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Oaks, yours, hers, thirt, notwithstanding their seeming plural termination, are applied equally to singular and phiral substantives, as This book is ours. These books are ours. Mine and thine were formerly used before a vowel, as mine amiable la y : which, though now disused in prose, might be still properly continued in poetry: they are used as our; and yours, and are referred to a substantive preceding, as thy house is larger than mine, but my garden is more spacious than thine. Their and theirs are the possessives likewise of they, when they is the plural of it, and are therefore applicq to things. Pronouns velative are, who, which, what, whether, whosoever, whatsoever.
- Sing. and Plural. Nom. Who Gen. Whose Olber oblique cases. Whom Nom. Which Gen. Of which, or whose
Other oblique cases. Which.
Who is now used in relation to ersons, and which in relation to things; but they were anciently confounded. At seast it was common to say, the man which, though I remember no example of the thing who.
Whole is rather the poetical than regular genitive of which:
The fruit Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste Brought death into the world. Milton.
Whether is only used in the nominative and accusative cases; and has no plural, being applied only to one of a number, commonly to one of two, as Whether of these is loft I know not. Whether shall I choose? It is now almost obsolète. -- , Hobat, whether relative or interrogative, is without variation.
Whosoever, whatsoever, being compounded of who or what, and swever, follow the tule of their primitives.
* * That Those
In all cafés, Other Othcrs Whether
the plural others is not used but when it is referred to a substantive preceding, as I have sent other horses. I have not seat the same hors, s, But others. > Another being only an other, has no plural. Hore, there, and where, joined with certain particles, have a relative and pronominal use. Hereof, herein, hereby, hereasier, borezi'ith, thereof, therein, thereby, thereupon, therewith, whereof, wherein, whereby, wheretofon, zober, wub, which signity, of this, in this, &c. of that, in that, &c. of ...; in which, &c. The fore and wherefore, which are properly store for and where for, for that, for which, are now reckoned conjunctions, and continu
ed in use. The rest seem to be passing by degrees into neglect; though proper, use: ful, and analogous. They are referred both to singular and plural antecedents.
There are two more words used only in conjunction with pronouns, own and its
Ocol is added to possessives, both singular and plural, as my own band, our own house. It is emphatical, and implies a silent contrariety or opposition; as, I live in my own bous, that is, not in a bired bouse. This I did with roy own band, that is, without help, or not. by /roxy.
Sef is added to possessives, as myself, your. solves , and sometimes to personal pronouns, as himself, itself, themselves. It then, hke own, expresses emphasis and opposition, as I did this myself, that is, not another; or it forms a reciprocal pronoun, as We but air. selves by vain rage.
Himiels, itself, themselors, are supposed by wallis to be put, by corruption, for his self, it’ self, their sches; so that self is always a substantive. This seems justly observed, for we say, He came himself, Himself had do this; where himself cannot be an accusative.
Of the VERB.
English verbs are active, as I love; or neuter, as I languish. The neuters are formed like the actives.
Most verbs signifying action may likewise signify condition or habit, and become neuters, as I 1ove, I am in love; 1 stroke, I am now striking.
, Verbs have only two tenses inflected in their terminations, the present, and simple preterit; the other tenses are compounded of the auxiliary verbs have, shall, ovill, let, may, can, and the infinitive of the active or neuter verb.
The passive voice is formed by joining the
participle preterit to the substantive verb, as I am loved.
It is sometimes used emphatically; as,
I do love thee; and when I love the not, Chaos is come again. Shakspeare.
It is frequently joined with a negative; as I like ber, but I do not love her; I wished bim success, but did not belp him. This, by custom at least, appears more easy than the other form of expressing the same sense by a negative adverb after the verb, I like ber, but love her not. , , The Imperative prohibitorv is seldom applied in the second person, at least in prose, without the word do; as Stop him, but do not hurt him; Praise beauty, but do not dole an it. Its chief use is in interrogative forms of speech, in which it is used through all the persons; as Do I live * Dost thor, strike me? Do they rebel? Did I complain * Didst thou Move her ? Did she die o So likewise in negative interrogations; Do I not yet grieve? Did she not die P Do and did are thus used only for the present and simple preterit.
walking, tropor, wrizzo, I have been zu-loing, I had been walking, I shall or will be walking. There is another manner of using the active participle, which gives it a passive signification; as, The grammar is now printing, grinmatica jam nunc chartis imprinitur. The brass is forging, arra excuduntur. This is, in my opinion, a vitious expression, o: corrupted from a phrase more pure, but now somewhat obsolete; The $2.4 is a Arinting, ‘I he brass is a forging : a being properly af, and Aristing and forgirgverbal nouns signifying action, according to the analogy of this language. The indicative and conjunctive moods are by modern witers frequently confounded ; or ri ther the conjunctive is wholly neglected, when some convenience of versification does not in vite its revival. It is used among the pure writers of former times after f, though, ore, of . till or until, whether, except, unless, wharszo-e whomsoever, and words of wishing; as, Lazote thu art our father, though Abraham be grariant vo, and Israel acknowledge us not.
