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out a blush, the letters of Carlyle and Sydney Smith, cast the whole system into disrepute, if fully proven upon this subject, must entertain very different and sustained. views of moral honesty from ours; since the rea- The first works with which this movement comsoning of the publishers to them, resembles closely menced, as we before observed, were the republic that used by the sage Augustus Tomlinson in “ Paul cations of English Magazines ; then succeeded the Clifford,” who comforts the dispirited traveller, rapid and cheap republications of English novels; whose pockets he has rifled, with the assurance, the sale of these was so profitable that reprints of that he has been made to perform a benevolent standard works of fiction followed next, with occaaction in relieving the wants of the distressed. sionally, a work of grave and solid character, to

We are aware that these are hard truths, but as give a character to the undertaking. A thirst for we believe them to be true, no sensibility shall pre- works of fiction was thus created among the readvent our giving them utterance, and expressing ing public, the demand exceeded the supply, and plain things in plain words ; to the motives of those they were compelled to eke out with works of very who differ from us, we accord all due credit, but it inferior merit, and these tended to vitiate still does seem to us that no chain of reasoning, however further the public taste by the application of stimusubtle and ingenious, can do away with the force lants until solid food was distasteful to them; al. of the plain statement of facts set forth above. though, as yet, no positive evil has been done. But We are not ignorant of the fact, that many inge- the unprecedented success of this new movement nious defences have been made for the publishers called another class into the field; the harpies of to palliate their invasion of the rights of authors; Literature came flocking in onbidden to the banquet, some even going so far as to deny that an author and defiled with their filthy touch the food which has any property in the creations of his own mind, was to be set before the people; the licentious and that by the act of publication, he makes them novels of Charles Paul de Kock and George Sand the common property of all mankind, and loses all (Mdme Dudevant) and other kindred spirits were claim upon them; this argument cannot possibly translated and published in pamphlet-form, thrown stand the test of a moment's reflection; if admitted, before the public just at the time when it was thirstit would strike at the root of all intellectual labor, ing for new excitement; they spread like wildfire, and make the very existence of copyright a con- and were followed by others of similar character, tinued injustice.

until the public sentiment, in the large cities, became Can it be seriously urged that one Butcher and so vitiated, that works of gross immorality were Tailor, who cater solely to our physical wants, shall openly vended in the public streets. Nor did be amply remunerated; while he, whose labors are the evil stop here, for it spread in a black and directed towards the cultivation of the most noble filthy stream over the length and breadth of our portion of our nature, who addresses himself to the land. immortal mind of man, shall lay his priceless gifts It may be thought that we had exaggerated the at our feet, and there, like a poor pensioner, humbly extent of this evil, but we do not speak from hearwait for the alms which we may be pleased to be say, but from the evidence of our own senses. stow upon him : if such are to be the rewards, and During the last two years, we have visited almost such the position of those, who waste the flower of every section of our Union, and the books which their youth and the vigor of their manhood, in pain. met our view more often than any other, were the ful and protracted study, “Slaves of the Lamp," pestilent French novels to which we have alluded; uncheered by the sweet smile of woman, or the in- through the untiring energy of agents, these books spiring plaudits of the crowd; how mad must he be, have penetrated into the most secluded villages, who would voluntarily incur a doom of such painful tainting the public morals and scattering the seeds drudgery and abject slavery !

