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thern neighbors are entitled to their anti-slavery THE ANNEXATION OF TEXAS. sentiments ; but do they not respect our peace and

20. Minery the Constitution? Can they not perceive that it is Since the publication of our former article upon a matter of self-preservation, as slavery does exthis engrossing subject, it has assumed a different ist among us, for the South to prevent herself from aspect, and had so many political elements in-being placedbetween two fires.” If these aboliwrought with it, that we deem it best to leave the tion schemes of England, and of our fellow citifarther discussion of it to others. We still consi- zens, who even traverse the wide Atlantic to join der it a great national question ; and believe that with England, in world's conventions, do extend we might properly prosecute it as such, but it has to us, one ruinous conflagration will sweep the become so mixed up with President-making and the American continent. This must be prevented and divisions of parties, that the character of our Jour- can be peaceably and honorably. It is a matter of nal will probably be best preserved by abstaining self preservation to the South ;-of duty, honor from the discussion for the present. · We can not and interest to the North. In regard to our rights forbear one or two remarks, however, before we and the Constitution, the abolition of slavery must dismiss the subject.

be left to us. In regard to our security and peace, In our last number, we alluded to certain grave which necessarily involve those of the Union, it charges against the Hon. John Quincey Adams, must be let alone. And are not these national matin relation to the surrender of Texas to the Span- ters ? Surely the tranquillity and safety of each ish Government in 1819. It was not our intention State is a national matter. The Constitution is to take either side of those charges, and it is due certainly a National Instrument. It recognizes to justice to state that Mr. Adams has since de- slavery and prescribes the ratio of its representaclared on the floor of Congress, that he was himself tion. The Constitution is prospective. It says opposed to the said surrender, but was overruled nothing of destroying this ratio, or the institution by a majority of Mr. Monroe's Cabinet.

which gave rise to it. What it' recognises and conWe wished at this time to consider particularly templates no change for, it guaranties. Are not the subject of slavery in relation to the Annexation they whose whole laboring class can cast their of Texas. Nor should this be regarded as a Sou- votes into the ballot-box, and whose population thern Question only; for as parts of a whole, the must, ex necessitate, increase much more rapidly interests of the parts should be deemed the inter-than ours, content with the extinction of two-fifths ests of the whole. This Union now. embraces of our laboring class ? twenty-six states, who should be welded together In looking forward to the admission of New in bonds of fervent love. The “Old Thirteen" States, the framers of the Constitution never have become the mothers of as many daughters, thought of but one prerequisite,--an equitable adsome sprung from their loins, others adopted into justment of the public debt. Yet, in violation of their family, to promote the happiness and security this sacred instrument, intended for all time, exof all and of each other. By their adoption, too, cept wherein it is rightfully altered, a large porthey were taken from the bosoms of less liberal tion of our fellow citizens wish to impose condimothers and the Ægis of a' more enlightened Lib- tions, which will give them all the new States erty was thrown around them. From their situa- and the sole right to determine the whole question. tion and circumstances, it was not, nor could have We are entitled to have the institution of slabeen expected, that their accession would directly very regarded as one recognized by the Constitubenefit all the others alike. Congeniality, the place tion,-nay, guarantied by it. When the expediof their nativity, reserblance and other circum- ency of admitting new territory arises, it must be stances would naturally identify them with some considered in relation to existing circumstances, more than others. But their hearts were one: institutions and interests. New territory must be then, the parts were equal to the whole, and when attached to the Union upon some confine. It can aby new State was admitted, it was thought be not be transported to the centre. If it be in the odded to the whole Union. The Atlantic States North, it must be attached there, if attached at all, could have done without the Mississippi ; but what with all its institutions, so far as they are compatiould the great Valley of the West have done had ble with our fundamental principles. If it be in he mouth of that “ Father of Waters” remained the South-West, the same course must be pursued. in the possession of France ? Yet, was it ever pre- Any condition conforming it to the views of any ended that the possession of Louisiana, slavery or section would be virtually transporting it to such lot, was not necessary to the whole Union ? If the section and adding it there. spediency of any other case be not as strong as As to the influence of England :-it is not neceshis, it may still be strong enough to justify a pro- sary to suppose that England would even have used measure. Self preservation itself is but one Texas as a gift. She is tired of colonies. They egree of expediency, and many degrees short of are too expensive. She avows that she seeks comhis may fully justify national action. Our Nor-'mercial relations alone. Who knows not the depth

of England's policy; the power and skill of her The South has reason for apprehension. Her diplomacy? She only stretches out her long arm security should be dear to the entire Union, and against whom her long head can not reach. China, when an appeal is made in her behalf, it should be exclusive and inaccessible, was forced to traffic. regarded as made in behalf of the Union. Negotiation will effect all she desires from Texas. We have been led to say more than we intended. Secret articles in a treaty might even give her a We now leave the subject, hoping that its decision, foothold in case of war, on this continent. being made according to wisdom and enlarged pal

