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without them would either never exist at all, or be mere abortions. 5. This Institution is the source of all Industry and Economy. Industry is the source, and Economy the preservation, of all the comfortable subsistence of man. But Industry, as is proverbially observed, is not natural to the human race. On the contrary, it is the result of education, and habit, only. Accordingly, the Savages of all Countries, being uneducated to industrious exertion, are lazy in the extreme; and are roused to toil, only by the calls of Hunger. This habit cannot even be begun, as the education, whence it is derived, cannot exist to any considerable extent, but in families; nor by any other persons, except Parents; nor at any other period, beside childhood. Without families, indeed, Industry would not exist: and without Industry the world would be a desert. Economy is not less necessary to human comfort, than Industry; and is still more unnatural to man. It demands the attention of every day to those things, which we are to preserve; and this attention is more irksome, than labour itself. Fewer persons overcome their reluctance to it. Savages are always Squanderers. Exposed as they perpetually are to want and famine; and frequently, and distressingly, as they suffer from these evils; such is their reluctance to this employment, that they go on from age to age, wasting, suffering, and perishing. Early, watchful, and long-continued Education will alone establish a habit either of Industry, or Economy. The attention, the authority, and the example, of Parents are all equally, and indispensably, necessary to the creation of this habit: and, without them all, it cannot in any extensive manner exist. Savages, indeed, have families; and are married parents. It may, therefore, be asked, why their children are not educated to these habits. The answer I have already given. Neither the attention, authority, nor example, of Savage Parents are at all exerted for this end, so far as their male children are concerned; and very imperfectly with respect to those of the other sex. Of these, however, both the Industry and Economy fully answer to the degree of Education, which they receive; and to the opportunities, Vol. IV. 30
which they enjoy of exercising them. My position is, that, without a domestic education, these things would never exist: not that that education, be it what it may, or that a mere domestic existence, will give them birth. Besides, Savage Parents neither understand, nor perform, the great body of duties, created by this Institution. Yet even they, in these, as well as in other important, particulars, derive real and considerable advantages from the domestic state. Without Industry and Economy, what would become of mankind 2 Their enjoyments, their improvements, their virtues, and their hopes, would all vanish at once : nay, their very subsistence would disappear. The earth, within a few years, would be emptied of ninety-nine hundredths of its inhabitants. Europe would be changed into a Lapland waste; and these States into a Patagonian forest. 6. This Institution is the source of all Education to useful Knowledge, and to Civility and Sweetness of Manners. Parents are the only persons, who love children sufficiently well to be anxious about their Education in any thing. Nor would any others support them, while obtaining their Education. No others would teach them those indispensable things, which they learn at home. By whom are schools built? By a Collection of families. By whom are the Instructors supported ? By a Collection of Families, assembled in a neighbourhood. By whom are Colleges erected; Instructors sustained; Libraries furnished; and other means of superior education supplied ? By larger Collections of families: such Collections, as have actually raised these buildings; stocked them with all their furniture; and sent hither the youths, who are now before me, for Education. Education occupies a great part of childhood and youth; and is a long-continued, laborious, expensive, and often a discouraging, concern. Ordinary feelings would supply neither the labour, nor the expense. Parents, only, experience the necessary affection. Families, only, could sustain the necessary expense. Much of the Education of Children is furnished by Example; and is dependent on the propensity to imitation. This princi
ple operates powerfully upon children in the early periods of life, because it is stronger at that, than at any future, age; and because they are continually in the midst of those, whose example they are most disposed to follow, both from peculiar affection, and from the fact, that it is always before them. But the efficacy of this principle operates powerfully, also, in another way. Parents love to be like other Parents, and to have their children like other children. When, therefore, the children of one family are furnished with the advantages of Education; the Parents of other children, in the neighbourhood, are prompted to educate them also; not only by ambition, but by the general disposition, which we have to be like others. At the same time, and under the same authority of Parents, Civility and Softness of Manners are begun, and established, in families. Here, only, arise the affections, out of which this ornamental part of the human character springs. In no other place, among no other persons, and in no other circumstances, can these affections find their proper objects, or their proper motives. Of course, in no other place can they begin to exist. Much less can they elsewhere find room for that continual exercise, that delightful interchange, which is absolutely necessary to their strength and permanency. From families only, therefore, can the world derive the innumerable blessings, flowing from these Sources. 