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A GRAMMAR O F THE ENGLISH TONG U E.
Thus have i <ollected rules and example by which the English language may be learned, if the reader be already acquainted with grammatical terms, or taught *: master to those that are more ignorant. To have written a grammar for such as are not yet initiated in the schools, would bawe been tedious, and pethaps at last ineffectual.
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- OF THE
THE first letter of the European alphabets, has, in the English lan2 go.g., three different” souáds, which may be termed the broad, open, and slender. he broad sound, resembling that of the German a, is found in many of our monosyllables, as all, wall, malt, salt, in which a is pronounced as au in cause, or aw in law. Many of these words were anciently written with au, assault, waulk; which happens to be still retained in fault. This was probably the ancient sound of the Saxons, since it is almost uniformly preserved in the rustic pronunciation, and the northern dialects, as maun for man, haund for hand. A open, not unlike the a of the Italians, is found in father, rather, and more obscurely in fancy, fast, &c. A slender or close, is the peculiar a of the English language, resembling the sound of the French e masculine, or diphthong ai in pais, or perhaps a middle sound between them, or between the a and e : to this the Arabic a is said nearly to approach. Of this sound we have examples in the words place, face, waste; and all those that terminate in ation, as relation, nation, generation. A is short, as glass, grass ; or long, as glaze, graze : it is marked long, generally by an e final, plane, or by an i added, as plain. The short a is open, the long a close. 1. A, an article set before nouns of the singular number ; a man, a tree ; denoting the number one, as, a man is coming ; that is, no more than one; or an indefinite indication, as, a man may come this way, that is, any man. This article has no plural signification. Befoo # word beginning with a vowel, it WOL. I.
times the power of the French a in these phrases, a droit, a gauche, &c.; and sometimes to be contracted from at, as, aside, aslope, afoot, asleep, athirst, aquare.
I gin to be a-weary of the sun; And wish the state of th’ world were now un
done. Shakspeare's Macbeth.
And now a breeze from shore began to blow : The sailors ship their oars, and cease to row; Then hoist their yards a-trip, and all their sails Let fall, to court the wind and catch the gales.
A little house with trees a-row, And, like its master, very low. Pope's Horace. 3. A is sometimes redundant; as, arise, arouse, awake; the same with rise, rouse, wake. 9. A, in abbreviation, stands for artium, or arts; as, A. B. bachelor of arts, artium baccalaureus; A. M. master of arts, artium magister: or, anno ; as, A. D. anno domini. AB, at the beginning of the names of places, generally shows that they have some relation to an abbey, as Abingdom. Gibson. ABA’ck, adv. [from back.] Backward. Obsolete. But when they came where thou thy skill didst show, They drew abaeke, as half with shame confound. Speiser's Pastorals. ABA'CTOR. m. s. [Latin.] One who drives away or steals cattle in herds, or great numbers at once, in distinction from those that steal only a sheep or two. Blount. A'BACUS. n. 4. [Latin.] 1. A counting-table, anciently used in calculations. 2. [In architecture.] The uppermost member of a column, which serves as a sort of crowning both to the capital and column. Dirf. A BA/Ft. adv. [of abaptan, Sax. behind.] From the forepart of the ship, toward the stern. Dict. A BAI's A N ce. m. s. [from the French abaisser, to depress, to bring down.] An act of reverence; a bow. Obeysance is considered by Skinner as a corruption of abaisance, but is now universally used. To ABA'LIENATE. v.a. [from abalieno, Lat.] To make that another's which was our own before. A term of the civil law, not much used in common specch. ABA lie NA’rio N. m. s. sabalienatio, Lat.] The act of giving up one’s right to another person; or a making over an estate, goods, or chattels, by sale, or due course of law. Dict. To A BA/N D. v. a. [A word contracted from abandon, but not now in use. See ABAN do N.] To forsake. They stronger are Than § which sought at first their helping and, And Vortiger enforced the kingdom to aband. Spenser's Fairy Queen,
To ABANDON. v. a. Labandonner, Fr.
