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very sight of a drunkard, his gesticu- || the song of gladness swell and be heard lations, his bickup and half articulated from the Hudson to the Delaware, words, his reeling and tottering, are from the Delaware to the Susquehanenough to make a sober man ashamednah, from the Susquehannah the wesof his species. The actual distressestern waters shall catch the inspiring occasioned by drunkenness are be- notes, and all unite in one harmonious yond the power of description. How concert of mutual congratulations. many wives and children are reduced Willing and forward to give your to beggary and starvation by drunken influence in such a cause as this, and husbands and fathers ?

in view of such motives, do you ask, Intemperance, in its lowest grade, what? We answer in three words, is an evil, and ought to be shunned as your names, your examples, and your the almost certain precursor to inevi-combined efforts. And thus forming table distruction. It almost for ever a phalanx against the common enemy, casts down those who step foot upon God assisting, we may indulge the its enchanted ground. Its grasp is pleasing hope that this institution shall death. It is easy falling; many go live, shall survive us, pass down to down into the pit, but not one of a posterity unimpaired, and prevail unthousand returns. You had better til it shall be embosomed in the perventure upon the brim of the crater of|| fection of millennial glory, which shall burning Etna, than be op terms of in-|| supercede the father necessity of fortimacy with the intoxicating draught.ming and maintaining moral socie“Touch not, taste not, handle not,” |ties, for the suppression of vice and should be inscribed in capitals on the the encouragement of virtue. vessels of every man who hopes to escape the fatal snare. Therefore, the

BIOGRAPHY wise man said, “Look not thou up- OF THE VENERABLE MR. HOOKER, on the wine when it is red, when it (Concluded from p, 296.) giveth his colour in the cup, when it

As the church in Hartford was the moveth itself aright; at the last it bit-largest in the colony, their proceedings eth like a serpent and stingeth like an were generally considered a model for adder.”

the others. It was also well underNow, brethren, for our own sakes, stood that the ecclesiastical transacfor the sakes of our families, of our tions of that period would be regardneighbors, of our country, and of the ed as precedents, and have an imporhonor of God, is it not incumbent on tant influence in succeeding to set our faces as flints against these These considerations lay with all their and all other crying abominations, and weight upon the mind of Mr. Hooker, volunteer the last particle of our influ- to whom the other churches as well as unce to suppress them? Succeeding his own looked for their constant guide, in this noble attempt, we shall rear on and called forth all the resources of their ruins an altar to virtuous order, || his mind, and all the fervor of his inwhose incense shall spread a fragrance tercessions for direction from on high. over society which shall be a blessing It is impossible for us to conceive the indeed. Then shall the holy sabbath anxiety and solicitude which such a be respected, profanity and intemper-state of things must occasion. They ance hide their heads, and every vice were striking out a new path, no landbecome disgraceful. Then " insteadmarks were before them, no establishof the thorn, shall come up the fig-tree, ed usages to direct their steps, no comand instead of the briar, shall come up mon habits for a basis of their regulathe myrtle-tree.” Then shall the tions, the history of the church since mountains clap their wings, the little the primitive times furnishing no sam. hills leap for joy, and the valleys re-ple for their guide. But that God, spond in delightful accents; then shall who led our fathers into the wilderness,

provided one who possessed the confi- || ward of all your labors.” He replied, lence of all. As the confidence of all “ Brother, I am going to receive merhearts in WASHINGTON, was the only cy.” The peace which he had enjoycommon bond of union possessed by ed in the Christian hope, with little in

he United States, previous to the es-terruption, for thirty years, now rose tablishment of the government, the|to a fulf assurance of faith. He cloconfidence of the people in the Con- sed his own eyes, and with an inex"necticut Colony, reposed in Mr. Hook-pressible serenity on his countenance, 'er, was, for their ecclesiastical inter- slept for the resurrection morning. ests at least, their great bond of union, He died July 7th, 1647, in the sixtyand the sure pledge of their tranquilli- first year of his age. A venerable ty. No event which could effect the spectator of this scene wrote to Mr. interests of the churches escaped his Cotton, “ Truly, Sir, the sight of his attention, bre deemed no efforts too death, will make me have more pleasgreat for their welfare, and his exer- ant thoughts of dying, than ever I yet stions were eminently attended with had in my life.” His people were or