7. This Institution is the source of all Subordination, and Government; and, consequently, of all Order, Peace, and Safety, in the world. In a family, Children are taught, as soon as they are taught any thing, to obey; and to obey those, who, loving them tenderly, are the fit, and the only fit, persons to govern them, or to teach them submission and obedience. Others would rule them only with the rod of power; with a despotism, from which they would think it a privilege to escape; a dominion, from which, as soon as possible, they would revolt; an authority, which they would hate; and submission to which would be such an evil, as naturally to make them hate all other authority. But Parents rule with tenderness and love; and usually engage the strong affection of Children to the authority, which they exercise, and to themselves, while exercising it. The Children learn to obey from choice; and are pleased with the very employment of obeying. Obedience is also taught, here, in that early period of life, at which it is impressed so deeply, as never to be effaced. Impressions of every kind, made at this period, are, it is well known, indelible; and survive all others; especially, when made by those, in whom tenderness and authority are united, and to whom reverence and affection are rendered in the highest degree. This, however, is not all. These impressions are daily and hourly repeated; and by this repetition are gradually wrought into an immoveable habit. In this manner they become the only visible nature of the child; and constitute his chief. and often his only, character. In this manner, and only in this manner, are children effectually prepared to submit to all other lawful authority. In this manner they become peaceful, and orderly, through life; imbibe a spirit of respect and kindness towards others; are formed into good members of society, and fitted to sustain the character of good neighbours and good friends. Equally necessary is this discipline to make them good Subjects, and good Magistrates. Few persons are good Subjects of Civil Government, who have not been trained to this character by a wise domestic administration: and not one of these would sustain this character, but for the example of those, who have been thus trained. It is proverbially true, also, that none are qualified to govern, except those, who have early learned to obey. In hardly any thing is the Institution of Marriage, and the consequent formation of Families, exhibited as more necessary, or more wise, than in this origination, and establishment, of good order in the world. “Order,” as Mr. Pope has justly observed, “ is Heaven's first law.” The great task of establishing it among such beings, as we are; selfish, revolting, and refractory; God has assigned to an innumerable multitude of hands: a multitude sufficiently great to receive it in portions, so small and so circumstanced, as to insure both the ability, and the inclination, to accomplish it effectually. These portions are so small, as to involve only the children of a single family. To this little flock
are given, regularly, two Rulers, better disposed, and better qualified, in almost all instances, than any other persons, found in the world. The circumstances, in which those are placed, who are to be governed, are more favourable to the accomplishment of this great end, than any others can be. Their infancy, childhood, and youth, in succession; their ignorance, feebleness, dependence; the affection, superiority, care, and kindness, of the Parents; and the instinctive love, and reverence, of the children; together with their necessary and long-continued residence in the parental mansion; present to the contemplative eye a combination of things evidencing, by their supreme and singular adaptation to this important purpose, a glorious work of the Wisdom of God. Fewer hands could not possibly accomplish this mighty task. All the wisdom of Legislation, all the energy of Despotism, would be spent upon it in vain. Millions of minds, and tongues, and hands, are indispensable to it, even in a single Country. It is, beyond calculation, a greater and more arduous work, than all the labours of all Rulers, Legislative, Executive, and Judicial, united. Nor could those, to whom it is entrusted, accomplish it in any other circumstances. Children, grown up to manhood without government, could never be governed. A generation of such children would set at defiance all the laws, and magistrates, in the Universe; and would never yield to any control, but that of the sword. Were Parents to intermit their labours, during a single generation, no Government could, thenceforth, exist in that Country, until terrible necessity should force upon it a military despotism. Anarchy, until that period, would rear its wild misrule, ravage every human interest, and rase every human dwelling. In this very land, flourishing and wantoning in all the blossings of Liberty, the musquet, the dungeon, and the gibbet, would be the only means of public peace, order, and safety.
8. Marriage is the source of all the Religion which exists in the world.
This important truth is completely evident from the following particulars.
In the first place, Persons, living in promiscuous concubinage. are never themselves religious.