The commercial dependence of Texas on Bri- riotism, will redound to the honor, safety and haptain is as consistent with the separate existence of piness of the whole country. that republic, as the apprehensions of Britain's interference with slavery are with all her repeated declarations on that subject. She avows that she is opposed to slavery every where ; that she will use every proper means to effect its abolition every DESULTORY NOTES ON DESULTORY READINGS. where; though she has no special designs upon the

New-York, 1844. United States, and has made no direct overtures to

What Mr. Giddings said; The Spirit of the Age, to DiiTexas on the subject. Still, she has proposed to

fuse Information ; The People's Knowledge of the cost Mexico to recognize the Independance of Texas;

of the Federal Government; Pride in the Excellence of but to prescribe the abolition of her slaves. She National Things; The Bureau of Provisions and Cloth makes this proposition, too, notwithstanding that ing ; How to fill it; Hints to Navy Officers, which they she is to receive one million of dollars from Texas wont take; The New York Journal of Medicine, Infarin case her mediation is successful. Again, who

mation for Mothers; A Question for Etymologists ; Ame

rican Deserence to European Opinions of Books; Appreshall judge what are "proper means,” but Great

ciation of Medical Men in France and England; TH Britain? The course of some of our Northern

Medical Examiner; Legislature of Pennsylvania; Mes. friends will furnish a pregnant commentary on this sage of the Governor of New-York; Value of Natural head. They have deemed it proper to wrest ser

History ; Education of Children. vants from our citizens who have visited them ; to When Mr. Hale's resolution calling for informanullify our laws; to deny us fugitives from justice tion, in the House of Representatives, in relation and to brand us as criminals for maintaining what to the expense of the Home Squadron was under our honored fathers entailed upon us and what our debate, the Hon. Mr. Giddings said, he never solemn compact has secured to us. “ If they do felt disposed to refuse calls for information, and these things in the green tree, what will they do in " he would ask whether there was a man here who the dry?" If our own brethren deem these means would vote to refuse information to the country? proper, to what may not Great Britain resort ? Would any man deliberately record his name as Having attentively weighed all her declarations voting for such refusal ? Would he refuse to the and disclaimers, with Mr. Everett's lights upon people an account of money spent, when that very them, we unhesitatingly declare that they are money had been drawn from the pockets of the wholly unsatisfactory ;-not as to her, for they may people? It would be found that within the last fire exonerate her, but as to the result to us. Her years the Navy had cost the American people wishes are known to Texas as clearly as if she had more than thirty millions of dollars." made overtures to her; and who knows not the in- It seems to be the spirit of the present age, in fluence of the sentiments of a powerful nation, the United States at least, to give free and enpledged perseveringly to carry them out. The limited circulation to all kinds of joformation, shallowest philosophy knows and estimates the knowledge, whether general or special. So well force of indirect influences, often more powerful known is this disposition of the people, that politithan the most violent assaults.

cians take advantage of it to ingratiate themselves “ But the small continual creeping of the silent footsteps

with voters, both “on the stump" and the flour of of the sea

Congress. In a word, the themes of all, or almost Mineth the wall of Adamant and stealthily compasseth its all

, political speeches are knowledge for the people,

economy, and the people's money. “A wise man prevaileth in power, for he screeneth his batter

Being myself a very humble member of the ing engine, But a fool tilieth headlong, and his adversary is aware."

somewhat extensive family, called the American

people, I should be glad to learn from some of the For ideas are ofttimes shy of the close furniture of words

political philosophers, why it is I have never felt And thought wherein only is power, may be best conveyed by a suggestion.

my share of these vast expenses we hear of, fist

the Army and Navy and other departments of the “But little wotteth tie the might of the means his folly de- General Government. I was not really aware this

spiseth ; He considereth not that these be the wires which move the I had paid my share of thirty millions of dollars : puppets of the world."'*

the past five years for the support of the Navy * Tupper's Thoughts :-"Of Indirect Influences.” I know I paid State taxes, but, to my knowledge, i

ruin."