The first irregularity is a slight deviation from the regular form, by rapid utterance or poetical contraction : the last syllable ed is often joined with the former by suppression of e, as lov’d for loved; after c, ch, sb, f, \, r, and after the consonants s, th; when more strongly pronounced, and sometimes after m, n, r, if preceded by a short vowel, t is used in pronunciation, but very seldom in writing, rather than d, as plac’t, snatch't, fish's, wak’t, dive!'t, smet'; ; for plac'd, snatco'd, fish'd, wak'd, dwel'd, smel'd; or placed, snatched, fibed, waked, dwelled, smelled. Those words which terminate in 1 or ll, or p, make their preterit in t, even in solemn language; as crept, felt, dwell; sometimes after r, ed is changed into t, as vert : this is LCt constant. A long vowel is often changed into a short one ; thus, kept, slept, twept, crept, swept ; from the verbs, to keep, to sleep, to weep, to creep. to sweep. Whered or t go before, the additional letter dor t, in this contracted form, coalesce into one letter with the radical d or t : if t were the radical, they coalesce into t, but if d were the radical, then into d or 1, as the one or the other letter may be more easily pronounced: as read, led, spread, shed, sbred, bid, bid, cba, fa, &led, bred, sped, strid, slid, rid; from the verbs to read, to lead, to spread, to shed, to thread, to bid, to bide, to chide, to feed, to *eed, to breed, to speed, to stride, to slide, to ride. And thus cast, burt, cost, burst, eat, beat, ort, ut, quit, smit, writ, bit, bit, met, shot; from the verbs to cast, to hurt, to cost, to burst, to eat, to beat, to giveat, to it, to quit, to inte, to write, to lite, to bit, to meet, to woot. And in like manner, lent, sent, rent, girt; from the verbs to land, to send, to rend, to gard. The participle preterit or passive is often formed in en, instead of ed; as been, taken, &roen, slain, known ; from the verbs to be, to *a*, to give, to slay, to know. Many words have two or more participles, * not only written, bitten, caten, beaten, bud**, cbad n, zoolten, chosen, broken ; but likeYo'n't writ, but, car, beat, bid, chid, short, chose, #4, are promiscuously used in the par*iciple, from the verbs to write, to bite, to eat, ***eat, to bar, to code, to stoo!, to choose, to *reas, and many such like.
In the same manner sown, shown, bezon, mown, loaden, laden, as well as sow'd, shew’d, bew'd, mow'd loaded, laded, from the verbs to saw, to shew, to bew, to moz., to foad or Jade. Concerning these double participles it is difficult to give any rule; but he shall seldom err who remembers, that when a verb has a participle distinct from its preterit, as write, wrote, written, that distinct participle is more proper and elegant, as The book" is written, is better than 7 be took is wrote. IWrote, however, may be used in poetry; at least if we allow any authority to poets, who, in the exultation of genius, think themselves perhaps entitled to trample on grammarians.
There are other anomalies in the preterit.
1. Win, spin, bogin, swim, striko, stick, sing, sting, fing, ring, wring, spring, swing, drink, sink, shrink, stink, come, run, find, bind, grind, wind, both in the preterit imperfect and participle passive, give won, spun, begun, swum, struck, stuck, sung, stung, fung, rurg, wrung, sprung, soviang, drunk, sunk, shrunk, stunk, come, run, found, bound, ground, wound. And most of them are also formed in the preterit by a, as began, rang, sang, sprano, drank, care, ram, and some others; but most of these are now obsolete. . Some in the participle passive likewise take en, as stricken, strucken, drunken, bounden.
2. Fight, teach, reach, seek, beseech, catch. boy, bring, think, work, make fought, taugbi, raugbt, songbt, besoight, caught, bought, brough', thought, wrought.
But a great many of these retain likewise the regular form, as teached, reached, beseeched, catched, worked.
3. Take, shake, forsake, wake, awake, stand, &reak, speak, bear, shear, swear, tear, wear, weave, cleave, strive, thrive, drive, shino, rise, arise, smite, write, bide, abide, ride, choose, chuse, tread, get, boget, forget, seeibe. make in both preterit and participle took, shook, forsook, woke, awoke, stood, broke, spoke, bore, shore, swore, tore, wore, wove, clove, strove, 1%rove, drove, shone, rose, arose, smote, wrote, bode, abode, rode, chosz, trade, got, boot, forgot, sod. But we say likewise, thrive, rise, smit, writ, abid, rid. In the preterit some are likewise formed by a, as brake, ‘pak", bare, share, sware, taro, ware, clave, gat, begat, forgat, and perhaps some others, but more rarely. In the participle passive many of them are formed by on, as taken, soaken, forsaken, broken, spoken, born, sborn, sworn, torn, worn, woven, cloven, thriven, driven, rtsen, smitten, ridden, chosen, trodden, gotten, Begotten, forgotten, sodden. And many do likewise retain the analogy in both, as waked, awaked, sbeared, weaved, cleaved, abided, seeibed.
