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his constitution was fitted to sustain. On his return to England he proceeded to Leeds, to preside, in the course of his official duty, at the committees preparatory to the conference then about to assemble; but it became apparent that'he was struggling against pain and exhaustion; and when he was relieved by the election of his successor, it was found necessary to take medical advice, and for the present to avoid farther exertion.

From this period his constitution never fully recovered its tone: for two additional years, however, he retained the laborious office of secretary to the missions; but retired as a supernumerary at the conference of 1832, when it was apparent that his days could only be prolonged by a total cessation from the cares and business of public life.

For this event his mind had been prepared by the painful and alarming character of his indisposition, which had been increasing for several months, and by the consequent inability to take the whole of his duties as secretary; yet it cannot be imagined that he was removed from a work of so much interest and responsibility, to a station of comparatively useless retirement, without deep emotions of heart.— But he laid himself in the dust before God, and acknowledged that, after he had done all, he was an unprofitable servant.

In the autumn of 1832 he removed from London to Ramsgate ; and when settled there, resuming his privilege as a private member of society, he united himself to a class, and received his quarterly tickets with thankfulness. In the holy communion of this little Christian assembly, of which for a short time before his decease he became the leader, he was accustomed to express himself in terms so humble and self-abasing as to excite the admiration and love of those who listened to him ; and afforded a practical instance of the combination of exalted attainments in spiritual knowledge with true lowliness of heart.

Soon after his removal to Ramsgate the more distressing symptoms of his complaint in some measure subsided; his spirits resumed a cheerful tone, and a partial recovery of his strength encouraged the indulgence of hope that he might yet be spared many years to his family and to the Church. He preached once in Ramsgate without experiencing any extraordinary weariness or other inconvenience; he afterward visited Margate, and preached at the anniversary of the Missionary Society. The exertion, however, proved to be too great for his strength; he relapsed into a state of severe pain and great debility, from which he never afterward recovered.

Meantime his spirit was evidently ripening for the holy society of heaven; he possessed his soul in patience, and his mind was graciously supported. Toward the close of his last illness his symptoms became very distressing, and his sufferings were extreme; but his confidence in God was unshaken; he reposed on the satisfaction of Christ, and, rejoicing in the hope of everlasting life through Him, he could even 'glory in tribulation also.' His sufferings terminated December 12th, 1833, when he died in great peace, and in the full triumph of faith., He was in the sixtieth year of his age.

Dr. Townley was twice married. His first union with Miss Mary Marsden, of London, had a happy continuance of nearly thirty years, and was eminently conducive to his domestic happiness, and to bis usefulness in the Church of God. He had a mind very susceptible of social enjoyment; and therefore deeply felt the loss of his deservedly much beloved wife. At the time of her decease they had seven surviving children ; -their eldest son, a youth of much piety and of promising talent, having died before her, to the great grief of his parents, at the age of twenty-two.

He entered a second time into the marriage state with Miss Dinah Ball, of London; a lady well able to appreciate his character. It was her mournful gratification to minister to his comfort in his declining health, and to smooth his passage to the grave. She and his children are now left for a season to sorrow over a painful bereavement, and a temporary separation from one who must always live in their dearest affections. But they ' sorrow not as those without hope they rejoice in the glorious state of their departed relative: in his life and death they have an example bright and attractive, urging on them an additional incentive and encouragement to be 'followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises.'

Dr. Townley possessed naturally an excellent disposition, which, sanctified and exalted by the power of Divine grace, rendered him truly amiable. In all the domestic and social relations of life he was an object of affection to a degree not ordinarily attained; while the judgment which tempered the disinterested tenderness of his character procured for him reverence, as well as love, from those who composed the circle of his own family. His daughter Ann says, 'The beauty of my dear father's home character could never be fully appreciated by those who had not come under its influence. In all the common occurrences of life he displayed a refinement of feeling, and a delicacy of consideration for the feelings of others, that is rarely met with. His friends knew him to be kind, generous, and sympathizing; but they little knew how tenderly affectionate, how free from every selfish thought, his family found him. During his last indisposition there was a rapidly maturing spirit strikingly evidenced in his manner of conducting family worship. His prayers, at all times characterized by child-like simplicity, became, during his long and painful illness, so full of faith and fervor, so evidently recognizing the gracious intentions of his heavenly Father in taking the seat of the refiner, that many times have we risen from our knees with the overwhelming conviction that the furnace had not been heated in vain, that the silver was purged from the dross, and the process would prove a final one. In the midst of the most intense agony there was a calm and holy reposing on the bosom of his Savior that told to all that patience had had her perfect work. If pain and spasm wrung from him an involuntary indication of suffering, it was invariably followed by an acknowledgment of the hand that moved the rod. The emphasis with which at such moments he would say, "My Father!" "My Sanctifier!" I shall never forget.-rAt other times he would exclaim, "0 take me home, take me home!" and then, with watchful jealousy lest he should encroach upon the supremacy of his Redeemer's will, he would add, "But not my wijl, not my will, but thine, be done; when thy work is accomplished; at thine own appointed time;" with other expressions of the like nature.*