paid not a stiver to the General Government. Tomen in public life would inquire into the propriety me this tax has been a mere abstraction, and I am of selecting a purser of the Navy for that station. very much inclined to think that my own case is It is the business of pursers to be familiar with that of eight in ten of the whole population. It provisions and clothing" for seamen, and on this really seems to me that all this declamation about point, a purser would probably bring with him into the people's money is mere fustian and rant, a lure the office more knowledge than any individual of to catch votes. If we, the people, were not told almost any other professional pursuit. of it, I question whether the majority would know 6. The New-York Journal of Medicine and the where the General Government gets its means of Collateral Sciences. Edited by Samuel Forry, M. support. Times will change, and the grand chorus D., 1844.” Published “ Bi-monthly,” by J. & H. of politicians will change too. The day will arrive G. Langley. when the weakness of the people will be to be When a newspaper is published" bi-weekly," proud of their institutions for their excellence and we receive two copies a week; and “ tri-weekly," not on account of their little cost. We shall be three papers a week, but the “ New-York Journal proud of our National Library, our National Uni- of Medicine” comes to us once in two months inversity, our National Institute, of our Diplomatic stead of twice a month. If “bi-weekly," means Corps, of our Army, our Navy, our Military and twice a week, and not once in two weeks, why Naval Hospitals, our Military Academy, our Naval should "bi-monthly” mean once, in two months, School, our National Foundry, our National Ob- and not twice a month? This is a question for servatory, &c., &c. We shall point to all these etymologists. Let them decide. things proudly, because we shall think that excel- This journal averages about 144 pages, occupied lence will be their predominant quality, and we by original communications, notices of books and shall think as little about their expense as we do of numerous items of “medical intelligence.” The the cost of rearing a "show-beef.” Who knows, variety of its subjects is considerable; not less except the owner, how much money was expended than 84 in some numbers, that is, about a page in making the celebrated Tyler ox weigh over and a half on an average to each subject. 1000lbs. Does any one of the admiring and ad- We learn from the leading article in January, mired people, even now, ask how much money the by Professor John B. Beck“on the effects of opium Steamer Princeton, or Mississippi cost; the people on the infant subject,” that “Godfrey's cordial” in do not feel they cost any thing, and are gratified a single dose proved fatal in two cases and“ in some in believing them to be, in their kind, superior in instances, a few drops of Dalby's carminative have all respects to any thing that floats upon the waters proved fatal in the course of a few hours to very of the world. The people would not forego the young infants.” Both these nostrums contain ratification of national pride in these vessels in opium. Children are more susceptible to the acorder that double the amount of their cost should tion of opium than adults; consequently, it should le returned into the National Treasury. Would never be administered without the advice of a phyhe people sell the Navy-would they part with it sician. Old laudanum and old paregoric are stronger or a hundred millions paid down into the National than when recently prepared, therefore uncertain freasury, and the nine or ten millions yearly ex. in their effects. ense of sustaining it? If they would, their cha- Dr. Charles Caldwell of Kentucky presents a ieter has changed since 1776. We might as very remarkable review of Liebig's Chemistry tell ask if England would sell Westminster Abbey applied to Agriculture or Physiology.” We quote ! Extinguish her national debt? This debt is the the following as illustrative of the rather intense ride of the nation ?

style of the writer. “ The second reason for the A correspondent of a Boston paper, alluding to undeserved popularity of Animal Chemistry is one e appointment to fill the place of Chief of the which, as an American, I blush to record. The ureau of provisions and clothing in the Navy De- work is the production of a foreigner—a circumrtment, says, “ But even if Isaac should be re- stance which, irrespective of merit or any other ited, I can assure gentlemen of the Navy, many valuable consideration, strongly recommends it to whom have applied for his situation, that no one too many of our countrymen. The reason is plain. their gallant body will be selected. Their coun- As regards literature and science, we have not I can not dispense with their services on the yet, as a people, learnt to know, respect and

appre

ciate ourselves.” (British writers don't think so ?) This, says the “United States Gazette,” is a gen-“ A colonial, not to call it a servile spirit, accomhint to "land loving seamen who try to creep panied by a virtual acknowledgment of inferiority, m the quarter deck to the bureau”—“ the nation so thoroughly pervades and actuates us, that we af not educate and pay Navy officers to add up continue, as we did, in our provincial condition, lumns of figures."

before the swords of our gallant fathers had severed If it be desirable to curtail the political patronage the chains and shackles that enthralled us, to regard the Executive, it might be well if the honest' Europeans as bearing toward us still the relation

pen sea.''

