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Troubled by no scruples of conscience, he myself by his side, my companions after me, and avails himself of all means to accomplish his ob- a dragoman took his position in front. I now give jects. When the powerful body of the Mamelukes literally the conversation. He said to me, placed themselves in the way of his progress, he “By what route have you come to Egypt?" hesitated not, but by one fatal blow he extinguished I replied “ By the way of Damietta from Syria." the race. History records no more cold blooded “Have you been long in this country?" butchery; Machiavel never conceived a perfidy Between two and three weeks. I proceeded more profound than that which characterised this from Damietta to Cairo through a beautiful and proceeding. Such was the man I now proposed to interesting country. I have been much gratified see and converse with face to face.

in seeing a land so attractive from its fertility, its When I arrived at Cairo, I informed Mr. Glyd- history and its antiquities." don, our Consul, of my wishes on this subject, and • What has been your object ?" he forthwith wrote to Mr. Todd, the Vice-Consul “We have heard much in America of the proat Alexandria, and requested him to make such gress of this country in civilization and regeneraarrangements if possible, that I might have an in- lion under the auspices of your Highness. I was terview the day of my arrival. This was neces- anxious to see this advancement.” He bowed sary as I anticipated that I should not be able to with great courtesy and said " he did not aspire so remain more than three or four hours in this city. high as to be the regenerator of Egypt.” I replied, Mr. Todd had informed Bognas Bay, the Prime “ Your Highness has certainly produced great Minister, of my anxiety to enjoy the honor of a changes in this country. One may now travel from presentation to his Highness, and he requested that the Mediterranean to Sennar with as much secuwhen I arrived it should be immediately made rity as in any country in the world.” known to him. I reached Alexandria at ten at • This is true," he said, with apparent satisfacnight and sent to Mr. Todd to inform him, wish- tion. ing to ensure a presentation in the morning. He “And the great works which have been consent to the Minister, but the messenger found him structed haye restored Egypt to its ancient ferin bed. In the morning he sent again at an early lility. America now feels her influence in the hour, but being indisposed the premier did not rise markets of the world as a formidable rival in the until half past nine. All this haste was important, as sale of cotton.” the Pasha does not receive after twelve. At length, To this he responded, “ It is nothing-a drop in at half past eleven, I was waited on by the nephew the ocean. Have you locusts in America ?" of his Excellency, Bognas Bay, with many apolo- “We have, but not in such numbers as to do any gies and regrets on his part, that sickness prevent-injury. They appear to have been destructive ed his calling in person, and was informed that his here this season.” Highness would receive me at any time before “No, as soon as they appeared I had them detwelve.

stroyed. There are none left; but for this, they As soon as a carriage could be prepared we started, would have done much injury.” the Consul, the nephew, my companion and myself. This was true. . With his usual energy he had When we arrived at the palace it was past twelve. declared war upon the locusts and occupied bis The Pasha had given a grand reception that morn- troops with the conflict. They were engaged ing, his son Ibrahim having just arrived; but all had many days in killing them. Besides, he gave a dispersed. The nephew said he would go in, leaving premium to the Fellahs for all they destroyed. The us in the carriage, and see if it were then possible result was, thé enormous swarms which were larto get in. He returned in a moment and informed us ing waste the country in all directions, were soon that his Highness would receive us. We imme- exterminated. I saw the effects of their rarages, diately entered, saw two or three waiters about the but the locusts themselves had disappeared. Eres door, but no soldiers, and passed into a large hall. the garden of Ibrahim Pasha, on the island of Here the Lord Chamberlain, or Maitre de Cere-Roda near Cairo, had suffered from them severely, monies came out to meet us. . To him Mr. Todd a number of the trees having been killed. announced our names, and we advanced to the He then remarked " that rats were the greatest door of a large apartment and there in the centre foes to their agriculture, that it was not possible of the room, stood the remarkable man we sought. to destroy them ; that they were born of the earth, We bowed ourselves into his presence with the that he had seen one in the process of transition, three bows usually given to royalty. He received when one half was rat and the other half earth." us graciously after the European manner, not ma- I looked surprised, doubting if I understood the king the Turkish salutations. In a moment after, interpreter correctly, for he spoke French and not he motioned to the divan, inviting us to a seat, and very well. The Pasha then emphatically repeated preceding, seated himself in a corner, where an what he had said, the interpreter announcing di ornamented cloth, wrought in gold, was thrown tinctly “une moitie rat et une moitie terre." As over, as it seemed to designate his place. I placed' he had seen it himself, it was of course no longer to be doubted. I remarked that in going from excavated for the purpose of irrigation, astonish Cairo to the pyramids I had seen great numbers the voyager. The river is gay with picturesque coming out from the crevices of the earth. These boats floating on its surface, many devoted to pleaare the cracks in the soil caused by the process of sure, but the greater number laden with the rich drying after the inundation has retired. He asked imports and exports of the country. In the ports, if we had them in America. I said not that spe- ships are seen from every clime and a busy comcies, (to wit, those born of the earıh.)

