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for an appropriation would meet with little chance | about four hundred volumes, besides pamphlets and of success : nor indeed does our Historical Society files of newspapers. Its MSS. are valuable. deem it necessary. We have in London a very zeal. Among them are the MS. Journal of the Rev. J. ous corresponding member, Robert Lemon, Esq., J. Zubly, a delegate from Georgia to the Continenmentioned in the report to which I have referred. tal Congress, extending over the whole period of He suggested to us the idea of having a confiden- the Revolutionary war; Copies of the official cortial agent, nominated by the English Government, respondence of Montiano, commander of the forces to whom reference for information might be made, at St. Augustine at the time of General Oglewithout the intervention of the Secretary of State, thorpe's expedition against that post; Several and Mr. Lemon received that appointment. Mr. MS. volumes of the late Col. Hawkins, who was Lemon has free access, from his situation, to every appointed by General Washington the agent of collection in London, except his own office, and the Government among the Creek Indians, and the would therefore be accessible only by first obtain- 22 volumes of Colonial documents obtained by the ing the sanction of the Premier. I would there- Rev. Mr. Howard from the government offices fore recommend that application should be made, in London. through Mr. Everelt, our Minister, to procure per
Truly yours, mission from Lord Aberdeen to take transcripts
I. K. T. from the State Paper Office, where all the papers relating to the colonies are now deposited, having been I think at the instance of Mr. Lemon re- 84, Prince street, New York, 12 Oct., 1844. moved from the office of the Board of Trade, and other offices, and incorpotaled with his. And
Dear Sir,- I hasten to acknowledge the receipt at the same time you should secure the services of your letter of 9th instant, which has just reached of Mr. Lemon, as agent to superintend the investi- me, and to reply to the points you suggest, as fully gation. The expense, including Mr. Lemon's re- as I can. muneration, would be less of course than would be By the regulation of the State Paper Office at necessary to incur in sending a special agent, and London, I was restricted in my examinations, to the examination, I will guaranty, will be faithfully the series of books specifically designated in the made, so far as Mr. Lemon is concerned. In a order of the Secretary of State; which was obletter from him of the 17th ultimo he says : “Mr. tained, only after a good deal of delay and effort. Brodhead of New York has left England with a Not having had an opportunity of examining the large chest full of transcripts, and he is by this " Virginia Papers," I can give you no specific infortime I think in America. His collection will make mation, either as to their number or volume. As to a sensation, and will have the effect of stimulating their probable value and importance, no one, I preothers to follow such an example."
sume, interested in historical research, can entertain Having furnished Mr. Lemon with abstracts of doubts. The State Paper Office in Londun now the colonial documents obtained by Mr. Howard contains all the records relating to the American and now in the possession of the Society, that he Colonies. The correspondence of the Secretaries might at a glance see what we still wanted, he of State has always been deposited there; and two will, by the next steamer, give me a detailed esti- years ago, by order of Government, the records of mate of the expense of transcription, which he the Board of Trade, (comprising upwards of 2000 informs me he will be able to do with the greatest volumes,) were transferred to this office. No perexactness after examination of my lists. Lest the son is allowed to visit the office for the porpose of paper containing the report of the Committee to examining documents, until he has obtained an which I have referred may not reach you I will order from the Secretary of State, directed to the send by the mail of to-day another copy.
