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but in the spring time, when it comes forth again, very lean. Ray on the GreationAbsco's der. n. 3. [from abscond J The person that absconds. A'B's EN ce. n. ... [See ABS ENT.] 1. The state of being absent: opposed to presence. Sir, 'tis fit You have strong party to defend yourself By calmness, or by absence: all's in danger. Shakspeare's Coriol. His friends beheld, and pity'd him in vain, For what advice can ease a lover's pain 2 Abrence, the best expedient they could find, Might save the fortune, if not cure the mind. * Dryden's Fables. You have given no dissertation upon the alsence of lovers, nor laid down any methods how they should support themselves under those separations. Addison's Spectator. 2. Want of appo : in a legal sense. Absence is of a fourfold kind or species. The first is a necessary absence, as in banished persons; this is entirely necessary. A second, necessary and voluntary; as upon the account of the coinmon wealth, or in the service of the church. The third kind the civilians call a probable abArtice; as, that of students on the score of study. And the fourth, an absence entirely voluntary; as, on the account of trade, merchandise, and the like. Some add a fifth kind of absence, which is committed cum dolo & culpa, by a man's non-appearance on a citation; as, in a contumacious person, who, in hatred to his contumacy, is, by the law, in some respects reputed as a person present. Ayliff's Parerson juris Canon. 3. Inattention; heedlessness; neglect of the present object. I continued my walk, reflecting on the little absences and distractions of mankind. Spectator. 4. It is used with the particle from. His along from his mother of he'll mourn, And, with his eyes, look wishes to return. Dryd. A'BSENT, adj. [absens, Lat I 1. Not present: used with the particle front. In spring the fields, in autumn hills I love; At morn the plains, at noon the shady grove; But Delia always: alsent from her sight, Nor plains at morn, nor groves at noon delight. Pope's Past. Where there is advantage to be given, Both more and less have given him the revolt; And none serve with him but constrained things, Whose hearts are absent too. Sła/speare. Whether they were absent or present, they were vexed alike. PWisdom. 2. Absent in mind; inattentive ; regardless of the present object. I distinguish a man that is alrent because he thinks of something else, from him that is absent because he tilinks of nothing. Aldo on. To A B's E'N T. v. a. To withdraw ; to forbear to come into presence. If thou didst ever hold me in thy heart, Absent thee from felicity a while, And in this harsh world draw thy breath in pain, To tell my tale. - Sła/peare's Hamlet. Go---for thy stay, not free, about thee more. Milton's Paradise Lvi. Tho' I am forc'd thus to absent myself From all I love, I shall contrive some means, Some friendly intervals, to visit thee. Southern'. Spartan Dame. The Arengo is still called together in cases of importance; and if, after due summons, any member absents himself, he is to be fined to the


value of about a penny English. Addison. ABs ENTA's Eous. adj. Relating to abscnce; absent. Dict.

Absentee’. m. s. He that is absent from his station, or employment, or country. A word used commonly with regard to Irishmen living out of their country. Then was the first statute made against absentecs, commanding all such as had land in Ireland, to return and reside thereupon. Sir ‘john Davies on Ireland. A great part of estates in Ireland are owned by absenteer, and such as draw over the profits raised out of Ireland, refunding nothing. Child. ABs1'N THIATF D. part. [from absinthium, Lat, wormwood.] Imbittered; impregnated with wormwood. Dict. To ABs1'st. v. n. Labsisto, Lat.] To stand off; to leave off. Dict. To ABSO'LVE. v. a. [absolvo, Lat.] I. To clear; to acquit of a crime, in a judicial sense. Your great goodness out of holy pity Abrosv'd him with an axe. Shakspeare. Our victors, blest in peace, forget their wars, Enjoy past dangers, and absolve the stars. Tickell. As he hopes and gives out, by the influence of his wealth, to be here absolved; in condemning this man, you have an opportunity of belying that "...i scandal, of redeeming 3. credit lost by former judgments. Swift's 41iscellanies. 2. To set free from an engagement or promise. Compell'd by threats to take that bloody oath, And the act ill, I am absolv’d by both. Waller's Moid's Trig. This command, which must necessarily comprei.end the persons of our natural fathers, must mean a duty we owe them, distinct from our obedience to the magistrate, and from which the most absolute power of princes cannot absolve us. - Alocke. 3. To pronounce sin remitted, in the ecclesiastical sense.