of vice broadcast over the land ; and this is the subThe topic is a fruitful one, but we think enough stitute which “Cheap Publication" has given us has been said to sustain the positions we have ad-for a wholesome Literature of our own. vanced, viz: that the system has crushed and De Kock has been called “The Bulwer of destroyed all native authorship, and that it is France," but the very coupling of their names tobased upon the most glaring wrong and injustice ; gether is an insult to the latter, who, if he has at and we therefore proceed to substantiate our third times deviated from the strict line of propriety, charge, which is, that the character of the most would yet scorn to prostitute his talents to the dewidely circulated publications of this class, is such, tail of scenes of low vice and criminal indulgence, as to taint and corrupt the minds of our youth. and such seems to be the sole aim and end of the The injury complained of in the second charge is French novelist, to render virtue ridiculous and of a nature not immediately perceptible to super- vice attractive, and the very talent he displays in ficial observers, the bad effects being consequential, the prosecution of his task renders his novels the rather than immediate; but this last evil is of such most dangerous as well as the most fascinating to an open and glaring character as to be obvious to inexperienced youth. But they are "very cheap,". the dullest perception, and of itself, sufficient to only one shilling," and, therefore, prudent fathers


of families must encourage a system which reduces, plundered authors and publishers on the other side of so much the price of books, &c.

the Atlantic, and it is the passage by Congress of George Sand (Mdme Dudevant) is, if possible, an International Copyright Law. A measure which worse in her morals, (if the term may be applied to will do no more than an act of simple justice to the absence of all morality,) than Paul De Kock, foreign authors, and will free our native anthors but as she is a lady, or at least a female, we will from the deadly incubus which now stifles and papass both her and her novels by in expressive ralizes them with its hateful pressure. For the silence. Is it wonderful then, that the moral tone honor of the American Congress, we trust that it of a people, who encourage and foster a system will no longer sanction, by its silence, this barefaced based upon fraud and productive of such fruits, system of piracy and plunder, but proclaim Marshould become lax and licentious in the extreme; tial Law, and hang up to the yard-arm all who shall and is not this tendency already indicated, by the hereafter violate the laws of national courtesy and rapid and alarming increase of crime, in every por- national honor.

E. D. tion of our country where a dense population affords Columbia, S. C.

De Leon facilities for its commission ?

Is not repudiation both by States and individuals daily becoming more fashionable? Are not breaches of trust becoming matters of every day's occur

THE AXE OF THE SETTLER. rence? Is not the defaulting cashier of a bank now regarded only as an able financier ? and is not the confidence between man and man each day We are not aware that the following poem has ever apshaken more and more? Let him who can shut his peared. The authoress thinks it has not, though she once eyes to the fact with the proofs staring him in the gave it another direction.-Ed. Mess. face; we cannot if we would. The great want of

Thou conqueror of the wilderness,

With keen and bloodless edgethis country is a want of faith ; we do not mean reli

Hail! to the sturdy artisan gious faith, but use the term in its most comprehen

Who fashioned thee, bold wedge ! sive sense of confidence in human integrity and ho- Though the warrior deem thee weapon nesty, without which, enlarged views and liberal

All unseemly for the brave, feelings cannot exist among a people ; for the public

Yet the settler knows thee mightier mind, for want of some nobler subjects of contem

Than the tried Damascus glaive. plation, will be absorbed in projects of speculation, While desolation marketh and narrowed down to mean and selfish views of

The course of foeman's brand, human nature and human life.

Thy blow aye scatters plenty,

Abundant through the land. The phrase, “ knowledge of the world,” was once

Thou op'nest the soil to culture, construed by a sarcastic wit to mean " a knowledge

To the sunlight and the dew; of all the rascals in it," and this definition would And the village spire thou plantest seem with us to have become a part of the popular

Where of old the forest grew. creed, since one of our most upright and honest

Thou hew'st forth mighty navies statesinen has been declared " impracticable,” from

From the erst unyielding wood; bis open sincerity of character!—a stronger com- Their keels on every tide to float, mentary on the state of public feeling could not be

Their flags o'er every flood. made than that afforded by this simple fact. There

When the broad sea rolled between them

And their own far native land; is but one remedy for this unwholesome state of

Thou wert the goodly ally public feeling, and that is, the diffusion of intelli

Of the hardy pilgrim band. gence, not by a Cheap Literature, but by a whole. some and a manly one, of native growth, and suited