merce meets you on the wharves. In the cities, Coffee had been brought and drunk. Conversa- long lines of camels, the ships of the desert as tion now flagged. I was at a loss to know whether Napoleon called them, following each other in Inpipes were coming or not. Having remained suffi- dian file, bringing to market the productions of the ciently long, as I thought, I took my leave. interior, attract the attention of the stranger.

I had a good opportunity of examining the coun- The traveller from Turkey is struck with the entenance and general appearance of the Pasha. tire change in the habits of the population. The His eye is acute and rapid in its movements; in pipe is no longer the business of life. Though color a glittering black and indicative of great in- still enjoyed as a luxury, it is not the engrossing telligence. The general expression of his face is occupation. Existence is no longer expended in gond-humored-nothing which would indicate a puffs of smoke. A busy industry is seen on all savage or sanguinary disposition. The murderer sides. Farmers, artisans, soldiers, men of state of the Mamelukes is not seen in his visage. The are all pressing on with an activity and perseverforehead I could not see, as it was covered by his ance which calls to the mind of an American his turban, but I am told that it is high and good. His own home beyond the “far Atlantic.” Movement person is short and corpulent, and the whole ap- has succeeded to inaction. The dosing, dreamy pearance that of perfect health, though he is now Turk has been succeeded by the bustling, noisy, serenty-four


chattering Fellah. His dress was very simple, consisting of a kind Yet, in spite of all these apparent evidences of of cloth jacket, such as is worn by the Greeks, change and prosperity, it is doubtful if the present and the full trowsers of the Albanians, without people of Egypt are in any better condition for the orders, ornaments or arms of any sort. His man- existence of Mehemet Ali. He has brought order ners reserved, unpretending and equally destitute of out of chaos, but it is the order of an unrelenting grace and coarseness, without embarrassment and and merciless despotism. All Egypt is regarded without effort.

and governed by him as his farm and the populaDuring our interview, the two or three servants tion as his slaves. This idea is the basis of all Fe found in the room retired. This was very dif- his police, all his laws and his whole system of ferent from the state usually maintained in these polity. The land is his and the inhabitants are countries and in high contrast with what I had his. The unit is every thing, the many are nothseen in my interviews with the Pashas of Syria ing. He believes that Rome was made for Cæsar. and Damascus. . When I was presented to them, | The various innovations which have been introa large retinue of officers and servants was in at- duced, have all reference to the improvement of tendance and nothing could be more formal and his revenue, the consolidation of his power and the sately than the ceremonies of my presentation. advancement of the various objects of his ambiIndeed Turkish etiquette is generally rigid, cum- tion. The interesi of the people has never enterbrous and oppressive as the old Spanish code. ed into his plans, nor occupied any portion of his

Upon the whole, the appearance of the Pasha is consideration except as a part of the machinery not such as to induce one at first sight to pronounce necessary to the accomplishment of his designs. him a remarkable man. I am not sure that if I The engines of his factories have for him the same had seen him in a crowd, I should have demanded sort of interest. Improvements are introduced who he was. The remark which Johnson made into the one and the other with the same views. of Burke is certainly not applicable to him. Boys are trained and educated for the manufacto.