But all is calm in this eternal sleep; Here grief forgets to groan, and love to weep; Fv'r sui erstition loses ev'ry fear; For God, not man, absolves our frailties here. Pope. 4. To finish; to complete. This use is not common.

What cause Mov'd the Creator, in his holy rest Through all eternity, so late to build In chaos; and the work begun, how soon Absolv’d. Milton's Paradise Lost. If that which is so supposed infinitely distant from what is now current, is distant from us by a finite interval, and not infinitely, then that one circulation which preceded it, must necessarily be like ours, and consequently absolved in the space of twenty-four hours. ale. A'esolut E. adj. Labsolutus, Lat.} 1. Complete : applied as well to persons as things. Because the things that proceed from him are perfect, without any manner of defect or maim; it cannot be but that the words of his mouth are abovlute, and lack nothing which they should have,

one against the other.


performance of that thing whereunto they

teild. - Hockr, What is his strength by land?— ---Great and increasing: but by sea

He is an absolute master. Shahpeare,

2. Unconditional ; as, an absolute promise. Although it runs in forms absolute, yet it is indeed conditional, as depending upon the qualification of the person to whom it isso: outh's Sermont, 3. Not relative ; as, absolute space. In this sense we speak of the ablative case absolute, in grammar. I see still the distinctions of sovereign and inferior, of absolute and relative worship, will bear any man out in the worship of any creature with respect to God, as well at least, as it doth in the worship of images. Stillingfleet. An absolute mode is that which belongs to its subject, without respect to any other beings whatsoever; but a relative mode is derived from the regard that one being has to others. Watts. 4. Not limited; as, absolute power. My crown is absolute, and holds of none: I cannot in a base subjection live, Nor suffer you to take, tho' I would give. Dryden.

5. Positive; certain; without any hesita

tion. In this sense it rarely occurs.
Long is it since I saw him,
But time hath nothing blurr'd those lines of favour,
Which then he wore; the snatches in his voice,
And burst of speaking were as his : I'm absolute,
‘Twas very Cloten. Shakspeare's Cymbeline.

A/Bso Lu to LY. adv. [from absolute.] 1. Completely; without restriction.

All the contradictions which grow in those

minds, that neither absolutely clim the rock of virtue, nor freely sink into the sea of vanity. Sidney.

What merit they can build upon having joined with a protestant army, under a king i; acknowledge, to defend their own liberties and proerties, is, to me, absolutely inconceivable; and,

believe, will equally be so for ever. Szeft', Press. Pleg.

2. Without relation ; in a state unconnected.

Absolutely we cannot discommend, we cannot absolutely approve either willingness to live, or forwardness to die. zaker. These then being the perpetual causes of zeal; the greatest good, or the greatest evil; either al... solutely so in themselves, or relatively so to us; it is ão. good to be zealously affected for the Sprat's Serroni. o sensible quality, as light, and colour, and heat, and sound, can be subsistent in the bodies themselves, absolutely considered, without a relation to our eyes and ears, and other organs of sense. These qualities are only the cffects of our sensation, which arise from the different motions, upon our nerves, from cojects without, according to their various modifications and positions. Bentley's Serznons.

3. Without limits or dependance.

The prince long time had courted fortune's love, But, once possess'd, did absolutely reign : Thus with their amazons the heroes strove, And conquer'd first those beauties they wool: gain. Dryden's dnnus Miračiiis,

4. Without condition.

And of that nature, for the most part, ars things absolutely unto all men's salvation neces sary, either to be held or denied, either to be vio or avoided. --~A