keeper, and stating the extent of privilege to be
allowed. In my own case, the order was very preVery sincerely, your friend, cise and guarded, and was very rigidly interpreted
I. K. TEFFT. by the keeper. I was restricted to the examina
tion of the particular books designated in the order, P.S. You could easily resuscitate your Historical and was required to examine them in an apartment Society, which I learn once existed, or form a new separate from the great library. I examined some
400 volumes, or thereabouts, for the documents Our Historical Society was founded in 1839, relating to New-York. Each paper I wished to (see appendix to the 2nd Vol. of its collections, page have copied was noted, and afterwards examined 326,) and is now in a flourishing condition, with a by an officer under the direction of Lord Aberdeen. long list of zealous and distinguished members. Such as were not objected to were subsequently It has celebrated four anniversaries—to wit: on copied by the clerks in the office, who received 4d. the 12th of February each year, that having been sterling for each folio of 72 words. The transthe day, 1732, on which General Oglethorpe first cripts from London, which I am now arranging for landed on the soil of Georgia. Four correspond- binding, &c., will occupy about 50 volumes foolsing orations have been delivered before the Society: cap folio. first, by Judge William Law,second, by Dr. William My agency extended also to Holland and France. Bacon Stevens, third, by Hon. Mitchell King, and In both these countries no difficulty was found, the last, by the Rt. Rev. Stephen Elliott, Jr., either in obtaining the requisite perinission from the Bishop of Georgia. The next will be delivered Government, or in procuring copies at reasonable by Ex-Governor George R. Gilmer.
rates. 16 volumes were obtained at the Hague, Four courses of Lectures have also been deliv- and 17 at Paris. Those from Paris include the ered before the Society, by members of our own whole of the correspondence relative to the opera and sister States, on Historical and biographical tions on the Canadian frontier during the “ French subjects. Its library is yet small, containing only' war.”
Our Legislature at first appropriated $4,000, Hist. Rooms, N. Y. City, Oct. 4, 1844. subsequently $3,000, and again $5,000. In all 12,000, which has been entirely exhausted in de- B. B. Minor, Esq. fraying the expenses of the agency.
Dear Sir,- I have received your letter of the You are good enough to ask me for suggestions 9th, as well as your valuable Journal of October-occurring to me in reference to the proposed effort for which please accept my thanks. I am very glad on the part of Virginia to secure the same memorials to observe in your columns an earnest appeal to the of her colonial days, lying hid in the archives of Virginia Assembly, calling their attention to their England. No one can more fully appreciate than much neglected Historical Records. Your State I do the importance of obtaining these papers. is rich in materials of the most interesting characBut I have long made up my mind that the best ter, and I doubt not that a well directed and susway to effect an object dear to every liberal minded lained effort would discover treasures of great value man-above all to every antiquarian-is for our to the Historian. General Government to undertake the duty-once You are right in claiming the support of the for all; and not for one particolar State, but for State Legislature. Public patronage is necessary the whole union. I will not go over all the reasons and should be liberally conceded to such underthat may be urged in favor of this view of the sub- takings. I hope, too, that that the society to which ject. It will readily occur to you that these re- you allude in the concluding paragraph of your pealed applications on the part of the various article, will be revived and cherished as an essenStates-applications involving oftentimes embar- tial auxiliary in the cause of Historical Literature. rassing considerations—may in time become annoy- But I am forgetting my business with you in my ing to the British Government. These examina- ramblings, &c., &c. tions have, heretofore, been allowed in a spirit of
I have the honor to be, liberal and expanded courtesy. Favors were grant
Respectfully your ob't. servant, ed and not rights enjoyed, in the permissions for
GEORGE H. MOORE. these investigations. It would therefore seem to be proper that in subseqnent steps on our part, these considerations should not be overlooked.