They bore no warlike eagles,

No banners swept the sky; to the temper and spirit of our people and to the

Nor the clarion, like a tempest, institutions under which they live; such a Litera

Swelled its fearful notes on high. tare as would spring up spontaneously in our free But the ringing wild reëchoed country, were the foul weeds which choke its

Thy bold, resistless strokes, growth unsparingly rooted out. The wise and Where, like incense, on the morning

Went up their cabin smokes. good of our country have perceived this and struggled to effect this end, but the hydra-headed mon- The tall oaks bowed before them, ster, Cheap Literature, stands in the path and bars

Like reeds before the blast; all further progress; how then can we combat this

And the earth put forth in gladness,

Where the axe in triumph passed. monster, who deludes the people into accepting

Then bail! thou noble conqueror! poison in place of food; there is but one remedy,

That giv'st us to possess, and that is a remedy which the most respectable With the freehold of its fastnesses, authors and publishers of our country are now com

The ancient wilderness. bined in praying for, and their prayer is echoed by the New-York.


| lion, who, after their leader's death, still held out

so pertinaciously against Governor Berkley. This The “Stone House," as it is called, is perhaps surmise, however, would seem to be unfounded. the most curious and interesting relic in Virginia. Firstly, it is well known that those followers of Two accounts of it appeared some time since, one Bacon, occupied West-Point at the head of York in the Richmond Whig, the other in the Farmer's River, strongly fortified it and made it their place Register. From them the following description is of arms. That post in their hands actually proved gathered. The “ Stone House” is situated on impregnable against repeated assaults of the GoverWare Creek, a tributary of York River, in the nor's forces under Ludwell. And Sir William county of James City. It is distant from the mouth Berkley at length, fatigued by their resolute deof Ware creek five miles, from Williamsburg fif- fence, in order to induce their surrender, was teen, and from Jamestown twenty-two. The walls obliged to offer the rebels there a general pardon, and chimney which remain are composed of sand- which nothing less than the last necessity could stone. The house is eighteen and a half feet by have extorted from him. The position occupied by fifteen in extent. It consists of a basement room Bacon's adherents at West-Point being so strong under ground and a story above. On the West side and every way convenient, there could have been is a door-way six feet wide, giving entrance to both no motive to prompt them to build another fortifiapartments. There are oop-holes in the walls, cation on Ware Creek. measuring on the inside twenty by ten inches, on

In the next place, it is altogether improbable the outside twenty by four. The walls are in the that the vindictive vigilance of Berkley would have basement two feet thick, in the upper story eigh- suffered Bacon's followers unmolested to erect such teen inches thick. The masonry bears marks of

a work as the “Stone House," whose elaborate having been executed with great care and nicety. construction would seem rather to indicate that it The house stands in an extensive waste of woods, was built in the leisure of peace, than in the anxious on a high knoll or promontory, around the foot of precipitancy of a hard-pressed and hopeless rewhich winds Ware Creek. The structure fronts bellion.

on the Creek, being elevated one hundred feet above • its level and standing back three hundred feet from minute circumstantial accounts and it is improba

Lastly, of Bacon's rebellion, there are several its margin. The spot is approached only by a long ble that Beverley, T. M. and others would have circuitous defile, the comb of a ridge, in some places omitted a fact so interesting as the erection of a so narrow that two carts could not pass abreast. fortified work on Ware Creek, when they were deThis defile is, besides, involved in such a labyrinth tailing so many other particulars of less conseof dark ridges of forest and deep gloomy ravines,

quence. mantled with laurel, that it is said to be next to

So much for these conjectures. I now beg leave impossible to find the way without the aid of a to suggest another, founded on the following pasguide. Nor is the place more accessible by water.

sage : The surrounding country is described as the most

“ We built also a fort for a retreat neere a convenient rirer, broken and desert track to be found East of the

upon a high commanding hill, very hard to be assalted and Blue Ridge.

easie to be defended, but ere it was finished this defect caused The singular structure of the old “Stone House” | a stay. In searching our casked corne, we found it halfe and its wild secluded desolate site have naturally rotten and the rest so consumed with so many thousands of given rise to several traditions and conjectures as rats that increased so fast, but their originall was from the to its origin and purpose. It is said, that there is a

ships, as we knew not how to keepe that little we had.