, Peremptorily; positively. 5 Being so o is. didst not thou Commond me absolutely not to go, Going into such danger, as thousaidst? Par. Lort. A'Bsolut EN Ess. n.s. (from absolute.] 1. Completeness. 2. Freedom from dependance, or limits. The absoluteners and illimitedness of his commission was generally much spoken of Clarendan. There is nothing that can raise a man to that generous absoluteness of condition, as neither to cringe, to fawn, or to depend meanly; but that which gives him that happiness within himself, for which men depend upon others. South's Sermons, 3. Despoticism. He kept a strait hand on his nobility, and chose rather to advance clergymen and lawyers, which were more obsequious to him, but had less interest in the people; which made for his abioluteness, but not for his safety. Bacon's Henry vii. They dress up power with all the splendor and temptation absoluteness can add to it. Locke. Absolu'rios. n.s. labsolutio, Lat.] I. Acquittal. Aśolution, in the civil law, imports a full acquittal of a person by some final sentence of law; also, a temporary discharge of his farther attendance upon a mesne process, through a failure or defect in pleading; as it does likewise in the canon law, where, and among divines, it likewise signifies a relaxation of him from the obligation of some sentence pronounced either in a court of law, or else in fro penitentiali. Thus there is, in this kind of law, one kind of assolution, termed judicial, and another, styled a declaratory or extra-judicial absolution. Ayliffe's Parergon. 2. The remission of sins, or penance, declared by ecclesiastical authority. The absolution pronounced by a priest, whether papist or protestant, is not a certain infalible ground to give the person, so absolved, confidence towards God. outb's Sermons. A'ssoluto R Y. adj. absolutorius, Lat.]. That does absolve. Though an absolutory sentence should be pronounced in favour of the persons, upon the account of nearness of blood; yet, if adultery shall afterwards be truly proved, he may be again proceeded against as an adulterer. Ayliffe's Parergon. A'Bson ANT. adj. [See Abso Nous.] Contrary to reason; wide from the purpose. A'ssóNovs. adj. [absonus, Lat. ill-sounding.) Absurd; contrary to reason. It is not much in use, and it may be doubted whether it should be followed by to or

from. To suppose an uniter of a middle constitution, that should partake of some of the qualities of both, is unwarranted by any of our faculties; yea, most abronous to our reason. Glanville's Scopsis. To Asso'RB. v. a. [absorbeo, Lat. preter. absorbed; part.pret. absorbed, or absorpt.] 1. To swallow up. Moses imputed the deluge to the disruption cf the abyss; and St. Peter to the particular can*ition of that earth, which made it obnoxious * be aircrp. in water, JBurnot's Theory.

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Some tokens shew Of fearless friendship, and their sinking mates Sustain; vain love, tho' laudable; absorpt By a fierce eddy, they together found The vast profundity. Philips. 2. To suck up. See AB so RB ENT. The evils that come of exercise are that it doth absorb and attenuate the moisture of the body. - Bacon. Supposing the forementioned consumption -should prove so durable, as to absorb and extemuate the said sanguine parts to an extreme degree, it is o fundamental parts must necessarily come into danger. Harvey on Cant. While we perspire, we absorb the outward air. - - Arbuthnot. Abso'RBENT. n.s.. [absorbens, Lat..] A medicine that, by the softness or porosity ... of its parts, either eases the asperities of pungent humours, or dries away superfluous moisture in the body. Quincy. There is a third class of substances, commonly valled absorbents ; as the various kinds of shells, ... coral, chalk, crabs eyes, &c. which likewise raise an effervescence with acids, and are therefore called alkalis, though not so properly, for they are not salts. Arbuthnot on Aliments. ABso'RPT. part. from absorb.] Swallowed up : used as well, in a figurative sense, of persons, as, in the primitive, of things. What can you expect from a man, who has not talked these five days? who is withdrawing his thoughts, as far as he can, from all the present world, its customs and its manners, to be fully possessed and absorpt in the past. Pope's 1.ft. ABso'RP 1 io N. m. s. from absorb.] The act of swallowing up. It was below the dignity of those sacred penmen, or the spirit of God that directed them. to shew us the causes of this disruption, or of this absorption; this is left to the enquiries of Ille II. Buraet'. Theory of the Earth. To ABSTATN. v. n. [abstineo, Lat. To forbear; to deny one's self any gratification : with the particle from. If thou judge it hard and difficult, Conversing, looking, loving, to abstain From love's due rites, nuptial embraces sweet; And, with desires, to languish without hope. AMilton's Piratose Lorf. To be poly longing, and impatiently desirous of any thing, so that a man cannot 25stain from it, is to lose a man's liberty, and to become a servant of meat and drink, or smoke- - Taylor's Rule of living for. Even then the doubtful billows scarce abston . From the toss'd vessel on the troubled main. Dryd. ABSTEMIOUS. adj. [abstentius, Lat.] Temperate; sober ; abstinent; refraining from excess or pleasures. It is used of persons; as, an abstemious hermit : and of things; as, an abstemious diet. It is spoken likewise of things that cause temperance. - r The instances of longevity are chiefly amongst the abstemious. Abstinence in extremity will prove a mortal disease; but the experiments of it are very rare. Arbuthnot on 21 incut. Clytorean streams the love of wine expel, (Such is the virtue of th’ absterious well *Whether the colder nymph that rules the flood Extinguishes, and balks the drunken god;