Derived, according to Menage, from the Italian abandon.are, which signifies to forsake his colours; bandum [vexillum] deserere. Parquier thinks it a coalition of a ban donner, to give up to a pro- | scription ; in which sense we, at this day, mention the ban of the empire. Ban, in our own old dialect, signifies a curse; and to abandon, if considered as compounded between French and Saxon, is exactly equivalent to diris devovere.] . To give up, resign, or quit: often fol. lowed by the particle to. If she be so abondon'd to her sorrow As it is spoke, she never will admit me. Shakop. Twelfth Night. The passive gods behold the Greeks defile Their temples, and abandon to the spoil Their own abodes; we, feeble few, conspire To save a sinking town, involv'd in fire. Dryden's Aeneid. Who is he so abandoned to sottish cruelty, as to think, that a clod of earth in a sack may ever, by eternal shaking, receive the fabric of man's body ? Bentley's Sermons. Must he, whose altars on the Phrygian shore With frequent rites, and pure, avow'd thy | pow'r, | Be doom'd the worst of human ills to prove, Unbless'd, abandon'd to the wrath of Jove 2 Pope's Odyssey., 2. To desert; to forsake : in an ill sense. The princes using the passions of fearing evil, and desiring to escape, only to serve the rule of virtue, not to abandon one's self, leapt to a rib of the ship, Sidney. Seeing the hurt stag alone, Left and abandon'd of his velvet friends: 'T is right, quoth he ; thus misery doth part The flux of company. , Shaksp. do you like it. What fate a wretched fugitive attends ! Scorn'd by my foes, abandon'd by my friends. - Dryden. But to the Fo goddess thus she pray’ā: Propitious still be present to my aid, Nor quite abandon your once favour'd maid 1 Dryden's Faëler.
. To forsake; to leave. He boldly spake, Sir knight, if knight thou be, Abandon this forestalled place at erst, For fear of further harm, I counsel thee. Spenter's Fairy Queen. To A BAN do N over. v. a. [a förm of writing not usual, perhaps not exact.] To give up to ; to resign. Look on me as a man abandon'd o'er To an eternal lethargy of love; o and pinch, and wound me, cannot curs, And but disturb the quiet of my death. Dryder. *AN P9NE D. particip. adj. Corrupted in the highest degree; as, an abandoned wretch. In this sense, it is a contraction 9f a longerform ; abandoned [given up, to wickedness. ABA'N doN IN G. [a verbal noun, from alonson. Desertion ; forsaking. He hoped his past meritorious actions might oeigh his present abundoning the thought of
1. The act of abandoming. 2. The state of being abandoned. IDI, f, ****N1"rios. a. s. LLat. abanzairie. l A
banishment for one or two years, for manslaughter. Obsolete. Dict. To ABA'RE. v. a. [abanian, Sax.] To make bare, uncover, or disclose. Dict. ABART1cula’t 1o N. n.s.[from ab, from, and articulus, a joint, Lat.] A good and apt construction of the bones, by which they move strongly and easily; or that species of articulation that has manifest motion. Dict. To ABA’s E. v. a. [Fr. abaisser, from the Lat, basis, or bassus, a barbarous word, o low, base.] 1. To depress; to lower. It is a point of cunning to wait upon him with whom you speak with your eye; yet with a demure abasing of it sometimes. Bacon. 2. To cast down ; to depress; to bring low: in a figurative and personal sense, which is the common use. Happy shepherd! to the gods be thankful, that to thy advancement their wisdoms have thee
abased Sidney. Behold every one that is proud, and abase him. job.