Though I have heard much of the great changes ries, and all improvements in machinery are imeffected in Egypt, they surpass my expectations. ported. Schools are established to make soldiers, The police is now as efficient as in any country of to give instruction in the art of war, that this arm the world ; the life and property of foreigners are of despotism may be strengthened, but the general perfectly secure; beautiful villas are seen on the improvement of the man, the elevation of his chaVile rivalling even those of Italy; magnificent racter and his moral advancement have never falpalaces, lovely gardens and all the appendages of len within the sphere of his considerations. a luxury often combining with oriental taste the There never was probably a despotism so pervarefinements and inventions of European skill and ding, so generally and oppressively felt by each fashion adorn Cairo, Alexandria and even Dami- and every one of a numerous people. None are etla. The country seems well cultivated, and the too low for its reach, none are so high that they numerous and enormous canals which have been'do not feel its weight upon their necks. Many na

Vol. X-47

tions are enslaved, but here the principles of na- and the numerous hosts marched into that country. tional and individual slavery are combined and The service is so unpopular, that ten years since wrought out practically. Among all the popula- it was common for the inhabitants to maim themtions I have seen in the Old World, none has ap- selves to prevent enlistment. But such has been peared to me so degraded, so abject, so low in the the demand for troops, maiming is no longer a proscale of humanity. It is a common remark here, tection, and some battalions of men are now seen that the kourbash, which is an enormous whip, who have lost an eye, and others that have lost made of the elephant's hide, is the steam engine several of their fingers. Yet nothing can rescue of Egypt. It is certain that the lash is nowhere them from the demands of their master but absoelse applied so liberally; and it seems to be the late inability. If the trigger finger is gone the great instrument for carrying on the industrious others are called into requisition. movement of this country. Personal liberty has I was informed by our Consul at Beyrout, that in no existence except for foreigners, and for them, the attack on that place by the English, in the in many respects, it is almost without limit. The late campaign in Syria, it was a subject of surprise, Arab of the desert looks with pity upon his breth- that so few Egyptian shot took effect. It was afterren on the banks of the Nile; and well he may; wards ascertained that the troops had designedly he is free as the air that sweeps over his sands, shot over their heads, wishing them success, that he depends on his own arm for his protection and they themselves might be driven out of Syria and subsistence. Wanderer and savage as he is, he is relieved from so odious a service. a noble man.

The system of monopolies is another portion of If there is a canal to be made, a factory to be the administration of the Pasha, most injurious to built, or a war to be waged, the poor Fellahs are the interests of the people. The poor peasant can collected and put to the work, whatever it may be, not sell his cotton or his grain, or any of the proas a large proprietor in Virginia would gather his ducts of his industry except to the Pasha or his negroes from his different estates on occasion of agents. And if he wishes to purchase a pound of some unusual undertaking. Thus, when the great sugar or a pair of shoes, or should he want the use Mahmoudic canal was decided on, all the laborers of a boat on the Nile, he is again obliged to go of lower Egypt were put in requisition, and it is to another set of agents or favorites, who may said, at one time, two hundred and fifty thousand have these monopolies, and pay those prices which men were employed. They were marched in mul- men find it their interest to charge, who have titudes under their Sheiks along the line of the in- no competition, or only such as is found among tended canal, and each chief had his share allotted a few who enjoy a part of the monopoly. On him. Thus was executed this stupendous work, this subject, the foreigners located in this counto which I have before referred, in the short space try have been particularly sensitive, because it of six weeks. It is doubtful if the history of the affects so seriously their interests; and complaints world can present another example of so gigantic have been made, and remonstrances have been an undertaking concluded with such celerity. It multiplied time after time by the Consuls of different is said that twenty thousand laborers were sacri- powers. ficed on this occasion. It is probable that this At length, in 1838, a treaty of commerce was statement is exaggerated, yet it is certain that great concluded between France and the Ottoman Porte, mortality prevailed and many thousands were be- by which the latter was bound to destroy all monopolieved to be the victims of the urgency of the lies throughout its dominions which affect the proPasha. It is still a subject of prejudice, and one ductions of agriculture. The Porte also renounced in which foreigners are also involved, as having the use of Tes Rérés for the purchase of merchanadvised the work.