In his intercourse with general society he affected not the high bearing which sometimes clings to men of age and reputation: the young

Vol. VI October, 1835. 35

as well as the mature sought the pleasure of his cheerful and instructive conversation; the afflicted were often soothed by his attentions and sympathy; and to all his countenance was the index of a kind and peaceful heart, the seat of the truest philanthropy, because under the influence of Divine love.

His character as a Christian was remarkably uniform and consistent. He had high views of what the follower of Christ should be; his aim was to imitate and follow his.heavenly Master. In the regulation of his own daily conversation and conduct he was eminently successful. His kindness of heart did not render him insensible to sin in others; but in reproving a fault, he united delicacy with faithfulness in such a manner as seldom to fail in producing the desired effect, and in making an indelible impression.

His literary acquirements gave him great advantage as a minister of the word of God; often furnishing him with happy illustrations of Divine truth new to his hearers, and serving, with a faithful application, to fasten it permanently in their memories and hearts. The language of his public ministrations, though strictly extemporaneous, was always chaste and good; and if his sermons did not bear the traces of ingenuity which distinguish the pulpit eloquence of some eminent men, it is sufficient to remark that they had the excellence of a clear exposition of Scripture doctrine, and a judicious selection from those stores of knowledge which proved him to be a scribe well instructed in the Gospel of the kingdom, bringing from his treasures things new and old. The only sermon he ever prepared for the press is to be found in a volume of sermons by various Wesleyan ministers, published at the conference office in 1833: it treats on his favorite subject, is written in an elegant style, and is fully worthy of the place it occupies among the admirable sermons of which the volume is composed.

But in no circumstances did his character shine with greater lustre than in affliction. For the last few years of his life he was a subject of many severe trials, personal and domestic. Every member of his family recollects the tenderness of his sympathy, and the unwearied kindness of his attentions, when sickness was allowed to visit them. Many times in the day, on some occasions, with his dearest earthly friend, would he approach the throne of grace; on the reception of painful tidings he would seek his aid in God, and having committed the matter to his heavenly Father, he would unhesitatingly say, ' Thy will be done.' His resignation, and his unwavering confidence in God, had much influence even on his literary character: some of his most valued writings were composed while affectionately watching, through the silent night, the sick bed of his late afflicted wife. The same cheerful confidence predominated during his own afflictions: for many years he suffered from a periodical head-ache, which usually made it necessary for him to stand nearly four-and-twenty hours in a leaning position against the wall, and occurred about every fortnight; but, under this suffering, and during his last painful and protracted illness, he never murmured, but was entirely resigned to the Divine will. The heat of the furnace did not consume, but only refine and brighten, his excellencies. In him was seen a practical illustration of the reasonableness of ' glorying in tribulation also.' And in contemplating such instances of fie sufficiency of Divine grace in the extreme trials of human nature, we learn the moral effect of that doctrine of Christianity he so cordially embraced, 'That the sufferings of the present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.' To conclude: ascribing all the honor to the abounding mercy and grace of God, we exhibit the Christian character of the subject of this memoir as an example worthy to be emulated, and coincide with the sentiment expressed by the writer of a review of one of the doctor's valuable works, that 'such men as Dr. Townley are ornaments to human nature.'

PROFESSOR STUART'S ESSAY.

