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Our ancestors were studious to form bor"d words, however long, into monosylhits; and not only cut off the formative termotions, but cropped the first syllable, espeoly in words beginning with a vowel; and otted not only vowels in the middle, but *wise consonants of a weaker sound, reoning the stronger, which seem the bones of words, or changing them for others of the * organ, in order that the sound might * the softer; but especially transpos. "g their order, that they might the more oily be pronounced without the intermediate wowels, For example: in expendo, spend; *mplum, sample; exci pio, scape; extraneus, *; extractum, stretch'd; excrucio, to *i exscorio, to scour; excorio, to scourge; ...to, to scratch; and others beginning Yoo as also emendo, to mend; episco us, *}, in Danish bisp; epistola, epistle; F. : 'Pilk; Hispania, Spain; historia,
Thuscariophyllus, flos; gerofilo, Ital. giriflée, gilofer, Fr. giftwo, which the vulgar call jujflower, as if derived from the month july; petroselinum, Aarily ; portulaca, Aurslain; cydonium, quince; cydoniatum, quiddeny; persicum, Aeach; eruca, eruke, which they corrupt to ear-wig, as if it took its name from the ear; annulus geminus, a gimma', or gimbai-ring ; and thus the word *f; and jumbal is transferred to other things thus interwoven; quelques choses, kickshaws. Since the origin of these, and many others, however forced, is evident, it ought to appear no wonder to any one if the ancients have thus disfigured many, especially as they so much affected monosyllables; and, to make them sound the softer, took this liberty of maiming, taking away, changing, transposing, and softening them. But while we derive these from the Latin, I do not mean to say, that many of them did not immediately come to tos from the Saxon, Danish, Dutch, and Teutonick languages and other dialects, and some taken more lately from the French or Italians, or Spaniards. The same word, according to its different significations, often has a different origin; as to hear a burden, from fero; but to bear, whence birth, born, bairn, comes from Aario; and a bear, at least if it be of Latin original, from fera. Thus perch, a fish, from herea, but Aerch, a measure, from Aertica, and likewise to perch. To shell is from ylaba; but shell, an enchantment, by which it is believed that the boundaries are só fixed in lands, that none can pass them against the master's will, from expello; and spell, a messenger, from histola; whence goel, good-ope, or god-hel. Thus freese, or freeze, from frigesco; but frieze, an architectonic word, from whhorus; but freese, for sloth, from Frisia; or perhaps from frigetco, as being more fit than any other for keeping out the cold. There are many words among us, even monosyllables, compounded of two or more words, at least serving instead of compounds, and comprising the signification of more words than one; as from scroft and roll comes stroll; from proud and dance, Arance; from it of the verb stay, or stand, and cut, is made stour; from tour, and Hardy, sturdy; from so of hit or hew, and out, comes pour; from the same sh, with the termination in, is him; and adding out, spin out; and from the same p, with it, is hit, which only differs from shout in that it is smaller, and with less moise and force; but shutter is, because of the obscure w, something between hit and shout ; and by reason of adding r, it intimates a frequent iteration and noise, but obscurely confused: whereas patter, on account of the sharper and clearer vowel a, intimates a more distinct noise, in which it chiefly differs from putter. From the same of and the termination ark, comes part, signifying a single emission of fire with a noise; namely, so the emission, ar the more acute noise, and k the mute consonant intimates its being suddenly terminated; but by adding 1, is made the frequentative sharkie. The same on by adding ... that is A., implies a more lively impetus of diffusing or expanding itself; to which adding the termination'ing it becomes spring ; its vigour or imports; its sharpness the termination ing; and astly in acute and tremu!ons, ending in the mute consonant c, denotes the sudden ending of any motion, that it is meant in its primary signincation, or a single, not a com
plicated exilition. Hence we call oping whateves s an elastick force; as also a fountain of wa
ter, and thence the origin of any thing; and to
shring, to germinate; and pring, one of the four
seasons. From the same or and out, is formed
*Arout, and with the termination ig, origi of which the following, for the most part, is the
difference: Arour, of a grosser sound, imports a fatter or grosser bud; prig, of a slenderer sound denotes a smaller shoot. In like manner, from str of the verb strive, and cut, come trout and strut. From the same str, and the termination *g le, is made struggle; and this glimports, but without any great noise, by reason of the obscure sound of the vowels. In hike manner, from throw and roll is made troll; and almost in the same sense is trundle, from threw or thrast and rundle. Thus gruff or grough is compounded of grave and rough; and trudge from tread or trut and drudge.
In these observations it is easy to discover great sagacity and great extravagance, an ability to do much defeated by the desire of doing more than enough. It may be remarked, -
1. That Wallis's derivations are often so made, that by the same licente any language may be deduced from any other.
2. That he makes no distinction between words immediately derived by us from the Latin, and those which, being copied from other languages, can therefore afford no example of the genius of the English language, or its laws of derivation.
3. That he derives from the Latin, often with great harshness and violence, words apparently Teutonick; and therefore, according to his own declaration, probably older than the tongue to which he refers them.