With unresisted might the monarch reigns; He levels mountains, and he raises plains; And, not regarding diff'rence of degree, 44's your daughter, and exalted me. Dryden. . If the mind be curbed and humbled too much in children; if their spirits be abased and broken much by too strict au hand over them; they lose all their vigour and industry. Locke on Educ. ABA'sed. adj. [with heralds.] A term used of the wings of eagles, when the top looks downward toward the point of the shield; or when the wings are shut ; the natural way of bearing them being spread, with the top pointing. to the chief of the angle. - Bailey. Chambers. ABA's EMENT. n. 4. The state of being brought low ; the act of bringing low ; depression. reis an abasement because of glory; and there is that lifteth up his head from a low o: to its To ABA's H. v. a. [See BAshful. Perhaps from abaisser, French.] 1. To put into confusion; to make ashamed. It generally implies a sudden impression of shame. They heard, and were abash'd, Milt. Par. Last. This heard, th’ imperious queen sat mute with fear: Norfor duritincense the gloomy thunderer. Silence was in the court at this rebuke: . Nor could the gods, abaab'd, sustain their sovereign's lock. Dryden's Fables. 1. The passive admits the particle at, sometimes of, before the causal noun. In no wise sreak against the truth, but be alsites of the error of thy ignorance... out. I said unto her, from whence is this kid? is it not stolen? But she replied upon me, it was f: for a gift, more than the wages: however, did not believe her, and I was abashed at her. - Tobit. In the admiration only of weak minds, Led captive: cease to admire, and all her plumes Fall flat, and sink into a trivial toy, 4t every sudden slighting quite alabt. †. Paradise Lost.
The little Cupids hov'ring round, spictures prove) with garlands crown'd, Abash'd at what they saw and heard, Flew off, nor ever more appear'd. wife's Mircellanier. To ABATE. v. a. [from the French abattre, to beat down.] > 1. To lessen; to diminish. Who can tell whether the divine wisdom, to abate the glory of those kings, did not reserve this work to be done by a queen, that it might appear to be his own immediate work? - Sir jobn Davier on Ireland. If you did know to whom I gave the ring, And how unwillingly I left the ring, You would abate the strength of your displeasure.
al #. Here we see the hopes of great benefit and light from expositors and commentators, are in a great part abated; and those who have most need of their help, can receive but little from them. Locke's Essay on St. Paul's Epistler. . To deject or depress the mind. This iron world Brings down the stoutest hearts to lowest state: For misery doth bravestminds abate. Spenser's Hubberd's Tale. Have the power still To banish your defenders; till at length Your ignorance deliver you, As most abated captives, to some nation That won you without blows! Shakspeare. Time, that changes all, yet changes us in vain; The body, not the mind; nor can controul , Th’ immortal vigour, or alate the soul. Dryden's Aeneid. 3. In commerce, to let down the price in selling, sometimes to beat down the price in buying. To ABA’s E. v. n. 1. To grow less as, his passion abates ; the storm abates. It is used sometimes with the particle of before the thing lessened. Our physicians have observed, that in process of time, some diseases have abated of their virulence, and have, in a manner, worn out their malignity, so as to be no longer mortal. Dryden's Hind and Panther. 2. In common law. It is in law used both actively and neuterly; as, to abate a castle, to beat it down. To abate a writ, is, by some exception, to defeat or overthrow it. A stranger abateth, that is, entereth upon a house or land void by the death of him that last possessed it, before the heir take his possession, and so keepeth him out Wherefore, as he that putteth out o in posse.sion, is said to disseise; so he that steppeth in between the former possessor and his o is said to abate. In the neuter signification thus: The writ of the demandment shall abate, that is, shall be disabled, frustrated, or overthrown. The appeal abateth. by covin, that is, that the accusation is defeated by deceit. Cowell. 3. [In horsemanship.] A horse is said to abate or take down his curvets ; when working upon curvets, he puts his two hind legs to the ground both at once, and observes the same exactness in all the times. . Dict. ABA’s EMENT. n. 4. [abatement, Fr.] 1. The act of abating or lessening. Xenophon tells us, that the city contained about ten thousand houses; and allowing one man to every house, who could have any share