The following Essay was written last September, in reference to a premium offered by the executive committee of the Revival Tract Society, for 'a tract on the question, What is the duty of the Churches in regard to the use of fermented (alcoholic) wine in celebrating the Lord's Supper?' The writer received, soon after the question was proposed to the public, a special request from some one connected with the proposal,- as he has a right to presume, (although the letter was anonymous^jttyit he would write upon this question. Accordingly he wrote, and his piece was handed in to the depository named in the proposals, early last October. Before it was sent, it was read to some friends in Albany, deeply engaged in promoting temperance measures, in order to see whether the sentiments were such as they embraced and were willing to defend. Those friends were pleased to signify their approbation of the sentiments contained in the piece. Immediately after this it was sent to the depository, and after lying there for nearly seven months, and nothing being said to the public respecting any determination of the committee who were to judge of the merits of the pieces sent in, it was, at the request of the friends in Albany and in accordance with the express desire of the writer, withdrawn from the depository, in order to be published.

This statement is not designed in any measure to inculpate the committee of adjudication, the depository, or the executive committee of the Tract Society ; for the writer is wholly ignorant of the circumstances which led to such an unusual delay, excepting that he has heard that the pieces sent in were mislaid, and for a time not to be found. Not feeling any anxiety to secure the premium, even if this might have been done, (of which of course he cannot feel any assurance,) and sincerely wishing to aid his friends in Albany in the great and good cause in which they are engaged, he has withdrawn the piece from the depository for the sake of publication in the Albany periodicals, at the present time.

The writer is almost afraid to make the statement as above, lest it . should l>e thought to be his intention to cast some blame on those concerned with the proposal or adjudication of the question, which was originally the occasion of his writing. He entirely disclaims any such motive. He fully believes that no one concerned in the business had the remotest intentions of any improper dealing with the pieces sent in. He makes the present statement only to account for the form, manner, and occasion of the piece. Moses Stuart.

Andover, Theol. Sem., May 4, 1835.

What is the duty of the Churches, in regard to the use of fermented

{alcoholic) wine, in celebrating the Lord's Supper?

A satisfactory answer to this question is necessarily connected with the present state of the temperance question in general. What positions in respect to this may be regarded as well established, and what still remain in a greater or less degree doubtful, are inquiries that of course precede the discussion of the subject immediately before us.

A brief answer to these inquiries is all that can be expected on this occasion; and in reality such an answer is all that is desirable. So widely diffused at present are the excellent publications in different parts of our country, on the subject of temperance, that there is no reader in any of the walks of life, who may not have access to a knowledge of its leading principles, and few indeed to whom they are not in some degree known.

The points that are universally admitted by reasonable and considerate men, of whatever denomination or party, may be summarily stated as follows :—

1. All intoxication is forbidden by the Scriptures, and by the laws of our physical nature. Those who do not admit tllfe authority of the Bible will concede that intoxication is injurious to*' health, usefulness, estate, morals, and reputation. It follows,

2. That all such use of intoxicating liquors of any kind, as will produce drunkenness, or injure health or usefulness, is unlawful.

Argument on these subjects is no longer necessary for the mass of our community, and surely it is not needed for Christians. Among these, moreover, and among all sober and judicious men in our community, with few exceptions, the following positions may be regarded as fully and finally established ; viz.,

That the habitual and common use of ardent spirits, or distilled intoxicating liquors in any form, or the manufacturing and vending of them for common use as a drink, is An Immorality.

The United States Temperance Convention, held at Philadelphia, and composed of more than four hundred delegates of highly respectable character and great influence, the state temperance convention held at Worcester in Massachusetts, composed of more than five hundred delegates from all parts of that commonwealth, a similar convention held at Utica in the state of New-York, another at Middletown in Connecticut, also at Columbus in Ohio, and at Jackson in Mississippi —state conventions, moreover, in Vermont, Maine, and New-Jersey; a convention of cities in New-York; several legislative and judicial temperance societies, and particular societies in counties, towns, districts, and parishes, with several thousands of Christian Churches, have all united in the expression of the opinion, that the habitual use of ardent spirits, or the manufacturing and vending of them as a common drink, is an immorality. There are still, I acknowledge, some professed Christians who have doubts respecting this; and of course they are not satisfied that the practices in question are an offence against the laws of Christ, which ought to subject a member of a Church to its discipline. The number of these however, is evidently diminishing; and we may believe and trust that the time is not far distant, when there will be an opinion among all professed Christians in our country,

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