dise, or for transporting it from one place to another. But there is no cause, from which this unfortu-The Pasha having received due notice of this nate country has suffered more under its present treaty from the Sultan, pretended the necessity of ruler than from his passion for war. A want of an arrangement with the Fellahs and asked three laborers is now severely felt, and the population has years to prepare for carrying it into execution. greatly diminished. Mr. Falt, in his work on to withdraw himself from the importunities of the Egypt, written in 1834, stales that some years Consuls and merchants, he went into Upper Egypt before, the population was estimated, according to and there remained a long time. Finally he procertain calculations which were then made, at two mulged a decree abolishing the monopoly of boats and a half millions; but of them, at least one half on the Nile. A cry of joy was now heard—this of those fit for military service had been taken to was proclaimed the commencement of a new era. form and recruit the armies of regular troops and Some Europeans prepared boats. But lo! an adfor the service of the Navy. He considered at expected difficulty now arose-sailors were not to that time, that from this source the population had be obtained. Ibrahim Pashaw, Abbas Pashaw and sustained a loss of half a million of souls. Now Cherif Pasha are proprietors of a vast number of the loss is much greater since the wars in Syria' boats and derive from them large revenues. They possessed themselves of all the sailors. And if of it freely and regards the achievement as a great the foreigners engaged some Fellahs, they learned " coup de politique.” This treacherous assassinain a short time that a gendarme of a divan had tion of the aristocracy of all Egypt he deems sufseized them in the name of his master. The Euro- ficiently justified from the fact that they stood in peans claimed them, and behold the response which the way of his progress, and their sacrifice was they received." The barks are yours, but the men necessary to secure his absolute power. This is belong to the Pasha, and our master disposes of as might have been anticipated. He has shed too them as he pleases." In the meantime, while the much blood and been too familiar with scenes of public were discoursing of the acts and intentions death and carnage to place much value on human of the government, the Pasha, by his agents, pur- life. When myriads have been sacrificed on the chased all the grain of Upper Egypt at ten francs altar of his ambition, the few hundreds, relieved of the bedebbe, transported it to Alexandria and sold their lives on this occasion, occupy but small space it there at sixteen. And thus has he, in spite of in his “mind's eye.” But he knows full well the the treaties of the Porte and all the efforts of the estimation in which the act is held in Europe ; and Counsuls, continued to keep in operation his sys- says he intends to have two great paintings taken, tem of monopolies up to the present time. one of the murder of the Mamelukes, the other of

He always professes to Europeans an anxious the execution of the Duke d'Enghien by Napoleon, desire to introduce into Egypt the sciences and the and the two may go down to posterity together. arts of Europe, to make his people a civilized peo- I have expressed the opinion that it is doubtful ple. But to arrive at this object he says it is indis- if the present population of Egypt is in any better pensable that his government should extend its condition for the existence of Mehemet Ali. But action over all the sources of production—that the posterity may profit. A very different opinion has Dative should be in his hands an instrument docile prevailed in Europe and America. Impressed by to bis will. That being without instruction and his transcendant genius, astounded by his daring in a state of brutality since many ages, the Egyp- energy and wonderful successes, and dazzled by tiao will never accept of civilization if it is not the halo of his military glory, men have for the forced on him. This is the sophistry with which most part hailed him as the regenerator of the be amuses Europeans and attempts to conciliate land of the Pharaohs. The seed he has planted may Earopean Courts. His acts but attest the sincerity hereafter produce fruit; the light he has introduced of his declarations.

may in times to come make its way to the minds Among all the changes which this extraordinary of the miserable Fellahs. The material improveman has introduced into this country, perhaps there is ments he has executed, his public works, the magnone which has more astonished the natives than the nificent structure he has reared, the canals he has manner he has adopted of disposing of the inmates excavated, the lands reclaimed from the desert, all of bis Harem. Among the elevated Turks and these will remain as monuments of his reign. His Arabs, such as the Sultans and wealthy and power- manufactories which he has nurtured with so much ful Pashas, the women of the Harems even after care and at so great an expense will probably pass the death of their lords, have always been preserved away with him. They are a forced product, una3 sacred relics. Subsequent marriages have not suited to the country and its circumstances. been permitted. Their doom has been to pine in The protection which he has extended to foreignseclasion and mourn the departed—“to blush un-ers and their constant contact with the citizens of seen, and waste their fragrance on the desert air." the country have probably diminished their preMehemet Ali has very justly deemed this usage judices and their bigotry. These beneficial effects irrational and cruel to the fair sex. The result is, may be the prelude to greater changes. They have since he has become old, he has been acting as his been forced to see in many things the superiority own administrator, and he has disposed of most of of our usages. No innovation was more strenuhis fair ones in matrimony to his most illustrious ously and violently resisted than the European disGenerals. He has thus been able at the same time cipline of the troops. It led even to revolution to reward the services of distinguished officers, by and came near costing the Pasha his throne. Now this high and extraordinary mark of honor and to the results of their own campaigns have shown its manifest his regard to the ladies of his household great advantages. The introduction of steam upon by preventing their sacrifice after his decease. the Nile and in the manufactories has had the same