Or that Melampus (so have some assur'd) When the mad Praetides with charms he cur'd, And pow'rful herbs, both charms and simples cast Into the sober spring, where still their virtues list. Dryden's Fables. ABst E'M Iously. adv. [from absternious.] Temperately; soberly; without indulgtnce. AB st k"M Ious N Ess. m. s. [See AbsteM. ious...] The quality of being abstemious. w AB stE’NT 1 on. m. s. [from abstineo, Lat.] The act of holding off, or restraining ; restraint. Dict. To ABSTE’RGE. v. a. s.abstergo, Lat.] To cleanse by wiping ; to wipe. Abste'RG ENT. adj. Cleansing; having a cleansing quality. To ABs re/Rse. See Abst ERGE.] To cleanse; to purify: a word very little in use, and less analogical than absterge. Nor will we affirm, that iron receiveth, in the stomach of the ostrich, no alteration; but we suspect this effect rather from corrosion than digestion; not any tendence to chilification by the natural heat, but rather some attrition from an acid and vitriclous humidity in the stomach, which may absterse and shave the scorious parts thereof. Brown's Pulgar Errour. ABs. E.'Rs 1 on. m. s. Labsterio, Lat] The act of cleansing. See Absor E R G E. Abstersion is plainly a scouring off, or incision of the more viscous humours, and making the humours more fluid, and cutting between them and the part; as is found in nitrous water, which scoureth linen cloth speedily from the foulness. Bacon's Nat. Hist. ABs. E'Rs 1 v E. adj. [from absterge.] That has the quality of absterging or cleansing. - It is good, after purging, to use apozemes and broths, not so much opening as those used before purging; but tortersive and mundifying clysters also are good to conclude with, to draw away the reliques of the humours. Bacca's Nat. Hist. A tablet stood of that absterrive tree, Where Æthiop's swarthy bird did build to nest. Sir j. Denham. There many a flow'r abstertive grew, Thy favorite flow’rs of yellow hue. Swift's Mis. 'B's r s N E N C E. - #:::::::::: n. . [abstinentia, Lat.] 1. Forbearance of any thing : with the particle from. Were our rewards for the abstinencier, or riots, of this present life, under the prejudices of short or finite, the promises and threats of Christ would lose much of their virtue and energy. Hammond's Fundamentals. Because the abstinence from a present pleasure, that offers itself, is a pain, nay, oftentimes a very great one; it is no wonder that that operates after the same manner pain does, and lessens, in our thoughts, what is future; and so forces us, as it were, blindfold into its embraces. Locke. 2. Fasting, or forbearance of necessary food. It is generally distinguished from temperance, as the greater degree from the less: sometimes as single perform

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ances from habits; as, a day of abstimence, and a life of temperance. Say, can you fast? your stomachsaretoo young, nd abstinence ingenders maladies. Shaki. And the faces of them, which have used alstinence, shall shine above the stars; whereas our faces shall be blacker than darkness. 2 Esdras. Religious men, who hither must be sent As awful guides of heavenly government; To teach you penance, fasts, and abstinence, To punish bodies for the soul's offence. Ilryden. A/Bs1 IN EN T. adj. [abstinens, Lat..] That uses abstinence, in opposition to co

vetous, rapacious, or luxurious. It is used chiefly of persons. AB sto'RT Ed. ad;. Labstortus, Lat.]

Forced away; wrung from another by violence. Dict. To ABSTRA'CT. v. a. s. aštraho, Lat.] 1. To take one thing from another. Could we abstract from these pernicious effects, and suppose this were innocent, it would be too light to be matter of praise. Decay of Piety. 2. To separate by distislation. Having dephlegmed spirit of salt, and gently abstracted the whole spirit, there remaineth in the retort a styptical substance. Boyle. 3. To separate ideas. Those who cannot distinguish, compare, and abstract, would hardly be able to understand and make use of language, or judge or reason to any tolerable degree. Locke. 4. To reduce to an epitome. If we would fix in the memory the discourses we hear, or what we design to speak, let us abstract them into brief compends, and review them often. Watts' Improvement of the Mino. A'B's T R Act. ad;. Labstractus, Lat. See To A B's T R Act.] 1. Separated from something else : generally used with relation to mental perceptions; as, abstract mathematics, abstract terms, in opposition to concrete. Mathematics, in its latitude, is usually divided into pure and mixed. And though the pure do handle only abstract quantity in general, as geometry, arithmetic; yet that which is mixed doth consider the quantity of some particular determinate subject. So astronomy handles the quantity of heavenly motions, music of sounds, and mechanics of weights and powers. Hoskins’ Mathematical Magi-A. Abstract terms signify the mode or quality of a being, without any regard to the subject in which it is: as whiteness, roundness, length, breadth, wisdom, morality, life, death. Hortes. 2. With the particle from. Another fruit from the considering things in themselves abstract from our opinions and other men's notions and discourses on them, will be, that each man will pursue his thoughts in that method, which will be most agreeable to the nature of the thing, and to his apprehension of what it suggests to him. Locłe. A'B's TRAct. n. 3. [from the verb.] 1. A smaller quantity, containing the virtue or power of a greater. You shall there find a man who is the abst,---f

