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habits and of her very limited acquire- she earnestly desires to be delivered ments, are not of this elevated charac- The idea that the singular manne ter. Hers are the thoughts and the in which Miss Baker is affected is om language of all enthusiasts. I have ing to some secret physical cause, frequently heard at the meetings of confirmed by the mode in which be methodists and of baptists, both ser- paroxysm comes on. She at first film mons and prayers of a similar strain.into a gentle slumber; she is then seit: There is little or no connection among ed with a short convulsive struggle, & the several subjects upon which her the termination of which she breaki mind is exercised. She is incoherent out into pious declamation, after the and unintelligible, and wanders from usual manner among the preachers topic to topic; governed entirely by her sect. Hence I am inclined to soaccidental associations. The necessi- ||pect that sleep is some how or other ty of repentance; the terrors of dam- connected with her disorder. nation; and the enjoyments and hap- Sleep is a state of the system very piness of celestial beings, are the prin- analogous to madness, in many res cipal objects of her thoughts, and the pects. There is in the sleeper the burden of her prayers and exhorta- same want of power over the princi: tions. The image of the Deity sitting ple of association, the same involunta: upon the throne of Heaven; the glory ry current of thought, as in the mad of his presence; the beauty, the mag-man. The powers of conception and nificent attire of the saints who attend imagination, on the other hand, are him, and the ravishing music of their more vigorous in both than in their wä: voices, singing to his praise, are the king rational moments. There is this subjects she is most fond of contem-difference only, that the madmap re plating. All this she appears to real-tains the use of his limbs and his sens ize, and she declares to her audience es, which the sleeper generally looses. that she sees and bears it. The illu- | But even the latter sometimes presion is like many others which are serve the powers of action and lococonfessedly the effects of madness.- motion. What is the state of the mind Insanity is a disease wbich exists in a in a sleeping madman I do not know thousand different degrees, and in a that we have ever discovered; but I thousand different forms; it frequent- | think we may conjecture that it is not ly exhibits itself in shapes which puz- very different from that of a sleeper zle the most ingenious philosophers, in full possession of his reason. The and the most attentive observer of the change from waking to sleeping is ex phenomenon of the human mind.--Its ceedingly mysterious ; and perhaps most remarkable characteristics are we shall never be able to understand the total oblivion which a fit of phren- it thoroughly. But that it is a physic zy leaves behind it of all the thoughts al effect seems to be certain. It is an and actions to which it gave birth; | affection of the mind by means of an and the sullen aversion a madman dis- | alteration in the state of the body.plays in his lucid intervals to be told And, since that affection of the mind of what he has done and said, while which it produces is so nearly allied to under the influence of his disease. madness, there is some probability in These symptoms of insanity shew the conjecture, that the same phyical themselves manifestly in the case of|cause may be concerned in both phe. Rachel Baker. All that passes during nomena. Hence they may both take her paroxysm she forgets as soon as it place at the same time in the same in: is over; and the mention of her disor-dividual. Owing to some peculiarity der displeases her. She speaks of it, of bodily structure, or some particular when she can be induced to say any state of the system, which is not to be thing on the subject, as a misfortune detected by external appearances, the much to be lamented, and from which two effects may becomeso connected,

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that the one will follow the other.- || accompanied or followed with an inAnd thus it may happen, that falling finitely overbalancing good. Some of asleep will invariably induce a fit of the advocates for this doctrine deny, cinsanity, or at least something approx- that there will be any future punishnimating near to a state of mental de- ment whatever; and all of them, that le rangement. How far this connex- there will be any more than a tempotion exists, I think might be ascertainedrary one ; and this to be followed by izby a series of experiments. Should a state of endless felicity; for the highit be found on trial, that the parox-er and more sensible enjoyment of liysms to which Miss Baker is subject, which, men will be fitted by the tem. invariably accompany the first mo-porary pains which, it is admitted, some' uments of her sleep, and on the other may be made to suffer after death. bu hand, that they do not come on until Atheism and Universalism agree in ier

