« AnteriorContinuar »
fect tense of the neuter verb, it must be putin the nominative case: as, “ who did it? I, i. e. · I did it; I was he that said so."
124. The passive participle, and not the past tense, should be always used when joined in a sentence with the neuter verb: as, “it was written (not it was wrote) in Hebrew."
125. That form of the tenses in verbs, which is distinguished by the active participle, is used with strict propriety, when we would express the continuance of an action : as, I have been writing a long time; I shall be writing all the week.”
126. The auxiliary signs, do and did, and their inflections, doth, dost, or does, and didst, ought to be used only for the sake of empha
I do love; he did go.” 127. Shall is used in the first person barely to express the future action or event; as, “ I shall do it: but, in the second and third, it promises, or commands; as, “ you shall do it.” On the contrary, will, in the second and third persons, barely expresses the future action or event; as, “ you will do it: but, in the first, it promises, or threatens; as, “ I will do it.”
128, The terminations cth, ed, and the parti
cipiat form of the verb, are used in the grave and formal style; but s,'d, and the form of the past tense, in the free and familiar style: as (gravely), “che hath loved; the man hath spoken, and still speaketh;” (familiarly), “ he has lov'd; the man has spoke, and still speaks.”
129. When two nouns come together with the preposition of between them, denoting possession, the latter may be made the genitive case and set before the other : as, property of the men ; the men's property.”
130. Pronouns must always agree with the nouns for which they stand, or to which they refer, in number, person, and gender: as, " the sun shines, and his race is appointed to him; the moon appears, and she shines with light, but not her own; the sea swells, it roars, and what can repel its force? this man, these women."
131. The neuter pronoun, by an idiom pe. Note 129. Nouns of the plural number, that end in s, will not very properly admit of the genitive case.
Note 131. Though this seems to be an indefinite use of the neuter pronoun, as expressive of some cause or subject of inquiry, without any respect to person or gender ; yet, in strict propriety, it cannot be so used with a noun of the plural number: thus, " it was they that did it--" is an impropriety.
culiar to the English language, is frequently joined in explanatory sentences with a noun or pronoun of the masculine or feminine gender : as, it is I; it was the man, or woman, that did it.”
132. When two or moro nouns or pronouns, of different persons, are joined in a sentence, the pronoun, which refers to them, must agree with the first person in preference to the se. cond, and with the second in preference to the
" thou and thy father are both in the same fault, and ye ought to confess it; the captain and I fought on the same ground, and afterwards we divided the spoil, and shared it. between us."
133. When two or more nouns or pronouns of the singular number are joined together in a sentence, the pronoun, which refers to them, must be of the plural number: as, “the king and the queen had put on their robes.”
131. The genitive case of a pronoun is al. ways used when joined to a noun, to denote property or possession : as, my head and thy hand.?' The head of me and the hand of thee are inelegant expressions,
135. The genitive cases of the pronouns, viz.
my, thy, &c. are used when joined with nouns; but, mine, thine, &c. when put absolutely, or without their nouns: as,
my book;" or, omitting the noun, " it is mine."
The same thing may be observed of other and others, in the plural number: as, “the property of other men;"' or, without the noun, “ The property of others."
136. Mine and thine are frequently put for my and thy, before a word that begins with a vowel : as,
mine eye” for “ my eye.” 137. Pronominal adjectives are only used in the genitive case, when put absolutely : as, I will not do it for'tens sake.”
138. The adjective is usually set before its substantive: as, 66 the second year; a good
man.” Sometimes, however, for better sound's - sake, especially in poetry, the adjective comes often after its substantive: as, “ The genuine cause of every deed divine.”
139. When thing or things is substantive to an adjective, the word thing or things is elegantly omitted, and the adjective is put abso.
Note 136. Thou is used to denote the greatest respect; as, “ n thou most high ;” and likewise to denote the greatest contemptias, “ Thou worthless fellow !"
lutely, or without its substantive: as, will shew us any good 2" for who will shew us any good thing?"
In many other cases the adjective it put ab. solutely, especially when the noun has been mentioned before, and is easily understood, though not expressed.
140. In forming the degrees of comparison, the adverbs more, inost, less,least,&c. are only used before adjectives when the terminations, er and est, are omitted : as, more full, less beautiful.”
141. For better sound's sake, most adjectives ending in ice, al, ful, ble, ant, some, ing, ish, ous, and some others, must be compared, by the adverbs, more, most, less, least, &c. as, pensive, more pensive; substantial, more substantial.
143. When two persons, or things, are spoken of in a sentence, and there is occasion to mention them over again, for the sake of distinction, that is used in reference to the for. mer, and this in reference to the latter: as,
Note 41. Adjectives of more than one syllable, generally come under this rule.