in the government (the rest consisting of women, children, and servants), and making other obvious abatements, these tyrants, if they had been careful to adhere together, might have been a majority even of the people collective - Swift on the Contexts in Athens and Rome. 2. The state of being abated. Coffee has, in common with all nuts, an oil strongly combined and entangled with earthy particles. The most noxious part of oil exhales in roasting, to the abatement of near one quarter of its weight. Arbuthnot on Aliments. 3. The sum or quantity taken away by the act of abating. The law of works is that law, which requires perfect obedience, without remission or abatement; so that, by that law, a man cannot be just, or justified, without an exact performance of every tittle. Locke. 4. The cause of abating ; extenuation. As our advantages towards practising and promoting piety and virtue were greater than those of other men ; so will our excuse be less, if we neglect to make use of them. We cannot plead in abatement of our i. that we were ignorant of our duty, under the prepossession of ill habits, and the bias of a wrong education. Atterbury. 5. [In law.] The act of the abator ; as, the abatement of the heir into the land before he hath agreed with the lord. The affection or passion of the thing , abated; as, abatement of the writ. Cowell. 6. [With heralds.] An accidental mark, which being added to a coat of arms, the dignity of it is abased, by reason of some stain or dishonourable quality of the bearer. Dict. ABA’s E.R. m. s. The agent or cause by which an abatement is procured; that by which any thing is lessened. Abcters of acrimony or sharpness, are expressed oils of ripe vegetables, and all preparations of such; as of almonds, £o. and other nuts. Arbuthnot on Diet. ABA’to R. m. s. [a law term.] One who intrudes into houses or land, void by the death of the former possessor, and, yet not entered upon or taken up by
A'BATURE. n. J. [from abattre, French.] Those sprigs of grass which are thrown down by a stag in his passing by. Dict. ABB. n. j. The yarn on a weaver's warp : a term among clothiers. Chambers. A'BBA. m. s. [Heb. 58] A Syriac word, which signifies father. A/B B Acy. m. s. (Lat. abbatia.] The rights or privileges of an abbot. See A BE EY. According to Felinus, an abbacy is the dignity itself; since an abbot is a term or word of dignity, and not of office; and, therefore, even a secular person, who has the care of souls, is sometimes, in the canon law, also stiled an abbot. Ayliff's Par. juris Canonici. A'B Bess. n. J. L.Lat. abbatissa, from whence the Saxon abubirre, then probably abbatess, and by contraction abbesse in Fr. and abbess, Eng.] The superiour or governess of a nunnery or
monastery of women. y They fled Into this abbey, whither we pursued them;
And here the abbers shuts the gate on us, And will not suffer us to fetch him out. Shak, I have a sister, abbess in Terceras, Who lost her lover on her bridal day. Dryden. Constantia, as soon as the solemnities of her reception were over, retired with the abbess into her own apartment. Addits. A'B BEY, or ABB Y. m. s. [Lat. abbatia; from whence probably first ABBAcy, which see.] A monastery of religious persons, whether men or women; distinguished from religious houses of other denominations by larger privileges. See A B B O T. With easy roads he came to Leicester; Lodg'd in §. abbey, where the reverend abbot, With all his convent, honourably receiv'd him. Shakspeare. A'B BEY-LUE BER. m. s. [See Lu BBER.] A slothful loiterer in a religious house, under pretence of retirement and auste
o his is no father Dominic, no huge overgrown abbey-lubber; this is but a diminutive sucking friar. Dryden's Spanish Friar. A'BBOT. n. . [in the lower Latin abbas, from hit, father, which sense was still implied ; so that the abbots were called paires and abbesses matres monasterii. Thus Fortunatus to the abbot Paternus: Nominis officium sure, Paterne, geris.] The chief of a convent, or fellowship of canons. Of these, some in England were mitred, some not: those that were mitred, were exempted from the jurisdiction of the diocesan, having in themselves episcopal authority within their precincts, and being also lords of parliament. The other sort were subject to the diocesan in all spiritual government. Cowell, See A B BEY. A'B Bo Ts Hi P. m. s.
The state or privilege of an abbot.
To, ABBREVIATE. v. a. [Lat. ab
breviare.] 1. To shorten by contraction of parts, without loss of the main substance ; to abridge. It is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, another by cutting off. Baron’s Essayr. The only invention of late years, which hath contributed towards politeness in discourse, is that of abbreviating or reducing words of many syllables into one, by lopping off the rest. So ift. 2. To shorten ; to cut short. Set the length of their days before the flood: which were abbreviated after, and contracted into hundreds and threescores. Brown's Pulgar Erretors. A BB Rev 1 A^T Iox. r. s. 1. The act of abbreviating. 2. The means used to abbreviate, as characters signifying whole words ; words contracted. Such is the propriety and energy in them all, that they never can be changed, but to disadYantage, except in the circumstance of using atbreviations. Sześń. BBREVIA"To R. m. s. [abbreviateur, Fr.] One who abbreviates, or abridges.