, she does sleep, there will appear to be this, that no evil, on the whole, is to be wa great deal of truth in the suggestions feared by any, after death; for those

I have ventured to make. Such ex-temporary pains, which are necessary periments might be tried without any to prepare the subject for higher enjoyinconvenience to Miss Baker: and in- ment, and which are to be followed es dependently of the advantages which with on eternal weight of glory, are n a might attend thern in a philosophical | not to be considered on the whole, as e point of view, and of the light they evils. The latter sentiment, then,

might throw upon the science of mind promises an endless, everlasting good ir in general, they would in all probabil. to men of every description and charheity be of essential service to the un-acter; while the former encourages no ad fortunate female herself, by giving better hope, than that of an eternal and such a clue to the nature of her case sleep, an exemption from all future ally as would lead to its cure.


Which of these sentiments bids fair

est to engage the affections of the car. COMPARISON BETWEEN ATHEISM AND | nal heart, can admit of no dispute.

UNIVERSALISM, WITH REGARD TO For it is easy to see, that a state of

endless felicity, and that, with all the Atheism promises its votaries an ex-pains which may ever be expected emption from all evils after death; | from a Being, whose single and highand that all, of whatever character, est object is the complete and endless shall equally sink into an eternal sleep. happiness of every individual of his

The doctrine of. universal salvation creatures, greatly preferable, yea, I promises to all, of whatever character infinitely so, to a total cessation of ex

in this life, endless felicity-man eternalistence. weight of glory.

The doctrine of Universalism, espeThat Atheism tends to give the cially as denying any future punishreins to the lusts of men, and to dis- ment whatever, must gain an unspeaksolve all moral ties cannot be preference, in the carnal mind, to When all sense of accountableness to the gloomy doctrine of annihilation. an infinitely just Being, from whom The Universalist has every advantage nothing can possibly be concealed, which the Atheist can boast, without and out of whose hands no one can es- any of the disadvantages necessarily cape, is taken away, it is evident, that attendant on the principles of the latthe principal restraints, under which ter. The atheistical doctrine promises mankind in general are holden in this nothing more than a mere exemption life, are removed.

from pain, after a life of pleasure, and The doctrine of universal salvation the indulgence of every lust: while equally frees men from fears of future that of the advocates for universal evil; at least any, which shall not be salvation, in addition to deliverance

VOL. 2.

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from every lash of punitive justice, || respite, God stood by him, and more begets the hope of future glorious re- || him to exult in his obstinacy. wards, and unceasing felicity. Which the people departed out of his king of these doctrines, then, gives the dom, God stood by him, and more reins most entirely to the lusts of men,|| him to pursue after them with incre: at the same time most effectually re. sed malice and revenge. And whe moving all those restraints of fear, || God did, on such particular occasion which are of such vast importance in the did at all times." preserving the peace and order of so- The same sentiment is more largely ciety, no man in his senses can be at insisted upon, as necessary in ordert a loss.

account for the origin of moral eri Whoever would most effectually re- In a sermon on Philippians ii. 12, 13. move all the barriers of civil society,“ Work out your own salvation-FQ and open every floodgate of iniquity, it is God which worketh in you," &e. let him preach up the certainty of the one inference is, "Sinee God can wort final salvation of all men, whatever in men both to will and to do of his may be their moral character and con- good pleasure, it is as easy to accour duct in this world. And as far as this for the first offence of Adam, as for doctrine shall be believed, the greatest || any other sin. Many who believe hi restraints under which wicked men original rectitude,suppose it extremel were ever laid, will be quite removed difficult, if it is not impossible, to a and taken away.

count for bis first act of disobedience On the other hand, let all those But in as much as they acknowledge who are friends, not only to the souls the fact, they endeavor in some way of men, but to the peace and welfare to solve the difficulty. Some say that of civil society, cultivate the belief, and Adam, being necessarily dependant, continually act under the influence of was necessarily mutable, and liable to that solemn and interesting truth, oftenfall. It is true indeed, that Adam was taught by the great Saviour of men, necessarily dependant, and liable to that, except we repent, we shall all fall : but by whom was be exposed perish.