the divine blessing: His church were|phans, the colony was in tears, all the eminently distinguished for purity of colonies were in deep affliction. gospel sentiment, for great faithfulness The history of the church scarcely be in the duties of religion, for examples furnishes a man who has brought ey of watchfulness and prayer, and for qual ability, and equal zeal, to pro

great attainments in the divine life.-mote the interests of Zion, with Mr. v His people enjoyed great harmony, Hooker. To this object he was whol

an uncommon purity of morals, and, ly devoted. He not only felt occain repeated instances, the signal mani- sionally, like most Christians, that he festations of divine grace.

was willing to spend and be spent for But God would teach the infant col-the church of God, but this was the ony that their dependence must be on uniform feeling and the uniform con5. him alone. In their weak and fearful duct of his life. He appears to have e state, they must mourn the extinction had no ambition of being a party-man, w of their most brilliant light. He who | or of getting an artificial distinction by 1 has always exercised the right of re-opposition, when he relinquished the tre moving from the world the great pil- | fairest prospects of ecclesiastical preP Lars of the church in the midst of their ferment and risked every comfort, to is day, would now call this lonely peo-vindicate the pure principles of the i ple to adore his holy, unsearchable gospel of Christ. He went to Holland 6 wisdom. After preaching and admin with the hope of seeing Christian un istering the sacrament of the Lord's churches established in uncorrupted er supper, with great fervor and solemni-gospel order. Disappointed in his

ty, with his usual vigor of inind and hopes, be bid a final adieu to his naCË health, Mr. Hooker was seized with antive country, well apprized of the bé epidemical sickness then prevalent in toils of the American wilderness, for k the town, which soon assumed symp- the same object. No discouragement ri toms that were alarming. His sick-or success relaxed his zeal, no obstaun ness was short and violent, and de- cle disheartened his exertions to the 1 prived him to a cousiderable degree end of his days. His wisdom and u of the ability for conversation. Being counsel were much improved in the be asked to give his counsel and express | civil interests of the colony, but he chi his apprehension concerning some im-ever acted the civilian, only as suborpo portant things, he observed “I have dinate to the interests of the church. o not that work now to do; I have al-He and his coadjutors were indeed & ready declared the counsel of the laying a foundation of a Christiar Go Lord.” A weeping friend said to him, Cominonwealth, for the honor of

Sir, you are going to receive the re- | Christ. In this view, no part of their

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system could fail to engage his deep- y acquired, not more from the ačni est concern. But instead of an am-ness of his discernment, than from a bitious solicitude to rear a powerful thorough acquaintance with himselt state, to try the experiments of polit. He had long made his own heart, in its ical philosophy, or to obtain a name natural and sanctified state, the sub among the Numas and Solons of the ject of his most watchful study an world, it was his great concern to pre-persevering attention. The know! pare a habitation for the Lord of Hosts. | edge thus obtained, was one of the To the religious concerns of his peo first qualifications for his great useful ple of the colony, and of the united col-ness. During his whole ministry, be onies, he devoted his utmost labors.- was much resorted to for instruction, He was a great student, spent much | by enquiring sinners, by desponding time in his study, in preparing for his Christians, by various characters who public ministrations, and in providing would know more of gospel truth, and the ablest vindication of his pure doc- more of duty. He had a most happy trines and precepts of the gospel. To talent at resolving cases of conscience, the discipline of the church, he was and applying divine truth in circumgreatly attentive. He was quick to stances of doubt and difficulty. notice any error or immorality, but, Wherever he was, he had the hap by timely and persevering exertions, piness to possess a very uncommon generally procured them to be cor- degree of ivfluence. This arose from rected, without bringing them into pub- his known ability, and his unshaken lic notice. Though he viewed the integrity. During his residence in censures of the church lawful and im-Essex, a number of his brethren in the portant, he thought they ought, as far ministry who had been undecided as possible, to be avoided. During his in many religious sentiments, became pastoral connections with his church,|| by his means, principally, fully estabfor fourteen years, but one member | lished in evangelical doctrines. By was publicly admonished, and butone his exertions also, a number of pious, was ex-communicated. In church || faithful ministers were settled in that meetings, he always endeavored to country. He succeeded, further, in prevent debate. When any important persuading his brethren, to set up question was to be decided, he took monthly meetings for religious conferpains to have the ruling elders, and|ences, fasting, and prayer, which were others of the principal members, fully long observed by many ministers of possessed of the subject, that they that vicinity, to their peculiar benefit. might be prepared to act with una- In Holland he was equally influential, nimity. If material difference of sen- so far as he was known. In Newtiment appeared in the church, he | England, his influence, in ecclesiasticwould procure an adjournment of the al transactions, was not exceeded, if meeting, that they might confer with equalled, by that of any other man.each other in a private manner, and They knew the soundness of his judgthus prevent the evils of disunion.- || ment, the extent of his information, Mr. Hooker preached much at home, the purity of his intentions; qualities in the neighboring places, and in the which never fail to procure an influother colonies. Whenever he was atence, and they had often realized their Boston, which was frequent, great worth. congregations assembled to enjoy his Mr. Hooker's labors, in his Lord's public ministrations, while many re- vineyard, were eventually attended sorted to him for Christian counsel, as with the divine blessing. Few per. well with the concerns of the church- sons have been more useful, while liv. es, as those of individuals.