VOL. X-49

of instructors at least, if not of masters. Deny|ciples of general physiology and of natural history this, in words, as we may, our actions testify abun- generally, Geology, which may be said to be the dantly to its truth. The result is obvious and blossom and bloom* of natural history, can not be humiliatingly discreditable to us. We too often advantageously studied. The value of this science receive their mere dicta with the acquiescence and to the country is almost daily seen in the discoobservance which would be due to them only were very of mines of metals, coal, &c., which without they delivered to us in the character of oracular it might still remain unknown. responses.”

Among the popular errors is that which causes French gratitude to medical men is mentioned. parents to make efforts to form precocious geniuses The names of Percy, Desgenettes and Larrey have of their children. The notion that the infant mind been recently engraved on the famous Arc de is capable of acquiring learning led to the estabTriomphe, at the Barriére de l'Etoile. Portal, lishment of infant schools, of which, thanks to the Dupuytren and Cuvier were made Peers of the spirit of the day, we now hear very little. On the realm. Louis has been made an officer of the subject of infantile education, Dr. Condie holds Legion of Honor, and Leuret a chevalier of the the following language : same order. Andral and Rayer have been elected There is not, perhaps, remarks a sensible members of the institute. In England medical German writer, a greater or more reprehensible men often achieve knighthood, for example Sir mistake in education, than the very common pracAstley Cooper, Sir Benjamin Brodie, Sir Charles tice of compelling children to extraordinary menBell, Sir Henry Halford, &c., &c.

tal exertions, and exacting from them early and Upon the whole, the New-York Journal can not rapid progress in intellectual pursuits ; this is, 109 claim, from its intrinsic merits, to be ranked among often, the grave both of their health and of their the very first medical periodicals of the United talents. The age of infancy is designed for bodily States. The cleverness and industry of its Editor, exercise, which strengthens and perfects the frame, however, may bring it up to a higher level in a and not for study which enfeebles it and checks short time, provided there be sufficient patronage. its growth.

We turn from this to a very much smaller medi- Let the beginning of life, the first six years, cal journal, in our judgment, of superior preten- perhaps, be devoted entirely to forming the body sions. It is published once every two weeks, but and organs of sense, by exercise in the open air. is not called a “bi-weekly," nor yet a “bi-month- It is not necessary that the child should be perly”—“ The Medical Examiner and Retrospect of mitted to grow up like a wild animal; for, with the Medical Sciences, edited by Meredith Clymer, proper care, his mind may be made to receive coaM. D.," &c., Philadelphia. Each number contains siderable and valuable instruction through the 16 pages, devoted chiefly to reports of clinical lec- medium of the senses, and the conversation of tures, and hospital reports, but a good deal of its those around him. In these two ways, he may, space is occupied by honest reviews, and valuable indeed, acquire more useful knowledge by the end excerpts from the periodical medical literature of of his sixth year, than a child who had learned 19 Europe. The independent, high, gentlemanly tone read in his fourth. In his seventh year, he may of this little journal commends it to every lover of spend an hour or two daily at his book ; in his medical truth and honesty. " It is published every eighth, three hours; and so on until his fifteenil, alternate Saturday.”

when he may have six or seven hours allotted for Among the signs of the spirit of the present study. age, we note that ihere is a “Committee on Edu- “Children are frequently confined to the schoolcation" in each branch of the Legislature of Penn- room for many hours daily, when not occupied in sylvania. The school system of that State has any useful pursuit ;-which time, without detracimany admirers : it will ultimately be of great value ing from that necessary to the cultivation of the to the commonwealth and also to the whole coun- mind, might, with great propriety, be devoted 10 try. The governor of New York, in his last those bodily exercises and recreations which tend message to the Legislature, congratulates the peo- to develope the strength and promote the regular ple, very justly, because “education in all its va- and energetic action of every organ of the framerious departments has been beneficially extended,” the brain and nervous system included.” and he informs us that " The Geological Survey Again :-"It is, indeed, to be regretted, that sa and the publishing of the Natural History are in small a portion of the education of youth is deprogress and will be completed in 1844." Reports voted to the acquisition of knowledge from person on Mineralogy, Geology, Zoology and Botany have nal observation. The perceptive faculties are thus already been published by the State.

in a great measure, neglected, and the erudita Natural History is daily becoming of greater of books, even in the acquisition of the natural importance as a branch of common education, and in the course of a few years will be almost univer- once said that “poetry is the blossoin and bloom of banas

* Professor Reed of the University of Pennsylvania sally taught. Without a knowledge of the prin-'knowledge."