this evil ? Not by hiinself, not by Sa

tan, not by any created agent. God DR. SMALLEY'S REMARKS. can make creatures inimutable with (Continued from p. 313.)

respect to all beings but himself. Av Art. III. Concerning the origin and | gels and the spirits of just men above,

influential cause of all moral evil. are immutable with respect to all be

In a sermon on Exodus ix. 16. “Inings but the Deity. So long, there very deed for this cause have I raised fore, as Adam retained his original thee up,” the preacher tells us : rectitude, he was equally immutable

“ It is often thought and said, that in his moral character, and stood nothing more was necessary on God's || above the power and influence of S& part, in order to fit Pharaoh for de- ||tan, or any malignant seducer.” struction, than barely leaving him to Let us stop in this place a moment, himself. But God knew that no ex- to make one remark. Of God's being ternal means and motives would be able to make creatures as immutable sufficient, of themselves, to form his as is here asserted, and much more immoral character. He determined, |mutable, we never doubted. It used therefore, to operate on his heart itself, to be believed that the angels who and cause him to put forth certain ex- | have kept their first estate, and the ercises, in the view of certaic motives. || rits of just men above, were secured, When Moses called upon him to let not only against the power and subthe people go, God stood by him, and tilty of every malignant seducer, but moved him to refuse. When Moses | also that they were out of all danger interceded for him, and procured himlor possibility of apostatizing, by the


umafluence of their benevolent Creator.|| most abandoned sinners, who are eaAlmar But then it was thought, and we yet siest overcome by the slightest temp. ut

hink, that they were thus confirmed||tations, had natural power enough to i, en everlasting holiness and happiness, resist the most violent, by which they mwy the power and covenant engage-are ever assaulted ; and that they e nent of the Almighty: whereas Adam, would actually resist them, were they nefore his fall, had no such divine se-duly so disposed; or were it not for

urity. “So long, therefore, as the the depravity of their hearts. An apossiirst man retained his original rectitle hath told us, “Every man is temptapaude, he was equally immutable in his ed, when he is drawn away of his own of smoral charaeter," is a consequence, lust, and enticed.” But it will be said, iab ye apprehend, whịch will not follow man before the fall, had no such lust elverom the premises.

to draw him away or entice him. Ac. in. We will now return to our author.cordingly our author goes on to say: Golfle adds, " Some say that God, having “ Besides, there is an absurdity in w made man upright, left him to the free-| supposing that Adarn could have been wilom of his own will, in consequence of led into sin by the violence of any Atsvhich he sinned and fell. That God temptation, while his heart remained nowleft man to the freedom of his own will perfectly holy. For a perfectly holy imust be allowed, but how this will ac-heart perfectly hates every motive, alicount for his first transgression, is hard every suggestion, every temptation to inito conceive. Every moral agent is left|sin. This was exemplified in the conto the freedom of his own will so long duct of Christ, when he was so artfully as he remains a moral agent; because and violently assaulted by the devil. ODE freedom of will is essential to moralSatan's tempting him to disobey his agency. But if by being left to the Father's will, instead of leading him freedom of his own will, be meant,|| to comply, only served to excite his jithat God withdrew from Adan, some resentment against the tempter himdjaid or support which he had given self. And just so the devil's tempting him before, and which was necessary | Adam to eat of the forbidden fruit, in order to resist temptation; then must have excited his love, rather such suspension of divine aid or sup-|| than his hatred to God, had he report must have excused him for eating mained perfectly holy. It is impossiof the forbidden fruit : since there ble to conceive, therefore, that Adam's could have been no criminality in not pure heart was corrupted, or drawn resisting a temptation, which it was into sin, by the force of external tempabove his natural power to resist.”