This did drive us all to our wits end, for there was nothing neighborhood tradition, that the house was erected in the country but what nature afforded.” * * " But this as early as toirteen years after the landing at James- want of corne occasioned the end of all our works, it being town-and that it was built by the famous pirate worke sufficient to provide victuall."-Smith's Hist. of Va., Blackbeard, as a depository of his plunder. This B. III., p. 227. hypothesis, however, involves a serious anachro- Upon lately meeting with this passage in Smith, nism; since it is well established that Blackbeard I was forcibly struck with the coincidence between did not figure in the waters of Virginia until about the fort thus spoken of by him and the “Stone the year 1717-more than a century after the land- House.” If the conjecture be well founded, it will ing at Jamestown.

entitle that structure to the claim of being the Another fanciful conjecture is, that the "Stone oldest house in Virginia, if not in the United States, House,” like the cave where Dido entertained as the fort mentioned by Smith was erected about Æneas, was a sort of rendezvous meeting-place of the year 1608-9, only two or three years after the Captain Smith and Pochahontas ! This is rather landing at Jamestown, which would make it about too romantic.

two hundred and thirty-four years

old. Smith says Another jecture, much more plausible than " We built also a fort for a retreat ;" that is a reeither of those above-mentioned, is that the house treat from the Indians, in case Jamestown should was built by the adherents of Bacon in his rebel-'have been overpowered. “ Neere a convenient


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rirer.” The “Stone House" is about a hundred Stiphen ffoward yards from Ware Creek. “A convenient river,"—

Robt. Bill; November ye 24th : 1696. by the description given above, it is seen that no

The above writing p'ented in cott : and according to order situation could have been more eligible. It may

is committed to Record.

William Sedgwick cl. cur." be worth while to observe that the name of the river is not given ; now, in all probability, Ware

I had the pleasure some years ago of visiting Creek at that early day had not been named by the the remains of the Old Church at Yorktown. English, being an unimportant stream. * Upon a

Nothing was left but the walls. These are comhigh commanding hill;" this answers exactly to the posed of stone marl, which it is said, soft when site of the “Stone House.” “Very hard to be taken out of its native bed, becomes hardened by assalted and easie to be defended ;" all the de

time and exposure, until it acquires the firmness scriptions of the “Stone House" fully confirm

and durability of solid stone. The roof was open these particulars. “But ere it was finished, this

to the eye of day and foxes might peep, by moondefect caused a stay,“ &c. * “But this want of light, out at the dismantled windows. Adjacent corne occasioned the end of all our works,” &c. lies the old grave-yard, enclosed by an antiquated Now the “ Stone House" is apparently incomplete

brick wall. Here are several tomb-stones of the and there is neither roof nor floor; this unfinished

Nelsons and others, some with Latin inscriptions, appearance seems to have puzzled some of its some with English, and adorned with the insignia visiters. Smith's statement, however, that it was

of heraldry. The site of the church is superb, left unfinished, may at once solve the enigma. immediately on the lofiy bank of the sparkling ceru

From all these corroborating circumstances, there lean waters of the majestic York. The spot is seems to be good reason to conclude, that the Stone consecrated by the ashes of the illustrious dead, House” is the fort mentioned by Smith. Its anti- the charms of nature, its antique recollections and quity, the associations connected with it, the su

the classic associations of the siege and surrender. perstitious fancies to which it has given rise and

The patriotism of the North has erected a sublime ils wild and sequestered situation, all conspire to monument on Bunker Hill, to commemorate the render the old "Stone House” an attractive object portentous dawn of the revolution ; when shall the to the tourist and the antiquary, and, perhaps, not patriotism of the South raise such an one, on the uninteresting even to the novelist and poet.

field of Yorktown, to commemorate the parting glories of the sunset ?