The example of some of our States will, no doubt, stimulate others to efforts to secure copies
DESULTORY NOTES ON DESULTORY READINGS. of papers relating to their own particular history. Some of the older, and wealthier ones may even
New York 1844. feel disposed to appropriate monies and send out Fraudulent Adulteration of Alimentary Substances; Comagents. The younger and less wealthy, though mercial Character of the French ; Value of Mirrors not less interested states, may not feel at liberty to in Shops; Adulteration of Wheat-Flour; Bread; Cakes; incur an expenditure of the character; and will
Dangerous Method of Protecting Vineyards from Theft; look on with mortification at the results of their
Adulteration of Wines ; Color of Wine; Diseases of
Wine; Brandy; Butcher's ideats in Paris; Milk, its neighbors efforts. All objections would vanish
adulterations; Butter; Salt; Vinegar; Sugar : Coffee ; all difficulties would be obviated-all interests would Honey; Mustard; Pepper; Letters from under a Bridge ; be consulted and secured-if a competent agent
Dunglison's Practice of Medicine; The Encyclopædia were sent out by the General Government, and
of Practical Medicine ; Joint Stock Companies in Liteunder the commission of the President of the United States. The expenses of various separate agencies It was once asserted in my hearing by an Amewould be saved. The younger and less wealthy rican traveller, that there is no city in the United States would participate in the benefits of the re- States, and perhaps no city in any other country, searches—and this without any expenditure on their in which a stranger is more liable to be deceived part. The documents when procured might be deposited in the library of Congress, or printed under in purchasing any article whatever than in the city ihe direction of the Government. The agent of of New-York. He is almost sure to be overthe United States, coming with a full and final com- charged in some manner, or an inferior quality is roissjon, would doubtless have more ample and ex- paid for at a superior price. “Sir," said the tratended privileges granted him than the several veller, “I can give my orders to the dealers in agents of the individual States could reasonably Philadelphia, and they will be filled just as well as expect. I will add no more on this point. It seems to me that it must strike every one as the if I attended to them in person ; but, in New most proper and feasible mode of arriving at the York, unless I watch the packing, on reaching grand result.
home, I discover that I have been cheated." I No apology was necessary for your letter. It fancied at the time, the traveller was some splehas given me great pleasure. The subject is one netic person who had been more than once unlucky in which I feel a warm interest; and I shall be happy if these hasty lines should be of any service in dealing in New-York. I am now reminded of to you.
the remark, by a book, recently published in Paris,
“Des FALSIFICATIONS des SUBSTANCES ALIMEN
TAIRES, ET DES Moyens CHEMIQUES DE LES RI+ New-York had to consult the archives of three countries, England, Holland and France, and hence arose this
CONNAITRE, PAR JULES GARNIER."-An essay on heavy expense. Virginia need send only to England. But the Falsifications of Alimentary Substances and she should not regard an expense which she is so able to the Chemical means of discovering them." bear. Georgia has spent $6,000 in her researches.
The French medical journals complain that gas
tric irritations, attributable to the sophistication of tion, produces a better looking crumb and crust, alimentary substances, especially in Paris, have and a larger quantity of water can be added, of become so numerous as to form a kind of epidemic. course increasing the weight of the bread at small
Cupidity lies at the bottom of these wicked cost. frauds; and the character of the French nation Alum renders bread made of inferior four equal for honesty has suffered in consequence. " Where in appearance to that made of the best, and faciliis the honor once enjoyed amongst strangers by our tates the introduction of flour of beans, peas, &c. commercial men? Formerly our products were The employment of the sub-carbonate of mag. received in the East without examination. But nesia answers a similar purpose, but is prejudicial now the term French is synonymous with false, to health because, in the process of baking, the our wares are doubted as the bad faith of the Arabs sub-carbonate is converted into a lactate. is mistrosted. They admire our merchandize, but Sulphate of zinc, (white vitriol,) a powerful hesitate in buying it, because they fear that its emetic, renders bread white. charm has been given to it in the hands of our The sub-carbonate of ammonia is a powerful merchants."
adjuvant 10 the yeast or leven employed, and also French dealers are charged with deceiving in makes bread white. measure, weight, number, &c., as well as quality. The carbonates and bi-carbonates of potassa and
One cunning shop keeper, speculating on the soda increase the lightness of bread. vanity of woman, ornamented his shop with large Similar frauds are practised by cake bakers, who mirrors, and while a woman, who comes to buy make use of the poisonous articles named, in larger wine, presents her bottle and casts a look to ad- proportion than the bread bakers. mire her face, or her dress, the shopman transfers In the vicinity of large cities in France, to prothe wine from the measure into the bottle, but tect the grapes, the fruit is washed with lime to contrives to spill a considerable quantity on the disgust those who plunder the vineyards. In some counter, which has a reservoir placed beneath to localities, sugar of lead, and sulphate of copper receive it. And independent of these reservoirs, are substituted for lime, at the risk of causing the he declares the mirrors are worth a thousand a death of those who may eat them. year in profit.