REMARKS, Here again, we have an extraordi- Then man has got a heart again ! A nary assertion, and a reason assigned heart which has something belonging no less extraordinary. Would God's || to it besides exercises ! A heart which merely not continuing to afford a crea- i loves and hates ; and does pot consist ture all that aid, or influence, which merely in loving and hating! A heart would effectually enable and influence which, while man remained upright, him to resist every possible tempta- || as God made him, could not be taken tion, render the creature excusable|hold of by any motive, any suggesfor transgressing? Or would the mere i tion, any temptation, to transgress! suspension of such efficacious aid, de- This is talking like other folks; and prive a creature of natural power not like the language of the Bible. On to sin! We supposed that Adam had ne urgent occasions, the most streall his natural powers, which were nuous opposers of these orthodox senoriginally given him, when he yieldedtiments are constrained to acknow. to the enticement of Eve, to eat the ledge them, and dee for refuge to forbidden fruit. We thought that the them.

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But I much doubt, whether this ob- This is the old way of accounting vious truth can be of any avail for the for the origin and continuance of m: purpose here intended. That no oneral evil, in this world, and in the un can be induced to sin, by any tempta-verse. It has been said, “ There is tion, while continuing perfectly pure need of supposing any other divine in heart, is undoubtedly true. There gency, than only to uphold in exió was no need of adverting to the exam- ence creatures that have lost their vi ple of Christ, for proof or illustration tue, amidst surrounding temptations of this.

to account for all the evil affection To suppose that Adam could have which we ever feel, and for all the er been excited to sin, by the force of ternal wickedness that is ever com external temptation, or even by the mitted. Nor in order to the holiest more powerful internal operation of creatures losing their virtue, is ther the Almighty, so long as his heart need of supposing any more on God's was holy in perfection, is most obvi-part, than merely his not preserving in ously absurd. But that he might lose them, and constantly invigorating, his original inward uprightness,inwhole virtuous disposition." And this still or in part, and then might be drawn in- | appears to me altogether rational and to an overt-act of sin, by a temptation scriptural. Let men only cease to not the most forcible, is a supposition, || love God and their neighbor, with dis in which I am unable to see any ab-interested affection, and they natural surdity.

ly become such lovers of their owe I suppose that all creatures are ab-selves only, as will make them core solutely dependant upon the Supreme tous, proud, boasters, blasphemers

, Being, as their constant preserver; disobedient to parents, and to all and that the holiest of them are de- || rightful authority : and cause perilous pendant on him for the preservation times, animosities and contentions, of their holiness, no less than for the wars and fightings, and all manner of continuance of their natural powers, evil works. or of their natural lives. I suppose But to men fond of seeking ont that the Creator of all has an indispu- strange inventions, this solution, which table right, and is at fall liberty, except is so easy and obvious, seems wholly when he has promised the contrary, unnoticed, as worthy of no attention. to leave any creature to become a sin- That we may not render evil for ner, whenever he sees fit: and that evil, or neglect for neglect, let us at he has seen fit, for sufficiently impor-tend carefully to their solution, and tant ends, no doubt, to leave some of see if we can find it more adequate, the once holy angels of heaven, and or one less liable to objections. In our ingocent first parents in paradise, the conclusion of the inference under to fall into a state of sin and misery. consideration, after mentioning seveI suppose their first acts of disobedi-ral ways which he tells us have been ence, and even their first being of a taken, the preacher says: disposition not perfectly obedient, “ As these, and all other methods, must have been their own fault, nei- to account for the fall of Adam, by ther less nor more, than their subse- | the instrumentality of second causes, quent transgressions. I suppose that are insufficient to remove the difficul. " all unrighteousness is sin ;" and that ty, it seems necessary to have recourse all sin primarily consists in unright- to the divine agency; and to suppose eousness: that is, in the want or weak-that God wrought in Adam both to ness of a principle of righteousness will and to do, in his first transgresand true holiness. Whence it will fol- sion. As Adam acted freely, while low, that the beginning of moral del he was acted upon, before he fell; so pravity in creatures, did not require he acted freely, while he was acted creation, or a positive cause.

upon, at the moment of his fall. His

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