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regret, that much of this industry, and this superabundant harvest, goes to make what? poison ! brandy! It is first converted into wine, then sold, and re-converted into brandy, one of the deadly agents which sin has brought into the world.
“ There are several circumstances here, which forcibly remind me of Scripture, history, as the cultivation of the country; the fig-tree, the olive, and the vine; the number of mules, the value of water, and the willows in rows by the water courses.
“But I think what pleases me most, is the shepherds ; instead of driving their flocks, as with us, we see them walking before and leading them, as our Saviour says,
When the good shepherd putteth forth his sheep, he goeth before them and the sheep follow him, for they know his voice; and a stranger will they not follow, for they know not the voice of strangers.'
“The passage of a flock of sheep along the road is announced, not by the barking of dogs, but by the tinkling of bells, which are suspended from their necks. The goats and cows have bells also ; these are a common kind, but the horses and mules are honoured with a dozen or twenty good little bells, made of bell metal, which are continually jingling as they go along.
“ Second Month 17th. Bid farewell to my kind friends at Congenies this evening, and came on to Sommieres, in order to take the diligence to Montpelier, at four o'clock to-morrow morning. Nothing could well exceed the kindness that Louis Majolier and family have shown to me, an entire stranger, during my sojourn among them. There are some valuable friends at Congenies.”
After visiting Montpelier, he proceeded to Cetti, a small seaport, where he took the steamer for Marseilles, then to Nice, Genoa, and Leghorn, to Florence, from
whence, in a letter to his parents, dated Third Month, 1839, he describes the fatigue and oppressiveness to invalids, of the sort of conveyances used in these countries : then adds, “I do not think I derive much, if any, benefit; and, therefore, whilst inclination would lead me by way of Venice, Milan, Geneva, Mount Gothard, and Paris, my judgment seems to say that the primary object of my journey requires that I should re-pass the Straits of Gibraltar.
“I came by the mail from Nice to Genoa, and the carriage appeared to be lighter than our coaches ; with only six passengers and four horses, we were twenty-nine hours in coming 140 miles. They are however, taking considerable pains to improve the road; making tunnels and embankments along the sea-shore, which, when finished, will afford an excellent level. The horses are certainly rather inferior, and the stages much too long. The other day, by a veturina, a kind of post-chaise, we travelled with the same pair of horses, for about six hours—from half-past six in the morning until after twelve at noon.
When this is the case the speed cannot be rapid.
" The main roads in France are maintained by the government, and are excellent; the bye-roads are bad, but are very numerous, almost one to every property. I averaged, by diligence, four and a-third mile per hour, at rather less than one and a half-penny per mile. A franc goes
rather farther than one shilling with us, in current expenditure.
“The aspect of the south of France is very hilly and rocky. Rain seldom falls, but they have heavy dews in summer ; a powerful sun, but cold dry air in wintersometimes freezing. The labourers are an athletic, cheerful race of men. They can earn 78. 6d. per week, for seven and a half hours' per day labour; after this is over-time. Women and boys earn sixpence per day. Their food is a fair proportion of meat, bread, vegetables, wine, oil, and
white beans; of which last, three-pence worth will dine a family. Their clothes are rather coarse, but whole and clean. They appeared to be an industrious people. The government takes great pains for their education; but the people are careless.
“Religion appears low, as indicated by the thin attendance at the places of Worship, especially of men,--the neglect of the Sabbath, and paucity of books. Hospitals
“ Houses are good, many of them four stories high, with Venetian blinds, earthenware floors, lofty rooms, windows, many of them down to the floor, but not air tight. It is next to impossible to warm the rooms. The towns are walleds, ometimes treble.
“I was disappointed in Montpelier ; but there is a splendid elevated square, laid out with walks and shrubberies, handsomely ornamented with sculpture, with a bronze colossal statue of Louis XIV. The aqueduct is an imposing piece of masonry, with two tiers of arches, upwards of 200 in number. The reservoir is beautiful.
Aix, in Provence, is celebrated for a powerful thermal spring of mineral water. I took a bath : the thermometer 92.
“On arrival at Nice, I soon found that I had entered another kingdom. I was taken with my trunk to the policeoffice, where they demanded if I had any books. Of these they took possession, not even allowing me the dictionary to assist me in the language. It was not until the English Consul had been in person at the office, and made out a list of them, to be sent round to the inspectors appointed by the clergy, that I could get them again. I felt it very unpleasant, especially as I had three Italian Testaments; but these escaped their notice. I was taken to the office without being allowed to wash, or take any refreshment, though just coming off a journey, in which the diligence only stopped
twice for meals, in the thirty-five hours: but fortunately, I had stopped over night half way, or it might have been worse. I had to go five times to the police-office, and twice to the English Consul's.
“Nice is a spreading town, very airy, with abundance of accommodation, at moderate rates. There are a great many English and fashionable people. The city is hemmed in by hills, except toward the sea, which is an unfailing source of interest. Nice appears to be a desirable place for residence, excepting for the hills, which limit the walks of debilitated persons.
“Many persons speak a little English in Italy, more than in the south of France, and more still speak French. I have not much difficulty in obtaining any thing I want, but cannot easily maintain a conversation, especially with strangers; and I find a great difference in persons, some may
be understood much easier than others.
“ The further south, the more rain we have had. Very few fine days since leaving Congenies. I have frequently been kept in the house by it.
“When at St. Luc, on my way from Aix, finding I was likely to have a twenty hours' ride---part of it in the night, I resolved to walk a few miles onward, arranging to have my luggage forwarded, so as to allow of my resting over First day. I walked sixteen miles, taking it leisurely. The day being fine, and the country interesting, I much enjoyed it. It is quite common to see laden carts upon
the roads on First days. They work in the forenoon, windmills going, &c., much as on other days."
Amongst the privations of continential travellers, to be precluded the exercise of public worship, in a manner consonant with their own religious views, cannot be the least. In a letter from Genoa, to his cousin, the subject of this Memoir thus describes his feelings :
“Though cut off from uniting with my friends in the performance of this religious duty (public worship) myself, for the present, I trust my Sabbaths are not altogether unprofitably spent. Happily for us, we live in a day when we know that it is not absolutely necessary for any man to say to another, “Know the Lord ;' but when we have a Teacher, who cannot be removed into a corner, and can hear a voice behind us, saying, “This is the way,
walk ye in it. Oh!
my dear cousin! may we be careful to follow our Guide ; and, not trusting in our own strength, seek for ability to walk in the narrow way—that way which leads to sanctification and purity of heart. When all the pleasures of this world, beautiful as it is, sink into nothing, in comparison of the enjoyments we may expect in those heavenly mansions, prepared for the followers of the Lamb. May we, then, experience by the operation of his Holy Spirit, a preparation for an entrance therein, when it shall please him to summon us from this transitory state of existence to that which shall never have an end.
“I hope thou wilt excuse me for treating a little on things almost too high for me; but in the absence of oral intercourse, it does me good to put my thoughts down upon paper; and I believe we are both desirous of travelling in the same road ; it is, perhaps, not too great presumption for one fellow-pilgrim to salute another, and wish each other God speed."
Journal. “Third Month 2nd. Arrived at Genoa, after a twenty-nine hours' ride, per the mail, and finding the inn locked up,
had to rouse the waiters. I did not suffer nearly so much from fatigue as by diligence; the speed being quicker, and only four inside, it is not so depressing to the spirits. We had all to turn out, a few miles from Nice, and our luggage was more minutely inspected than mine had ever been before.