Wine is manufactured and adulterated in a mulAmong the adulterations of wheat flour is an titude of ways, chiefly, however, with alcohol, water admixture of flour of potatoes, to the extent of and various coloring ingredients. from fifteen to thirty per cent. A larger propor- There are wines, (so called,) manufactured withtion of potatoes in the flour prevents panification. out grapes, by adroitly mixing together water, sugar, The fecula of potatoes in flour is detected by the inferior alcohol, vinegar and different colering namicroscope, and by treating the suspected flour terials. with water and then adding iodine. If fecula be Chemistry affords us very few means of detectpresent the mixture becomes blue. The quality ing these sophistications with certainty. of flour is ascertained also by treating it with pure The most common sophistications consist in miracetic acid, which is an excellent solvent of gluten, ing together different crude wines, water, alcohol, the chief constituent of good wheat-flour. The and coloring substances. inspectors of flour and bakeries in France make To disguise the verdure, acidity of wine, the use of two instruments, principally, in their exami- carbonate of potassa, or of soda, or of lime, is nations; one is termed the appreciator of flour, added. But the most pernicious fraud is the pracinvented by M. Robine, and the other aleurometer, tice of softening wine by the addition of litharge, invented by M. Boland.
or white lead. The use of leaded wine is apt to Sophistications of wheat flour with the flour of induce a severe form of cholic. Lead is added to horse-beans, French beans, or of peas, are difficult preserve the wine sound. The cleansing of wine to detect.
bottles with shot is sometimes followed by serious Flour is also adulterated with carbonate of lime consequences. (chalk) and phosphate of lime, and more recently Alum and the oxides of copper are also used to with a kind of finely powdered flint. Powdered improve the qnality of falsified wines. alabaster is also used for the same purpose, and Wines are falsified by the addition of brandy, even powdered bones.
perry, and water, very much to the injury of the Wheat bread is adulterated with the following wines as well as of those who drink them. articles, sulphate of copper, (blue vitriol) ; alum; The color of red wines is due to the pellicles of the sub-carbonate of magnesia; the sulphate of red grapes with which the must is fermented, of zinc, (white vitriol); the sub-carbonate of ammo- which the coloring principle, (which is crystalizania; the carbonate and bi-carbonate of potassa ; ble,) reddened by the free acid of the juice of the chalk; plaster of Paris, lime; and pipe-clay. grape, dissolves in proportion as the liquor becomes
The use of sulphate of copper in bread renders alcoholic during fermentation. Besides thuis colar inferior flour more available, accelerates panifica-ling principle, the wine derives from the pellieles a
considerable quantity of tannin, to which red wine ble that the bad quality of the milk is one of the is indebted for its astringent taste, as well as the most frequent causes of the death of infants. The property of changing its red color to a brownish dairymen, who keep their cows constantly in badly black when a solution of a salt of iron is added ventilated and hot stables to increase the quantity to it.
of milk, render them phthisical, (consumptive.) To imitate this natural coloring matter, various We find tubercles in the lungs in almost all the dye woods are employed, as well as red poppies, cows of the dairymen in Paris and its environs. myrtle berries, elder berries, &c. In England, bit- Perhaps the fact that one fifth of the deaths in ter almonds, wild cherry, alum, tincture of grape Paris are owing to tubercular phthisis, (consumpseeds, oak saw-dust, filbert shells, and various spi- tion,) arises from the bad quality of the milk furces are used in the manufacture of wines.
nished to its inhabitants. Wines are also subject to diseases from various While we are especially careful not to confide causes, which render them bitter, acid, viscid, an infant to the care of a wet nurse suffering from flat, &c.
consumption, we feed ourselves and our infants on The value of spirituous liquids depends upon the milk of cows whose lungs are filled with tuthe quantity of absolute alcohol they may contain. bercles. The manner of ascertaining this, as well as the The greater part of the milk sold in Paris is colquantity of tartar in wine is given in the work. lected from a circuit of from ten to fifteen leagues
Brandy often contains copper, lead, &c. by wholesale dealers, who purchase it from farmers
In Paris the flesh of horses, dogs, cats, &c., is and bring it into the city and dispose of it to be consumed to a considerable extent. Horse meat resold by retailers, milkmen, &c. The milk is is sometimes used to manufacture a sort of jelly, first bought for from 25 to 30 centimes the two sold by pork butchers. Meat pies are frequently litres, (a litre is about a pint and three quarters); receptacles of various kinds of half putrid meats, the collector sells it at from 30 to 40 centimes to disguised by high seasoning.