ROSEWELL. At Yorktown, at the residence of William Nel

Rosewell, formerly the seat of John Page, Esq., son, Esq., there are to be seen portraits of Wil- sometime Governor of Virginia, is situated on the liam Nelson, President, (who built the house) and North bank of York River, in the county of GlouElizabeth Barwell, his wife. It is said that those cester, and nearly opposite the mouth of Queen's portraits during the revolution, when the British Creek. The house stands a short distance back were making incursions into Virginia, were boxed from the river, and, as seen from the water, is an up and sent to Hanover Court-House for preserva- imposing and venerable monument of the olden tion from the enemy. The British, however, found time. It is a cube of ninety feet, with fourteen them in Hanover and mutilated them there.

windows in front. Its appearance is singularly This house was, at the time of the siege of solid and massive. The interior is pannelled and York, the residence of General Thomas Nelson. wainscoated in the old style; some of the apartIt was a good deal damaged by the American artil- ments in black walnut highly polished and which, lery,—traces of the damage being yet visible. A it is said, were formerly waxed as floors now are. pannel in the wainscoat is still loose, from the ef. The old hall is a superb room; around the pannelfects of a cannon-ball, or bomb-shell.

ling are some antique hooks, on which the tapestry The Old Church, at Yorktown, was built 150 hangings were suspended. The tapestry was still years ago. The Hon. Francis Nicholson contri- preserved there a few years ago. The mahogany buted twenty pounds sterling towards its cost, as

of the hall stair-case is richly carved. The doors appears by the following paper, that appeared some

are arched over-head. There are four stories; time since in the Richmond Enquirer :_"the fol- the upper, when I saw it, a good deal decayed, lowing is a literal copy from the records of York the floor in some of the rooms having "settled." County Court:

There are twelve rooms. The bricks, it is said,

came from England. They are of the species "York County Oc:ober ye 26th 1696. I promise to give styled oil-bricks, so called from the oil used in five pounds sterling towards building the Cott-house at Yorké Towne and twenty pounds sterlig if within two years wise and endwise, the end-bricks being glazed ac

moulding them. They are laid, alternately, lengththey baild a brick church att the same towne. As witness my hand ye day and year above written.

cording to the fashion of that day. The walls,

ffra : Nicholson." where most exposed, are tinged with verd-antique Vol. X-6


mould and the cornice in some places is decayed. Stith, as quoted by Burk's History of Virginia, The roof is flat and sheeted with lead. The story Vol. I., p. 111., describes its position as follows: that there was once a fishpond up there, is fabu- “Werowocomoco lay on the North side of York river, lous. Tradition mentions that Mr. Jefferson and in Gloucester county, nearly opposite to the mouth of Governor Page, there, in the evening, sometimes Queen's Creek and about twenty-five miles below the fork enjoyed conversation and the moonlight scenery of of the river.” the York. The view, therefrom, embraces about Upon a short visit made to that part of Glouten miles both up and down the river. The York cester county a year or two ago, I was satisfied that is there wide and magnificent, clear, fresh and Shelly, the seat of Mrs. Mann Page, is the fasparkling as the ocean.

mous Werowocomoco. Shelly is on the North Formerly there was a vineyard in front of Rose- bank of the York river, in the county of Glouwell house and a garden in the rear. There are cester, said to be about 25 miles from West Point now few or no trees in front of the house, and this at the head of the river, and is nearly opposite the circumstance perhaps enhances the effect. It mouth of Queen's Creek, lying somewhat above. seems to stand in proud and silent solitude, like It is true, the word “nearly” is indefinite, and it some old baronial castle. Rosewell, besides its might be supposed that Werowocomoco, perhaps, own interesting associations, is remarkable as stand- lay a little below the point opposite the mouth of ing near Werowocomoco, the spot where Smith Queen's Creek instead of a little above. But the was rescued from death by his guardian genius, marshy oozy character of the bank of the York Pochahontas.