4. That some of his derivations are apparently erroneous.
. 4. All dissyllables ending in y, as crânwy; in car, as làbour, favour; in ow, as willow, wallow, except allow; in le, as bâttle, bible; in it, as banish; in co, as cambrick, cóssock; inter, as to batter; in age, as courage; in en, *fisten; in et, as quiet; accent the former *7ilable. 5. Dissyllable nouns in er, as cânker, bátter, have the accent on the former syllable. 6. Dissyllable verbs terminating in a consonant and e final, as comprise, escape; or having a diphthong in the last syllable, as appéase, reveal; or ending in two consonants, as atténd; have the accent on the latter syllable. . 7. Dissyllable nouns having a diphthong in the latter syllable, have commonly their accent on the latter syllable, as applause ; except words in ain, as cértain, moontain. 8. Trissyllables formed by adding a termination, or prefixing a syllable, retain their accent on the radical word, as loveliness, ténderness, contemner, waggoner, physical, be#4tter, commenting, commending, assistance. 9. Trissyllables ending in out, as grätion,
drduous; in al, as capital; in ion, as méntion; accent the first. 1o. Trissyllables ending in ce, ent, and ate, accent the first syllable, as cointenance, cóntinence, 4rmament, imminent, elegant, propaate: except they be derived from words hav. ing the accent on the last, as connivance, acquaintance; or the middle syllable hath a vowel before two consonants, as promolgate. 11. Trissyllables ending in y, as entity, spécify, liberty, victory, subsidy, commonly accent the first syllable. o 12. Trissyllables in re or le. accent the first syllable, as legible, theatre; except disciple, and some words which have a position, , as example, epistle. 13. Trissyllables in ude commonly accent the first syllable, as plenitude. 14. Trissyllables ending in ator or atour, as creatour; or having in the middle syllable a diphthong, as endeavour; or a vowel before two consonants, as doméstick; accent the middle syllable. 15. Trissyllables that have their accent on the last syllable are commonly French, as acquiésce, repartée, magazine; or words formed by prefixing one or two syllables to an acute syllable, as immatāre, overchárge. 16. Polysyllables, or words of more than three syllables, follow the accents of the words from which they are derived, as ārrogating, cántinency, incóntinently, commendable, commisnicableness. We shou . say, disputable, indispátable, rather than disputable, indisputable; and advertisement, rather than advertisement. 17. Words in ion have the accent upon the antepenult, as salvation, perturbation, concéction; words in atour or ator on the penult, as dedicator. 18. Words ending in le commonly have the accent on the first syllable, as āmicable; unless the second syllable have a vowel before two consonants, as combustible. 19. Words ending in aus have the accent on the antepenult, as urárious, voluptuous. 20. Words ending in ty have their accent on the antepenult, as pusillanimity, activity.
These rules are not advanced as complete or infallible, but proposed as useful. Almost every rule of every language has its exceptions; and in English, as in other tongues, much must be learned by example and authority. Perhaps more and better rules may be given, that have escaped my observation.
VERs 1 fic ATI on is the arrangement of a certain number of syllables according to certain laws.
The feet of our verses are either iambick, as aloft, create; or trochaick, as boy, lofty.
Quriambick measure comprises verses
of four syllables,
Most good, most fair, Or things as rare,
The palace of loud Fame, her seat of pow'r, Plac'd on the summit of a lofty tow'r, A thousand winding entries long and wide Receive of fresh reports a flowing tide; " A thousand crannies in the walls are made ; Nor gate nor bars exclude the busy trade. * T is built of brass, the better to diffuse The spreading sounds, and multiply the - news; or . . . Where echoes in repeated echoes play: A mart for ever full; and open night and o - oday. - wo to . . . . . . . Nor silence is within, nor voice express, , But a deaf noise of sounds that never ceast; Confus'd, and chiding, like, the hollow ** .., roar , Of tides receding from th’ insulted short ; Or like the broken thunder, heard, from
* These are the measures which are now in use, into a soft lyrick measure, of verses consisting
and above the rest those of seven, eight, and ten syllables. Our ancient poets wrote verses sometimes of twelve syllables, as Drayton's Polyalbion.
- * -
The godlike race of Brute to Severn's setting
alternately of eight syllables and six.
She, to receive thy radiant name,
When all shall praise, and ev'ry lay
That day, for come it will, that day
Beneath this tomb an infant lies,
We have another measure, very quick and
side lively, and therefore much used in songs, which were cruelly enforc'd, her mountains did re- may be called the ****, in which the ac
lieve cent rests upon every third syllable. Those . ories war else every where . Igóvern my pissions with absolute swiy, And when # wales beside (by fortune or by And grow wiser and bétter as life wo o: might) r. Pole. Unto her ancient foe resign'd her ancient
In this measure a syllable is often retrenched
righ from the first foot, as
t A constant maiden still she only did remain, The last her genuine laws which stoutly did
So only she is rich in mountains, meres, and I think not of I'ris nor I'ris of mé.
These measures are varied . many combinations, and sometimes by double endings, either with or without rhyme, as, in the heroick mea
te, As others o their towns and fruiful tillage - sure,
"1" is Heav'n itself that points out an hereafter,
And of fourteen, as Chapman's Homer,
And as the mind of such a man, that hath a long way gone,
And either knoweth not his way, or else would let alone
His purpos'd journey, is distract.
So in that of eight syllables,
For resistance I could fear none,
The measures of twelve and fourteen syllables were often mingled by our old poets, sometimes in alternate lines, and sometimes in alter
nate couplets. What thou, brave and happy Vernon, Hast atchiev'd with six alone. Glover. The verse of twelve syllables, called an Alo. In that of six, *iar, is now only used to diversify heroick one." - *T was when the seas were roaring - With hollow blasts of wind, A damsel lay deploring, waller was smooth, but Dryden taught to All on a rock reclin'd. Gay. join - - The varied verse, the full-resounding line, } In the anapestick, The song majestick march, and energy divine. When terrible tempests assail us, Pope. And mountainous billows attright, - - Nor power nor wealth can avail us, The pause in the Alexandrine must be at the But skilful industry steers right. Ballad.
sixth syllable. syua To these measures, and their laws, may be re
The verse of fourteen syllables is now broken duced overy Pecie" of English verse.