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Ifrom are false, these epithets are small;

You're then the things, and abstract of them all.

Dryden's Aur. 2. An epitome made by taking out the principal parts. When Mnemon came to the end of a chapter, he recollected the sentiments he had remarked: so that is could give a tolerable analysis and alstro. of every treatise he had read, just after he had fished it. Watts' Improvement of the Mind. 3. The state of being abstracted or disjoined. The hearts of great princes, if they be considero, as it were, in abstract, without the necessity of states, and circumstances of time, can take no tui and proportional pleasure in the exercise of any narrow bounty. Hootton. Afs, RA’ct Ed. part. adj. [from abstract.] I. Separated ; disjoined. That space the evil one abstracted stood From his own evil, and for the time remain'd

Stupidly good. Milton. 1. Refined; purified. Altreeted spiritual love, they like Their souls exhal’d. Donne.

3. Abstruse; disficult.

4 Absent of mind; inattentive to present objects; as, an abstracted scholar.

Anot k act Ed Lv. adv. With abstraction; simply ; separately from all contingent circumstances.

Or whether more abstractefly we look,

Qr on the writers, or the written book;

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Abstr 'cTF p. part. adj. Lat.] Unbound. - Diet. To Absor R1'N G E. v. a. To unbind. Dict. To ABSTRU'DE. v. a. Labstrado, Lat.] , To thrust off, or pull away. Dict. Abst Ru's E. adj. [abstrusus, Lat. thrust out of sight.] 1. Hidden. Th’ eternal eye, whose sight discerns Abstrosest thoughts, from forth his holy mount, And from within the golden lamps that burn Nightly before him, saw, without their light, Rebellion rising. Milton's Paradise Lost. Difficult; remote from conception or apprehension. It is opposed to obvious and easy. Sosnake our sire,andby his countenanceseem'd Ent’ring on studious thoughts aboruse. Par. Lott. The motions and figures within the mouth are



abstruse, and not easy to be distinguished; espe: .

cially those of the tongue, which is moved through the help of many muscles, so easily, and habitually, and variously, that we are scarce able to give a judgment of motions and figures thereby framed. * Holder.

No man could give a rule of the greatest beau

ties, and the knowledge of them was so abstro,

that there was no manner of speaking which could express them. I}ryden's Dufresnoy. Abst RU's ELY. adv. In an abstruse, manner; obscurely; not plainly, orobviously. ABS rRU’s E N Ess. n. ... [from abstruse.] The quality of being abstruse; difficulty; obscurity. It is not oftentimes so much what the scripture says, as what some men persuade others it says, that makes it seem obscure; and that as to some other passages, that are so indeed, since it is the abstrate.eir of what is taught in thern that makes them almost inevitably so, it is little less saucy, upon such a score, to find fault with the style of the scripture, than to do so with the author for making us but men. Boyle. Abst RU’s Iry. n.s. from abstruse.] 1. Abstruseness. 2. That which is abstruse. dom used. Authors are also suspicious, nor greedily to be swallowed, who pretend to write of secrets, to deliver airipathics, sympathies, and the occult abstrusities of things, Brown's Pulger Erroart. To A B su’M F. v. a. [absumo, Lat..] To bring to an end by a gradual waste; to eat up. An uncommon word. That which had been burning an infinite time could never be burnt, no not so much as any part of it; for if it had burned part after part, the whole must needs be absumed in a portion of time. Hale's Origin of Mankind. ABSURD, adj. [at furdus, Lat. 1. Unreasonable; without judgment: as used of men. Seeming wise men may make shift to get opknion; but let no man chuse them for employment; for certainly you had better take for business a man somewhat absurd than over formal. Bacan. A man, who cannot write with wit on a proper subject, is dull and stupid; but one, whe shews it in an improper place, is as impertinent and absurd, Addison's Spectator;

A word sel

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