakfast, walked out to see the fortifications. The afternoon was spent in retirement, in my own room; and
I trust, though deeply sensible of my unworthiness, I have been favoured to derive some edification.
"Fourth Month 9th. Agreed with the captain of the Mazeppa, for a passage to London.
11th. Veletta, the capital of Malta, stands upon a hill; many of the streets are so precipitous, that they are composed of steps, like stairs, which render many of them almost impassable for carriages. The town was clean and neat, which was particularly pleasing, after witnessing the filthiness of some of those in Italy.
"I am now reminded of a remark I have heard in England, that our countrymen abroad, when they meet, are always talking about the quality of their dinners, and the prices the hotels. I do not think I have heard more of this than might be expected, but have myself felt how much the constant change from house to house, and the necessary precautions against imposture, tends to cherish a disposition to dwell on these subjects. Add to this, the change of currency as you pass from one state to anotherthe almost unavoidable consequence is considerable thought upon these engrossing and comparatively low topics ; I have at times felt it to an unpleasant degree without seeing how to avoid it. Whilst due attention to econ
onomy is proper and laudable,—to be constantly thinking about pauls, scudiis, and carolinis, is inconsistent with a mind
upon those objects which are alone worthy of our primary affections.
“I called upon the agent of the Bible Society at Malta. He is a German, and appeared to be a humble-minded serious man ; but more like a man of study than one who has much intercourse with the world. He received me very kindly as a friend of the Society, but they do not appear to have much more to do here than transmitting the books to other stations. He says, in the modern Greek
regret, that much of this industry, and this superabundant harvest, goes to make what? poison! brandy! It is first converted into wine, then sold, and re-converted into brandy, one of the deadly agents which sin has brought into the world.
“ There are several circumstances here, which forcibly remind me of Scripture, history, as the cultivation of the country; the fig-tree, the olive, and the vine; the number of mules, the value of water, and the willows in rows by the water courses.
“But I think what pleases me most, is the shepherds ; instead of driving their flocks, as with us, we see them walking before and leading them, as our Saviour says,
When the good shepherd putteth forth his sheep, he goeth before them and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice; and a stranger will they not follow, for they know not the voice of strangers.'
“The passage of a flock of sheep along the road is announced, not by the barking of dogs, but by the tinkling of bells, which are suspended from their necks. The goats and cows have bells also ; these are a common kind, but the horses and mules are honoured with a dozen or twenty good little bells, made of bell metal, which are continually jingling as they go along.
“ Second Month 17th. Bid farewell to my kind friends at Congenies this evening, and came on to Sommieres, in order to take the diligence to Montpelier, at four o'clock to-morrow morning. Nothing could well exceed the kindness that Louis Majolier and family have shown to me, an entire stranger, during my sojourn among them. There are some valuable friends at Congenies.”
After visiting Montpelier, he proceeded to Cetti, a small seaport, where he took the steamer for Marseilles, then to Nice, Genoa, and Leghorn, to Florence, from
whence, in a letter to his parents, dated Third Month, 1839, he describes the fatigue and oppressiveness to invalids, of the sort of conveyances used in these countries: then adds, “I do not think I derive much, if any, benefit; and, therefore, whilst inclination would lead me by way of Venice, Milan, Geneva, Mount Gothard, and Paris, my judgment seems to say that the primary object of my journey requires that I should re-pass the Straits of Gibraltar.
“ I came by the mail from Nice to Genoa, and the carriage appeared to be lighter than our coaches; with only six passengers and four horses, we were twenty-nine hours in coming 140 miles. They are however, taking considerable pains to improve the road; making tunnels and embankments along the sea-shore, which, when finished, will afford an excellent level. The horses are certainly rather inferior, and the stages much too long. The other day, by a veturina, a kind of post-chaise, we travelled with the same pair of horses, for about six hours—from half-past six in the morning until after twelve at noon.
When this is the case the speed cannot be rapid.
“ The main roads in France are maintained by the government, and are excellent; the bye-roads are bad, but are very numerous, almost one to every property. I averaged, by diligence, four and a-third mile per hour, at rather less than one and a half-penny per mile. A franc goes rather farther than one shilling with us, in current expenditure.
“The aspect of the south of France is very hilly and rocky. Rain seldom falls, but they have heavy dews in summer ; a powerful sun, but cold dry air in wintersometimes freezing. The labourers are an athletic, cheerful race of men. They can earn 78. 6d. per week, for seven and a-half hours' per day labour; after this is over-time. Women and boys earn sixpence per day. Their food is a fair proportion of meat, bread, vegetables, wine, oil, and
white beans; of which last, three-pence worth will dine & family. Their clothes are rather coarse, but whole and clean. They appeared to be an industrious people. The government takes great pains for their education ; but the people are careless.
“Religion appears low, as indicated by the thin attendance at the places of Worship, especially of men,-the neglect of the Sabbath, and paucity of books. Hospitals
“ Houses are good, many of them four stories high, with Venetian blinds, earthenware floors, lofty rooms, windows, many of them down to the floor, but not air tight. It is next to impossible to warm the rooms. The towns are walleds, ometimes treble.
“I was disappointed in Montpelier ; but there is a splendid elevated square, laid out with walks and shrubberies, handsomely ornamented with sculpture, with a bronze colossal statue of Louis XIV. The aqueduct is an imposing piece of masonry, with two tiers of arches, upwards of 200 in number. The reservoir is beautiful.
Aix, in Provence, is celebrated for a powerful thermal spring of mineral water. I took a bath : the thermometer 92.
“On arrival at Nice, I soon found that I had entered another kingdom. I was taken with my trunk to the policeoffice, where they demanded if I had any books. Of these they took possession, not even allowing me the dictionary to assist me in the language. It was not until the English Consul had been in person at the office, and made out a list of them, to be sent round to the inspectors appointed by the clergy, that I could get them again. I felt it very unpleasant, especially as I had three Italian Testaments; but these escaped their notice. was taken to the office without being allowed to wash, or take any refreshment, though just coming off a journey, in which the diligence only stopped