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and is chiefly used in poetry, where three lines rhyme alike. DIRECTIONS FOR WRITING CAPITALS.

Capitals or great letters must never be written in the middle or at the end of any word, butonly at the beginning, aud in the following cases :

At the beginning of any book, chapter, para. graph, writing, letter, or discourse: at the be: ginning of a new sentence, after a period or full stop: at the beginning of any speech, notable saying, or quotation, though a full stop does not immediately precede it : at the beginning of all proper names or special titles of persons, places, or things: at the beginning of the names of the Trinity, or any word or term that sige nifies God: at the beginning of every line in poetry, and every verse in the Bible: in the pronoun ), and the interjection 0.

Some authors, even of the first eminence, choose to begin every substantive with a capi. tal; some, the next word after a colon; and others, remarkable adjectives, and such as are put absolutely: but this method of writing is at present but very little followed.

GRAMMATICAL INSTITUTES;

OR,

GRAMMAR,*

ADAPTED TO TIIE ENGLISH TONGUE.

1.
" IN

N English there are ten kinds of words

or parts of speech, viz. article, noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, participle, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection.

ARTICLE. + 2. An article is a part of speech set before nouns to fix their vague signification : as, a man, the man; an house, the house. The articles are, an, 4, and the.

NOUN. 3. A noun or substantive, is the name of any person, place, or thing: as, John, London, honour, goodness.

* From the Greek word gramma, a letter: and is the art of expressing our thoughts with propriety, . either in speaking or writing.

+ From the Latin word articulus, a joint, or small part:

From nomen, a name,

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GRAMMATICAL INSTITUTES. 21 4. There are two numbers: the singular, which speaks of one; as, a man, a troop: and the plural, which speaks of more than one; as, men, troops.

5. The plural is usually formed by adding s to the singular: as, noon, nouns; verb, verbs,

6. When the singular ends in 0, $, *, ch, or sh, the plaral is formed by adding the syllable es: as, cargo, cargoes; miss, misses; box, boxes; peach, peaches, brush, brushes.

9. When the siugalar ends in f, or fe, the plaral is formed by changing the f or fe into ves: as, half, halves ; life, lives; except dwurf, grief, hoof, &c, which takes only to make the plural. Words that end in ff make the plural likewise by adding s only:as, muff, muffs;

; bai, liff, bailiffs; except stal, which makes staves,

8. When the singular ends in y, or ey, the plural is formed by changing they, or ey, into ics: as, lady, ladies; valley, pallies, except alley, alleys ; covey, coveys,

9. Sometimes the plural is formed by adding the syllable en; as, ox, oxen: sometimes by changing the vowel; as, man, men i and sometimes by changing the vowels and consonants ; as, penny, pençe; mouse, mice.

10. Some few words, coming immediately from the Hebrew, form the plural by adding im or in to the singular: as, cherub, cherubim, or cherubin; seraph, seraphim, or seraphin. Some from the Greek, ending in on, change the on into a: as, phænomenon, phænomena. Some from the Latin in us, ehange the us into i; as, radins, radii; magus, magi.

11. Some nouns have no plural; as, wheat, &c. others no singular; as, ashes, &c. and some are the same in both numbers; as, sheep, &c.

12. There are two genders,* the mascu. binet and the feminine. I

13. The inasculine denotes the he-kind; as, a man, a prince.

14. The feminine denotes the she-kind; as, a woman, a princess.

15. Nouns signifying things without life, are properly of no gender; as, a pen, a table.

16. By a common figure in the English tongue, the sun is of the masculine; the moon, the church, ships, and frequently countries and virtues, such as France, Spain, faith, hope, &c. are of the feminine gender.

* From genus, a sex or kind. ť From mas, the male-kind.

From ferina, a woman,

17. Here likewise it may be necessary to observe, Masculine,

Feminine,
Abbot

Abbess
Actor

Actress
Adulterer

Adulteress
Ambassador

Ambassadress
Administrator Administratrix
Baron

Baroness
Bachelor

Maid
Boar

Sow
Boy

Girl
Bridegroom

Bride
Brother

Sister
Buck

Doe
Bull

Cow
Bullock

Heifer
Cock

Hen
Count

Countess
Duke

Duchess
Dog

Bitch
Deacon

Deaconess
Drake

Duck
Elector

Electress :
Executor

Exccutriç
Emperor

Empress
Father

Mother
Friar

Nun
Governor

Governess
Gander

Goose
Husband

Wife
Horse

Mare
Heir

Meiress

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