ing, with ministers, than he. In his inMr. Hooker possesed a great knowl-tercourse with his brethren, he edge of the human character. This he signally successful in bringing them





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i to just views of divine truth, and of the excited. He had one, in a high deinteresting importance of the work in gree, which, of all passions, is perhaps

which they were engaged. His ef- the hardest for a Christian to subdue ; beg forts to enlighten, guide, and reclaim a passion for literary fame. This is so 2, Christian churches, were productive of nearly allied to a just desire of useful* good which cannot be duly apprecia-||ness, that there are but few good men bited till we arrive in the eternal state. who can manage it at all. Mr. Hook

In his preaching, he instructed anıl re-er rendered this, as well as all his buked with an authority which would|other affections, subservient to the appal error and confound vice; he ex-| love and service of the lowly Nazahorted and warned with an affection rene. In the later periods of his life,

which would move every heart. His|he was seldom kuown to be discompoa aspect bore a solemnity and tender-sed; quietness and benevolence markito ness, worthy of an ambassailor fored his countenance in all his conduct.

Christ. Though he was thoroughly He bore opposition and reproach, he versed in all the religious controver- bore the obstinacy and follies of

men, sies of that day, he did not introduce without murmur or complaint.

them in his ordinary discourses.- He was to a very eminent degree, di Those, as well as deep metaphysical a man of prayer. On some occasions,

disquisitions, he considered, ordinarily, the fervor and apparent confidence unprofitable and improper for the pul- which he exhibited, astonished every pit. Though he wrote many sermons, hearer. Some instances are recorded, and wrote with great attention on most in which he obtained remarkable angospel subjects, he generally preached|swers to prayer. In the year 1643, without notes. This was the usual there was a war between the Mohea

practice of the puritans of his time.- gan and the Naraganset Indians.Aline

He spoke with great aniination, his The latter were a very warlike tribe, ideas were clear, his language was cor- and many times the most numerous. rect, which together with the pathos They designed to destroy the colony,

infused into all his discourses, which while the Moheagans were friends. d!

no artificial zeal can imitate, rendered on an occasion of prayer in reference him one of the most popular preach-||to an expected battle, Mr. Hooker ers of the age.