I was curious to know what views are now enter-tendency. The habits of living adopted by the tained by the Pasha of that great event which Pasha and the officers of State and of the army, is considered in all the Western world as the great the use of knives and forks, the drinking of wine reproach of his life, as the stain which no good can and the conformity in many other things with our efface. I mean the murder of the Mamelukes. I habits may eventually produce more harmony with made inquiries on this subject of those who are the Christian races. Though this very conformity familiar with his sentiments. Nor regrets nor com- has caused a prejudice against the Pasha and a punctions have ever been felt by him. He speaks' renewed want of confidence in the orthodoxy of his faith. The young men who have been educated in Tho'many a heart that held thee dear France and Italy at his expense, must also bring

Had mourned thy early doom,

Less bitter far bad been the tear with them on their return European ideas; and

Which now bedews thy tomb. these will obtain a certain degree of diffusion. It would seem that they must penetrate the dense

No longer will the cannon's roar darkness which envelops the natives. And yet so

Disturb thy dreamless sleep! wide is the line of separation which divides the

Thy youthful comrades never more

Shall hail thee on the deep! very few who constitute the aristocraey from the enslaved Fellahs, that all light must be very slow Ye winds! breathe softly o'er his grave!in its passage. The wretched peasant, galled by Sweet flowers ! in beauty bloom, the lash of his imperious master, cares but little for

To deck the turf, where sleeps the brave

Within his narrow tomb. light or information which gives no improvement to his condition. And if, perchance, his benighted intellect should be sufficiently illumined to perceive that from these innovations have been derived new means of strengthening his shackles, this indifference is converted into aversion. And again,

NOTES ON OUR ARMY. when he finds that the new system tends to a de

NO. V. struction of that faith in which he reposes his hopes of a happy existence hereafter, his aversion be

“An Army is a collection of armed men, obliged to obey comes phrensy. We have but little idea of the one man."— Locke. pride and enthusiasm with which the Mahommedan to the Hon. Thomas H. Benton. cherishes his religion. It is a question which admits of no argument. Doubt entails disgrace- By reference to the act of Congress of the 2nd denial brings death in time and eternity. Religion of March, 1821, “ to reduce and fix the military is the soul of his existence. If you touch this peace establishment,” which I have regarded in all you reach the heart's blood. Nor can any impor- my communications as the basis of our present ortant change be hoped for on this subject, until ganization, it is perceived that no separate and disgeneral cultivation brings religion within the reach tinct ordnance corps was then deemed necessary, of reason, when feeling and prejudice may be sub- and none was retained in our Army. Our thea mitted to the test of investigation.

Secretary of War, the most able and efficient we Upon the whole, though the present population have ever had, the Hon. John C. Calhoun, profitof Egypt may have profited but little from the ing by the experience of foreign services, and seekvarious innovations of the Pasha, posterity may ing the interest of his country instead of the wel. hope from them and other causes an advance of fare and advancement of individuals, secured an civilization and an improvement of their condition. organization for our little Army combining efei. The seed has been scattered here and there by the ency and harmony with economy and unity of acway side, but it is reserved to generations yet un- tion. Peace-meal legislation has at length depriborn to see it ripen and to gather in the harvest. ved us of every feature which recommended tbat

establishment, and we are now clogged by checks and balances to such an extent that it is almost impossible for the different branches of the service

to keep from open warfare. Encroachment after REFLECTIONS AT THE GRAVE OF

encroachment has been made upon our peace orMIDSHIPMAN OF THE U. S. NAVY, ganization, by nearly every branch of our staff, as Who fell in a Duel.

must already be apparent to you, but in no instance have they been more rapid and injurious- I had almost said, destructive to the interests of the Ar

mv-than will be exemplified by a glance at the Hark to the bugle's mourpsul sound, The last sad requiem of the brave

Ordnance Department. The act of Congress of the And generous youih, who bere hath found 2nd of March, 1821, based upon the experience of Too soon his early grave!

foreign services, merged the ordnance of our Army

in the Artillery, and provided for one supernumeAnd ours the grief which cannot speak, To tell how deep our woe ;

rary Captain to each Artillery regiment for ordFor words are all too faint and weak,

nance duties,-a field officer of Artillery being deWhere burning tears must flow.

tailed to superintend the duties of the department,

and the law specially providing for the further deOb! badst thou fall’n in glorious strife, While victory cheered thy breast,

tail of such Artillery officers for ordnance duties, Given for thy country's cause thy life

as might be deemed necessary. It is perceived And found a hero's rest;

by reference to the official register of the British

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