the retailers in Paris, who dispose of it to the conMilk is considerably modified by the influences sumers at from 50 to 60, or even 80 centimes, more to which the animal is subjected by diet, state of or less according to the quality of the milk, and the health, fatigue, situation or locality, &c. quarter where it may be sold. Food modifies the milk both as respects quantity
The trade in milk is very great in Paris; we and quality. Badly fed animals yield less milk, are assured that certain wholesale dealers sell and the milk itself is more watery.
from 4 to 5000 litres daily. Another portion Fatigue modifies the secretion of milk, render- of the milk consumed in Paris is derived from the ing it watery, weaker and less abundant.
cows stabled in the city, or its suburbs; this milk Many substances find their way into milk through should be, in a degree, richer and more substantial the functions of absorption and nutrition, giving to than that from the farms, while it is furnished from it medicinal qualities different from those which better nourished cows that never go out, whose would be produced by a direct mixture of the same lacteal secretion is stimulated as much as possible ; substances.
it is, it may be said, therefore, the choicest milk, In the various modifications which the milk of which is dearest; and it may be had warm on apanimals undergoes, the proportion of butter seems plication at the dairy. It is less aromatic than to be augmented relatively to its other constituents. that produced by cows living in the open air, on
Milk is an almost universal article of food amongst pasture; still, it may be regarded as of good qualiall people. The reindeer in Lapland, the ass in ty, provided the cows are healthy and well kept, Tartary, the camel and dromedary in Egypt and and the milk is neither watered nor otherwise soSyria, the buffalo in India, the llama and vicuña, phisticated. the cow, sheep, goat and ass in America, furnish Milk is adulterated for sale with water, starch, a simple and wholesome article of diet. In Paris, flour, the white and yolks of eggs, gum arabic, gum only cows' milk is used.
tragacanth, sugar, to allow a larger proportion of Good milk is the best of food, but bad milk is water, emulsions of various seeds, almonds, brains the very worst.
of calves, sheep and horses, chalk, plaster, &c. In The first is that which is provided by nature for 1842, R. M. Hastley of New York published a young animals, whose organs, too feeble to elabo- valuable essay on the quality of milk consumed by rale nourishment from more stimulating food, gradu- the inhabitants of New York, which is not supeally acquire by its use the necessary vigor and de- rior to that furnished in Paris. velopment.
To detect the sophistications in milk, several inWhen the body is exhausted by suffering or ad- struments have been invented called lactometers, vanced age, the old man and the convalescent again and lactoscopes. recur to milk to recuperate new powers.
Butter is sophisticated with the fecula of polaIt is well known that infants cannot be “ brought toes, flour, milk curd, tallow, &c. ; and alkanet and up by the bottle" in Paris. It is more than proba-'other substances are employed to give proper color. THEC
Common table salt is mixed with plaster, salt-|Medical Dictionary, unquestionably the best in the petre, glauber's salts, alum, dirt, and is moistened language ; a new edition of his “Human Physito add to its weight.
ology;" his “ New Remedies ;" his “ Therapeg. Vinegar, from white and from red wine ; from tics," and besides these, he is editing the “ Cyelowood, cider and beer, is often adulterated by the pædia of Practical Medicine,” which promises to addition of sulphuric, or hydrochloric, or nitric, or be a most valuable addition to our stock of medical tartaric, or oxalic acids.
literature. From his extensive acquaintance with Sugars are variously adulterated ; sand, lime, medical books and authors, he is doing what scarceplaster, &c. Potatoe starch, and a substance call- ly any other man in the country could do, briog the ed glucose, sugar of fecula, are used for this pur- work up to the knowledge of the day at the time pose.