was observed to pray with an unusual Mr. Hooker was a most eminent ex- and persevering importunity, pleading ample of the Christian life. As it with God for the remembrance of his pleased God to give him an unusual gracious promise, I will bless them share of divine grace, he ever impro-||That bless thee, and curse him that cursved his talent with the utmost dili- |elh thee. The expected battle took gence. The long struggle of his heart, place, in which the Moheagans gained during the period of his convictions, a great victory, which produced a convinced him of its exceeding corrup- peace between the tribes, and quieted tions, and of the necessity of maintain the fears of the colony. ing an unremitted warfare with sin. This servant of Christ was ever He was distinguished for a singular mindful of the directions of his Lord watchfulness and circumspection in for deeds of charity. “ It was no rare

all his conduct, mindful of the many thing for him to give sometimes five 11

admonitions of his Lord, which teachpounds, sometimes ten pounds, at a us that we are always in danger of time, towards the support of widows wounding our own souls and dishonor- and orphans, especially those of de

ing him. He obtained an almost per- ceased ministers." On a certain oc11

fect command of himself. He pos-casion, the people at Southampton on sessed, by nature, a very strong spirit, Long-Island being in a needy state, his passions were ardent, and easily Mr. Hooker and a few others freight

VOL. 2. $9 他 the

ed a small vessel with several hundred

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bushels of corn, and sent to their re-| be a very difficult, nor even undesiralief.*

ble task to turn back the imputation of Several volumes of Mr. Hooker's fatalism upon those who deny the doc. sermons were printed before and af- trine of God's sovereign, holy and ter his death. But his most valuable niversal decrees. Let it then be asi work is entitled A Survey of Church serted, that all those who deny the de: Discipline. In this, he vindicates, crees of God are fatalists; and then see with great ability, the order of Chris- if what follows does not support the tian churches, agreeablŷ to the sen- | assertion. What is meant by the unitiments generally maintained by Pres-versal decrees of God, is not difficult ident Edwards and Dr. Hopkins, and to understand. They are his eternal shows the lawfulness and expediency purpose, according to the counsel of his of the Consociation of churches, for own will, whereby, for his own glory, their mutual benefit, and preservation he hath foreordained whatsoever comes in the truth.

lo pass. God's efficient will, or deterA cotemporary of Mr. Hooker, amination, which gives being to all man distinguished for learning and pi-| creatures, things and events throughety, and for a great knowledge of men, |out the universe, is his decree. What said of him, after much acquaintance, is meant by fate is, perhaps, more diffi“ he had not thought there had been cult to be clearly understood. There such a man on earth ; a man in whom are several senses in which the word learning and wisdom were so temper-| fate is used ; but that which is most ed with zeal, holiness, and watchful-common is hardly definable. It seems, ness.” He was prepared in the holy however, to import some unknown, providence of God to plant these un unintelligent, undescribable and eterhallowed fields, he now rests in the pal destiny, by which all things are joy of his Lord.

unalterably fixed in an absolutely ne. cessary chain of causes and effects. This fate, according to the ancient

stoics, was superior to all the heather It is not uncommon for those, who gods, who were subject to its decrees. deny the doctrine of the universal de-Even omnipotent" Jupiter, with all his crees of God, to charge those who be- | potent council, could not alter or conlieve that he foreordained whatsoever trol the events fixed by this superior comes to pass, as holding to fatalism ; destiny. This is the most intelligible and consequently as being fatalists. view the writer can give of fate. This is used as a term of reproach, at Now to provę, that they who deny which the minds of many are apt to the universal decrees of God are fatal. revolt, and therefore it is believed, ists, we need only the use of this selfthat this opprobrious charge has had evident position, viz. every event must great influence upon many, and led be the effect of an efficient cause. This them to reject the salutary doctrine of|| is a fundamental principle of all just God's universal decrees. It is the reasoning. The whole universe must usual practice with disputers and con- have an adequate efficient cause of its troversial writers to retort, if possible, existence. All the things in the unithe arguments and charges of their verse must have an efficient cause, opponents, and thus to confound them which gave them their being and form with their own weapons. The writer -and all events, of every nature and of this does not recollect of ever read-kind, must have a primary cause, by ing or hearing any thing, in which a whose efficiency they are produced in retort of this charge has been attempt-their time, place and manner. This, ed. It is conceived, however, not to it seems, is true, beyond all reasona.

* Notwithstanding his liberality, he left able doubt. Now let the inquiry be good estate at his death.

made, What is this primary, efficient



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