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truly good man; he is secretly plotting ; he writes very correctly.

106. Some adverbs admit of comparison : as often, oftener, oftenest; soon, sooner, soonest:

of them are compared by other adverbs, much, more, most, &c.

NOTE. Adverbs have relation to time; as, now, then, lately, &c. to place; as, here, there, &c. to number; as, once, twice, &c.

and many

OF A CONJUNCTION.* 107. A conjunction is a part of speech that joins words or sentences together : as, albeit, allhough, altho', and, because, but, either, else, however, if, namely, neither, nor, or, though, tho', therefore, thereupon, unless, whereas, whereupon, whether, yet. · The foregoing are always conjunctions : but these six following are sometimes adverbs; also, as, otherwise, since, likewise, then. Except and save are sometimes verbs; for, sometimes a preposition, and that, sometimes a pronoun,


108. A preposition is a word set. before nouns, or pronouns, to express the relations of persons, places, or things, to each other: as, he came to and stood before the city.

* From con, with, and jungo, to join. + From præ, before, and pono, to place.

Prepositions used in this sense are such as follow; about, above, after, against, among, amongst, at, before, behind, below, beneath, between, beyond, by, for, from, in, into, off, on, upon, over, through, to, unto, towards, under, with, within, without.

OF AN INTERJECTION.* 109. An interjection is a word that ex. presses any sudden motion of the mind, transported with the sensation of pleasure or pain : as, O! Oh! Alas! Lo!

SYNTAX.+ Syntax shows the agreement and right disa posion of words in a sentence.

110. The articles, a, and an, are used only before nouns of the singular number: an, before a word that begins with a vowel ; a, before a word that begins with a consonant; an, ord, before a word that begins with h: as,

chris. tian, an infidel, an heathen, or a heathen." But if the h be not sounded, then the article an is only used: as, an hour, an herb." * From inter, between, and jacio, to throw.

+ From syntaris, a joining.

66 the man,

111. A and an are indefinite:


a man, a house;" 1. e. any man, any house, without distinction. But the is definite; as, the house;" i.e.. some one man, some one, house, in particular,

112. The is likewise used to distinguish two or more persons or things mentioned before: as, " the men,”(not the women); "the lords” (as distinguished from the commons).

113. The verb agrees with its noun, or pronoun, i. e. with its agent, or subject, in num. ber and person : as, the boys zrite; I love ; he, who reads.114. In the complaisant style, it is common to

you instead of thou, when we speak to one person only; and in that case it has a plural verb joined with it: as,"you are my brother."

115. A noun of multitude, of the singular number, may have a verb either singular or plural: as, “ the people is mad;" or, “ the people are mad.” The latter expression seems to be the more elegant.


NOTE 113. This agent, or subject, is always found by asking the question, who, or what, on the verb: as, who write? The answer to the question is boys; which word is the agent of the verb, crite.

116. When two or more nouns, or pronouns, are connected together in a sentence, as joint agents, or subjects, they must have a plural verb, though they should be each of the singu. lar number: as, the man and his wife are happy; I and he were there; Richard and I have been very busy.”

117. Sometimes a sentence, or an infinitive mode, is the subject of a verb; and then the verb must be put in the singular number and third person: as, “the king and queen appearing in public, was the cause of my going; to see the sun is pleasant.”.

118. When the agent and object of a verb are not distinguished (as in nouns) by different cases, the agent is always set before, and the object after the verb; this being the natural order, and necessary to determine the sense; as, “ Alexander conquered Darius.If Darius had been the conqueror, it is plain that the order of the nouns must have been inverted.

119. The agent or subject is most commonly set immediately before the verb, or the sign of the verb: as,

" the man lives; the city hath stood a thousand years." In the imperative


mode, however, it is set after the verb: as, “ love thou; be thou happy.” Also, when a question is asked it is set after the verb, or between the sign and the verb: as, are you there? doth the king live?"

120. The pronouns I, we, thou, ye, he, she, they, and who are always used when they stand as the agent of an active, or the subject of the neuter verb: as, I see; he loves; we are; they go; that is the person who passed us yesa terday.”

121. The noun or pronoun which receives the force of the active verb, is most commonly set after the verb: as 66 I love the man.But the relative, whom or whomsoever, is always set before the verb: as, man,

whom I love, is absent.”

122. The accusative case of a pronoun is always used, when it receives the force or impression of the active verb, or active parti. ciple, or comes after the infinitive mode of the neuter verb: as, “ he calls me, she is beating them; I suppose it to be him.

123. When a pronoun is set alone in answer to a question, or follows the present or imper.


66 the

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