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sciences, is made to supplant the more exact, vivid | stem. All who have taken this view of this imand permanent impressions derived through their portant matter, in or out of Congress, will find a medium ; on every subject of knowledge the mind worthy coadjutor in “A Subaltern.” receives a foreign impression-it is made to learn After the just commendation bestowed upon the by the observations of others, rather than by ori- " Notes on our Army," we must state that their ginal reflection, and to receive, upon the authority tone has been objected 10, and that by those who of books, what it should admit only in consequence speak somewhat ex cathedra. A short time since of previous self-conviction,-its own original pow-we received the following remonstrance: ers of acquisition being sacrificed at the shrine of

Fort MAY --, 1844. authority"-A Practical Treatise on the Diseases Sir,- At the Session of the Council of Administration of Children by D. Francis Condie, M. D., &c. : of this post of the — ultimo, an expression of its opinion Philadelphia, Lea & Blanchard, 1844.*

in reference to certain articles signed Subaltern, published during the present year in the Southern Literary Messen

ger, was adopted as a part of its proceedings, with a direc• The Toregoing was prepared for much earlier insertion, tion that I should communicate the same to its Editor. I lat has been delayed. -- Ed. Mess.

have accordingly extracted the following from the minutes of the proceedings of the Council, which I have the honor to transmit as directed.

“The Council of Administration of Fort -, having EDITOR'S TABLE. subscribed to the Southern Literary Messenger, mainly in

duced thereto by the consideration that the Journal was

open to the discussion of Military matters, feels constrainNOTES ON OUR ARMY;

ed to express its decided disapprobation of the tone which OFFICIAL REMONSTRANCE, &c.

has prevailed in the articles lately published and signed

Subaltern, inasmuch as they indulge in harsh epithets to a The articles of "A Subaltern” upon our Army nunber of officers. well deserve the attention of every friend of

“ Be it therefore unanimously resolved, that the Post

Treasurer communicate to the Editor of the Southern Litony and of purity and efficiency in the public ser

erary Messenger the above expression of opinion. vice. We are glad to learn that they have already

Signed attracted the attention of several distinguished

Capt. . Pres. Council. members of both houses of Congress, who are wil- (Countersigned) ling and anxious to ferret out and correct the many

Capt. and A. Q. M., Sec. to Council of Administr.

Approved-(Signed) grierous abuses which have crept into the Army,

Lt. Col. Com'g." from year to year, and which “A Subaltern” so

The Council of Administration consists of three memindependently rebukes and exposes. We wonder bers of which the Surgeon of the Post is one; the above that some of the public prints have not taken up extract is, therefore, to be considered as the deliberate these manly articles, and urged them upon the at- opinion of the four officers highest in rank of this garrison. tention of the public. There is hardly enough of

I have the honor to be, sir, party politics in them, or the subject, to commend

Very respectfully,

Your most ob't serv't, them to those now so particularly occupied with partizan strife and tactics; and hence arises the

Capt. Post Treasurer. utility of, nay the necessity for, some independent Benj. B. Minor, Esq. vehicle of communication, uninfluenced by party

Editor Sou. Lit. Messenger. heats and maneuvres and unswayed by fear, favor, Though a little surprised at the receipt of this, or affection towards “the powers that be." But we took it, as we believe it was intended, in a rethere are many bold and patriotic journals, who spectful and temperate spirit. Such remarks as would gladly have taken hold of this important we make upon it will be tendered in the most resubject, but for the engrossing excitements of the spectful and courteous manner, as to the officers of political arena. Indeed, some have ably handled Fort and to all the officers of the Army. it, induced thereto by the action of Congress, who When“A Subaltern” submitted his first article, he with the long list of Army expenditures in one wrote to inquire if the Messenger would be open hand, and crying out "enormous," prodigious," to such discussions, conducted in a proper manner. have blindly struck at the whole establishment. We replied that the Messenger should be open to Without knowing where the excess was, where every question of general, public interest; and that abuse had reared its luxuriant shoots, they have we would be glad for it to be the instrument of subcut at the whole tree of our National protection, serving the interests of the Army, as we believed impairing it, by depriving the main body of its vital it had those of the Navy. At the same time, we sap and nourishment. The top-heavy and over- distinctly told him, that we would soften down some shadowing branches, the redundant bloom and gor- of his expressions towards certain public officers, geous drapery, require the pruning knife. These which we did, and for which we have since receivare more than the trunk can well sustain ; and ab-ed the thanks of “A Subaltern." He knows that sorb and waste the health and vigor of the parent'we object to asperity and abuse; and we know,

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