of publication. This work is the result of the Under the name of sweet or olive oil for the labors of a joint company of the distinguished table, we have olive oil, poppy seed oil, and nut medical men of England, all working at the same oil. Olive oil is sophisticated with lard, honey, &c. period. If one man should attempt to write soch
Coffee is torrified and ground for the market. In a book, so rapidly is medical science advancing, this condition it is adulterated with chicory, beet- that by the time the last part were ready for press, roots, carrots, peas, beans, rye, &c., &c. the first would be in a great measure old, if pot
Sugar plums and confectionary are colored by obsolete. Dr. Copeland undertook this Herculean metallic salts, and are often very dangerous on this task and succeeded admirably well, although the account.
last page was written some dozen years after the Fecula of potatoes is mixed with cheese.. first, and that last page concludes not more than
Honey is adulterated with bean-flour to make it two thirds of the work, which will require, perwhite and weighty.
haps, years to complete it. This shows how much Beer and yeast are also adulterated in France, is done in literature, as well as in other things, in as well as cider and perry.
saving time, by the joint labor of companies of A large portion of the arrow root and tapioca men. For by combination, “ The Encyclopædia of sold consists of starch.
Practical Medicine" will be complete this year, and Mustard is adulterated with turnip seed and tur- up to the day in knowledge. HOLGAZAN.
Chocolate is mixed with potatoe starch, and the tallow which is unfit to make candles, or rancids grease. Even pepper and ginger are adulterated. In a
ENE Notices of New Yorks. word, there is scarcely an article of diet which is
In the "Jesultory notes” of “Holgazan,” our readers not subject to fraud of some kind in Paris, the will find notices of many new and interesting works, pabgreat centre of civilization. We have not reached lished here and abroad. We hope that our readers will apthe same degree of refinement, although it is very preciate his contributions as highly as we do. They embrace probable we are advancing as fast as can be desi- a great variety and are adapted to the tastes and pursuits
of all classes. The Literary, the Scientific, the Profesrable in the arts of sophistication.
sional man, and the amateur can all find something interThe authors of this book, Jules Garnier and esting. Since our last number, we have received the folCh. Harel, point out the mode of detecting the lowing new publications. frauds practised in the various articles mentioned. HARPER & BROTHERS. New-YORK, 1844.
We are thankful to Mr. Willis for his " Letters MEDICINES, THEIR USES AND MODE OF ADMINISTRAfrom under a Bridge.” They amused us, and may tion; including a complete conspectus of the three British perform a like service to others.
Pharmacopeias, an account of all the new remedies, and sa Among various things which have fallen in our Physician to the Jervis Street hospital, and lecturer on
appendix of formulæ. BY J. Moore Neuigan, M. D. way is Dr. Dunglison's Practice of Medicine, a materia medica and therapeutics in the Dublin school of second edition. We take leave to say, all other medicine. With notes and additions, conforming it to the opinions to the contrary, that this is a most excel- Pharmacopæia of the United States, and including all that lent book, and well worth the attention of profes- is new or important in recent improvements. By Darm sional men. The present edition is very much
Meredith Reese, A. M., M. D. Late professor in the improved in many respects, and leaves little or any
Washington University of Baltimore, &c. thing desirable to it as an elementary book, or one No CHURCH WITHOUT A Bishop; or the Controversy lie
iween the Rev. Drs. PotTS AND WAINWRIGHT. With for consultation.
a preface by the latter and an introduction and notes by Dr. Dunglison seems to be a sort of giant in an anti-sectarian. “ Semper, U'bique et ab omnibus." medical literature, and seems to possess that pecu
Religious literature is too important and extensive to be liar tact which makes him perhaps the best compi- neglected or omitted by a miscellaneous journal. Our own ler of the age, and it is no small labor to make a it a place in our columns, and we would rejoice to see it
sense, too, of its importance will always impel us to give good compilation. As an evidence of his ability substituted for the demoralising trash that has been inus to produce, we may mention a new edition of his dating the country under the name of " cheap literature"