Imágenes de páginas


Van, vanned

Whet, whetted Victual, victualled Whip, whipped Unrol, unrolled Whiz, whizzed Unwit, unwitted Win, winning

wadded Wit, witting Wag, wagged Worship, worshipped War, warred

Wot, wotted Wed, wedded Wrap, wrapped Wet, wetted

And after these examples the compounds also are formed. But it is to be observed, that such regular verbs in the foregoing catalogue as end in l, and P,

and do not bear the accent on the last syllable, may be written in the past tense and both participles eịther with a single or double l: as grovel, groveled or grovelled, groveling or grovelling; worship, worshiped or worshipped, worshiping or worshipping.

97. All verbs, that end with an e, form their second person singular in the present tense of the indicative mode by the addition of st; and the third person by adding th, or the letter s only: as, I love, thou lovest, he loreth, or he loves. But if they end with a consonant, then the se. cond person is formed by the addition of est, and the third person by adding eth, or s only---or þy adding eth, or es, when the verbs endin ss, , and o: as, I ask, thou askest, he asketh, or asks; I pass, thou passeth, he passest, or passes; I fix, thou fixest, he fixeth, or fixes; I go, thou goest, he goeth, or goes.-The following must be considered as exceptions: I am, thou art, he is; I have, thou hast, he hath, or has ; I do, thou doest, or dost, he doeth, or doth or does; I say, thou sayest, he saith, or says.

98. All regular verbs form their second person singular in the past tense of the işdicative mode by the addition of st: as, I loved, thou locedst; I asked, thou askedst.

99. Irregular verbs form their second per. son singular in the past tense, for the most part, according to the following rules:

1. If the irregular past tense terminates in d, the second person singular is formed by the ad. dition of st, in the manner or regular preterites : as, I said, thou saidst; I did, thou didstrand sometimes in the


and solemn syle, or for the sake of emphasis, thou diddest.

2. If the irregular past tense be one of the verbs that have the present and past tenses, and the passive participle, all alike, then the se. cond person is formed by the addition of edst : as, I put, thou puttedst; I shed, thou sheddedst. 3. All other irregular verbs, with very few' if any exceptions, form their second person singular in the past tense by est: as, I brake, thou brakest; I knew, thou knewest.

4. The preterites of many irregular verbs, if they be monosyllables ending with a single consonant, will double that consonant in the second person singular: as, I fed, thou feddest; I met, thou mettest.

Our language has a strong tendency to double the consonant in this person, as may be seen in the words, diddest, puttedst, sheddedst, or shededst, or shedst, which are abbreviations of the second d.

PARTICIPLE.* 100. A participle is derived of a verb, and partakes of the nature both of the verb and the adjective.

* From participo, tó partake. Note 100. The participle, so far as it.expresses the circumstance of the noun to which it is joined by the neuter verb, has the nature of an adjective; but as implying the action of some agent, it has the nature of the verb.

The passive participle seems to have been invented more full to express that influence or dependence which the agent and object of a verb have on each

* John loves Elizabeth; or, Elizabeth is loved by John. The King wrote the letter; or, the letter was written by the King."

Here loved and written, so far as they express the

other: as,

101. There are two participles pertaining to the verbs; the active which always ends in ing; and the passive, which, for the most part, ends in ed: as, from the verb call are derived the participles calling and called. In the formation of the participles, if the verb ends in e, the e is omitted : as, love, loving, loved. If it ends in a single consonant, preceded by a single vowel bearing the accent, that consonant is doubled: as commit, committing, committed. But on this head see more fully under the Verb.

102. The passive participle is, for the most circumstances of the nouns to which they are joined by che neuter verb, may be considered as adjectives; but in another view, as they imply the action or force of some agent, or compulsive cause, they may be considered as verbs.

Heuce it is, that verbs intransitive, which have no object, can have no passive participle. Some of them have a participial form joined to the neuter verb: as,

the man is fallen; the sun is risen.” But as fallen and risen have no reference to any agent or compulsive cause different from the subject of the verb, so they cannot with any propriety be denominated passive participles': and notwithstanding their form, they differ very little, if any thing, from conton adjectives.

The same thing may be observed of the active participle : :as, “ the master is writing; the horse is trotting.Here the participle implies both the circumstance and the action of the noun to which it is joined by the neuter verb, and therefore has the property of a participle. But if we use the same word in a merely descriptive sense : as," the writing master ; tbe trotting horse;" it loses the property of a participle, and becomes a mere adjective,

part, the same with the preter or past tense of the verb, but in both these there are many irregularities; the chief of which may be gathered from the following catalogue. Present. Preter.

Parti. Bake baked

baked, baken Begin began

begun Bear .. bore

borne bare

born Beat beat

beaten Behold beheld


beholden Bend

bended, bent bent Bereave bereft

bercaved, bereft Beseech besought besought Bid bid

bidden Bind bound

bound Bite bit

bitten Bleed bled

bled, blooded Blow blowed

blowed blew

blown Break broke, brake broken Breed bred

bred Bring brought brought Bnild built

builded, built Buy

bought bought Catch canght

catehed, catcht Chide chid

chid, chidden Choose chose

chosen Cleave clove, clave cloven, cleft Clothe clad

clothed, clad Creep creeped, crept creeped, crept

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