4. Give, bid, sit, make in the preterit gave, bade, sate; in the participle passive, &ven, bidden, sitten; but in both bid.
5. Draw, know, grow, throw, blow, crow like a cock, fly, slay, see, ly, make their preterit drew, knew, grew, threw, blew, crew, fiew, slew, saw, lay; their participles passive by n, drawn, known, grown, thrown, blown, Aown, slain, seen, lien, lain. *Yet from flee is made fled; from go, went, from the old wend, the participle is gone.
of DeRiv AT roN.
That the English language may be more easily understood, it is necessary to inquire, how its derivative words are deduced from their primitives, and how the primitives are borrowed from other languages. In this inquiry I shall sometimes copy Dr. Wallis, and sometimes endeavour to supply his defects, and rectify his errouns, -
Nouns are derived from verbs. The thing implied in the verb, as done or produced, is commonly either the present of the verb; as to love, love; to fright, a fright; to fight, a fght; or the preterit of the verb, as, to strike, I strick or strook, a stroke. The action is the same with the particiale present, as loving, frighting, so bling, soriking. The agent, or person acting, is denoted by the syllable er added to the verb, as lover, frighter, striker. Substantives, adjectives, and sometimes other parts of speech, are changed into verbs: in which case the vowel is often lengthened or the consonant softened; as a house, to bouge; brass, to braze; glass, to glaze; grass, tograze; price, to prize; breath, to breathe; a fish, to job; oil, to oil; further, to further; forward, to forward; hinder, to binder. Sometimes the termination en is added, especially to adjectives; as haste, to basten ; length, to lengthen ; strength, to strengthen ; short, to shorten ; fast, to fasten ; white, to whiten; black, to blacken ; hard, to barden; soft, to soften. From substantives are formed adjectives of plenty, by adding the termination y; as a louse, lousy; wealth, wealthy; health, bealthy; might, mighty; worth, worthy; wit, witty; lust, lusty; water, watory; earth, eartby ; wood, a wood, woody; air, airy; a heart, beary; a hand, bandy. From substantives are formed adjectives of plenty, by adding the termination ful, denoting abundance ; as joy, joyful; fruit, fruitful; youth, youthful; care, careful; use, useful; delight, deligosful; plenty, plentiful; help, belpful. o Sometimes, in almost the same sense, but with some kind of diminution thereof, the termination some is added, denoting something, or in some degree; as delight, delightsome; game, gamesome ; irk, irksome ; burden, burdensome; trouble, troublesome ; light, lightsome ; hand, bandsome ; alone, lonesome ; toil, to.'some.
On the contrary, the termination les, added to substantives makes adjectives signifying want ; as wo, abless, witless, beamless, jojo, careless, he pless. Thus comfort, comfortless; sap, sapless. Privation or contrariety is very often denoted by the particle un prefixed to many adjectives, or in before words derived from the Latin; as pleasant, unpleasant; wise, unwise; profitable, unprofitable; patient, impatient. . Thus unworthy, unhealty, unfruitful, unuseful, and many more. The original English privative is un; but as we often borrow from the Latin, or its descendants, words already signifying privation, as insficacious, in pious, indiscreet, the inseparable particles un and in have fallen into confusion, from which it is not easy to disentangle them. Un is prefixed to all words originally English; as untour, untruth, untaught, unhardtone. Un is prefixed to all participles made privative adjectives, as unfeeling, unassisting, unwisei, und:lighted, unendeared. Un ought never to be prefixed to a participle present, to mark a forbearance of action, as un*g/irg; but a privation of habit, as wrp tying. Un is prefixed to most substantives which have an English termination, as unforti eness, unAerfectness, which, if they have borrowed terminations, take in or im, as inferti iry, infeofortion; uncovil, incivility; unactive, iractivity. In borrowing adjectives, if we receive them already compounded, it is usual to retain the [..." prefixed, as indecent, in leg-n', ima, per; ut if we borrow the adjective, and add the privative particle, we commonly prefix un, as unpolito, ungallant. The prepositive particles, dis and mis derived from the des and mes of the French, signify almost the same as un; yet dis rether imports contrariety than privation, since it answers to the Latin preposition de. M. insinuates some errour, and for the mos part may be rendered by the Latin word male or perperam. To like, to dislike; ho nour, disbonour; to honour, to grace, to ars honour, to disgrace; to deign, to disdegr: chance, hap, mischance, mishap; to take, mistake; deed, misdeed; to use, to misuse ; tmploy, to mis~mploy; to apply, to misapply. Words derived from Latin written wi do or dis retain the same signification , distinguish, distinguo; d-tract, detrahe 5 fame, defamo; detain, defineo. The termination ly added to substantiv and sometimes to adjectives, forms adjecti that import some kind of similitude or ago ment, being formed by contraction of I. c. like. A giant, giantly, giantlike; earth, eart heaven, beavenly; world worldly; God, go good, good!y. The same termination 'y added to ad tives, forms adverbs of like signification beautiful, beautifully; sweet, sovertãy 5 the in a beautiful manner; wib some degr jowertzfesso. The termination isè added to adject imports diminution; and added to sub.