below Shelly, rendering it apparently uninhabita

ble, seems to forbid the supposition. WerowoWEROWOCOMOCO.

comoco then, it may be taken for granted, was Next to Jamestown, Werowocomoco is perhaps either at Shelly, or at some point above Shelly. the spot most celebrated in the early chronicles of But as Shelly is nearly opposite the mouth of Virginia. As Jamestown was the seat of the En- Queen's Creek, it is obvious that the further you glish settlers, so Werowocomoco was the residence proceed up the river, the less appropriate will beof the great Indian chief, Powhatan. It was the come the expression “ nearly opposite.” scene of many interviews and rencontres between Carter's Creek, emptying into the York at Shelly, the settlers and the savages; it was at Werowoco- forms a safe harbor for canoes. Smith, in a pasmoco that supplies for the colony were frequently sage already quoted, mentions that Werowocomoco obtained; here that Smith once saw suspended on is 14 miles from Jamestown. In Book III., p. 194, a line between two trees the scalps of twenty four he says, that “ he went over land to WerowocoPayanketanks recently slain,-here that Powhatan moco some twelve miles ; there be passed the was crowned by Newport, and here that occurred river of Pamaunkee in a salvage canow.” Now, the most touching scene in the whole colonial as it was 14 miles from Jamestown to Werowocodrama, the rescue of Smith by Pochahontas. We- moco, and 12 to the point on the South bank of the rowocomoco is on the York river, in the county of York, where Smith embarked in a canoe, it follows Gloucester. It may surprise some readers to hear, that Werowocomoco was only 2 miles from that that the rescue of Smith took place on the York, point. And Shelly, I take it is just about 2 miles since, in the general neglect of our early history, from where it is probable Smith went into the canoe it seems to have been taken for granted by many on that occasion. that it took place on James River. Smith and Shelly adjoins Rosewell, (formerly the seat of Stith, in their histories, put the matter beyond dis- John Page, Esq., sometime Governor of Virgipute. Smith, Book II., p. 117, describes the Pa- nia,) and was originally part of the Rosewell planmaunkee (now York] river as follows:

tation ; and I learned from Mrs. Page, of Shelly, “ Fourteen myles northward from the river Powhatan is that Governor Page always held Shelly to be the the river Pamaunkee, which is navigable 60 or 70 myles, ancient Werowocomoco and accordingly he, at but with catches and small barkes 30 or 10 myles farther. first, gave it that name, but afterwards, on account At the ordinary flowing of the salt water, it divideth it- of the inconvenient length of the word, dropped selfe into two gallant branches. On the South side inhabit the people of Youghtanund, who have about 60 men for it, and adopted the title of Shelly, on account of warrez. On the north branch Mattapanient, who have 30 the extraordinary accumulation of shells found men. Where this river is divided, the country is called there. The enormous beds of oyster-shells dePamaunkee (now West Point) and nourisheth neare 300 able posited there, particularly just in front of the Shelly men. About 25 myles lower, on the North side of this river, house, indicate it to have been a place of great reis Werowocomoco, where their great king inhabited when I was delivered him prisoner.”

sort among the natives. The situation is highly Again, Book II., p. 142, Smith says : picturesque and beautiful and looking, as it does,

of “ At Werowocomoco, on the North side of the river Pa. on the lovely and majestic York, it would seem, maunkee (York] was his [Powhatan's] residence, when i all others, to have been the besitting residence of was delivered him prisoner, some 14 myles from James the lordly Powhatan. According to Captain Smith, Towne where, for the most part, he was resident." the circumstances of his rescue were as follows:

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