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Ne mai no mergbe bi spo muchel, Lincoln. y te Lancelen Roger hise Spo ir godes isihde.

neues. Y dide alle in prisun. til lui bi is rop sune and briht,

jafen up here castles. Đa þe ruker Anddai bute nihte.

undenzaton $ he milde man þar ] Đen ir Pele buze Pane,

softe y god. 7 na jurtire ne dide. þa And herze buten irpınche.

diden hi alle punder. Þi hadden bu Se f mai and nele deden come, manned maked and ader suoren. ac h2 Sore hit sel uordenche.

nan treuče ne heolden. alle he pæpon Đer is blisce buten tpege, for sporen. y here zreoder forloren. And lif buten deade.

for auric rice man his caseler makede Der eure sullen punie der, and agæner him heoloen. and fylden þe Blide hı bieþ and eade.

land full of carrles. hi suencten suide Der is zeuge pe buten elde, þe precce men of þe land mid castelAnd elde buren unhelpe.

peorces: þa þe castler panen maked. þa Nis der forge ne son non,

fýlden hi mid deouler and yuele men. Ne non uniselde.

Đa namen hu þa men þe hi penden ß anz Đen me sel brihten isen, god herden. bade be nihtes. and be Spo ase he is mid pisse.

dæies carlmen 7 pimmen. and diden be one mai and sel al bien,

heom in prisun efter gold and sýluer. Engles and mannes blisce.

1 pined heom un-tellenblice pining. To Sare blisce us bring god, for ne pænen næure nan mantýns spa Det fixed buten ende.

pined alse hi päron. We henged up Eanne he une raula unbint,

bi pe fet and smoked heom mid ful Of lichamlıce bend.

smoke. me henged bı þe þumber. oder Irisz zeue us lede spich lıf, bı þe hered. hengen brýniger on her And habbe spichne ende.

fet. Me dide cnotted strenger abuton Det pe moten dider cumen,

here hæued. 7 uunygen to 17 gæde Đanne pe hennes pende.

to þ hærner bi diden heom in quan

terne þar nadrer y snakes y pader About the year 11:50, the Saxon began pæron inne. 7 Drapen heom spa. Sume to take a form in which the beginning 'hi diden in crucet-hur. Þir la an ceste of the present English may be plainly $ par score y nareu. y un Sep. y vide discovered; this change seems not to scarpe staner þer inne. I brengde pe have been the effect of the Norman con man þær inne. Ý hi bræcon aile be quest, for very few French words are limes. In mani of þe caszler pæron found to have been introduced in the first log i gri. päron rachentezer para hundred years after it; the language oden pre men hadden onoh zo beron must therefore have been altered by causes onne. R par spa maced ß is fæstned like those which, notwithstanding the to an beom. 9 diden an scærp. iren care of writers and societies instituted to abuton pa manner brote y his halr: * obviate them, are even now daily mak- henemihte nopidenpander ne sitten ne ing innovations in every living language. lien. ne slepen. oc baron al Þinen. Want I have exhibited a specimen of the lan- þuren hi drapen mid hungær. J ne guage of this age from the year 1135 to canne. y ne mai tellen alle pe punder. 1140 of the Saron chronicle, of which ne alle þe pines $ hi diden precce men the latter part was apparently written on his land. 1 } lartede þa xix. pintre Near the time to which it relates. pile Stephne pas kmy. J æune it pas

uuense and uuense. þı lædengælder Đir

gære fon pe king Stephne ofer on þé tunes æuneū pile. y clepeden it sæto Normandi. y per per under-fan.. tenserie. þa þe precce men ne hadden zen. Fordi p hi penden B he sculde ben nan more to yiuen. þa ræueden hi and alsuic alre pe eom pes: 7 for he hadde brendon alle be tunes. pel þu mihrer ger his tresor. ac he to delo it y faren all adæis fare sculdert þu neure scatered suclice. Nicel hadde henni finden man in tune sittende. ne land king zadened gold y syluer. ano na culeo. Đa par corn bere. 3 Elec. ] god ne dide me for his saule þar of. cæse. f butene for nan ne pær o be Đa þe king Srephne to Engla-land com land. Wrecce men seuiuen of hun$a macod he his gadering æt Oxene- gær. sume jeden on ælmer þe paren foro. 7 þar he nam þe biscop Roger rum pile rice men. sun flugen ut of of beres-bers. y Alexander biscop of lande. Wer næure zet mare preccehed

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on land. ne næure heden men perse ne pas halı marrýr. y ro munekes him
diden þan hi diden. For ouer ridon ne namen. 7 bebýried him heglice. in de
fon-bánen 'hı nouden circe. ne cyrce- mynstre. y he maket þur une Drıhtın
iærd. oc nám al þe gos þar inne par. punderlice and manipældlice miracles.
I brenden rýðen þe cýnce y altegæ- 1 batte he r. Willelm :
Sene. Ne hi ne for-baren biscopes On þır zen com Dauid kmz of Scot-
land. ne abboter ne preostes. ac land mio ormere færd to þıs land polde
Mæueden muneces: 7 clerieker: jæuric pinnan þır land. 7 him com togæner
man oder pe ouer nyhte. L'ir tpa Willelm earl of Albamar þe kız adde
men ofen pre coman ridend zo an tun, bereht Euon-pic. y ro oder æuez men
al þe tunscipe Flugæn for heom. pen- mid fæu men y Fuhten pið heom.
den + hi pæron næuener Đe biscopes flemden be king ær te standard. I
og leneb men heom cursede æune. oc slogen suide micel of his genge ::
pas heom nahr þar of. for hi pænon all On pis gær polde pe king Stephne
pon-cunsæd i for-suonen ny forloren. tæcen Rodbent eon) of Irloucestre. þe
War sæme tilede. þe ende ne bar nan kinger rune hennier: ac he ne mihre
corn. fon pe land pas all for-don mid for he part it par. Đa efter hı þe
sulce dædes. 4 hi sæden openlice f lengten þesterede pe sunne y te dæl
Irise slep. 1 his halechen. Suilc f abuton nontıb bejer. þa men eten >
mare þanne pe cunnen sæin. pe þolen- me lihtede candler zoæten bı. 7 par
den xix. Fintre for ure sinner:

On

XI. kt. April. pæron men suide of al þıs yuele zime héoló martın abbot punoned. Đen efter ford-reorde Wilhis abbotnice xx. pinter 3 half gær. y lelm Ænce-biscop of Lanzpar-býrig. y vil. Sæis. mid micel sumc. y fand þe te king makede Teobald Ænce-biscop. munekes: y ze gerres al B heom be- þe par abbot in þe Bec. Đen efter houed. jheold mycel carized in the hus. pæx rude micel uuerre bezuyx þe and bod pečene prohte on þe circey kung í Randolp eonl of Læstre noht rezze þar to lander y pentes: 1 goded fondi y he ne jaf him it suide and læt it necen. and brohte axen him. alre he dide alle odne. oc heom into pe nepæ mýnsene on r. æfne pe mare iaf heom þe pænse

hi Pernes mærre-dæi mid micel punt- pænon him. De eonl heols Lincol scipe. Jy par anno ab incarnatione Dom. agænes Þe king. y benam hım al $ MCXL. a combustione loci XXIII. And he ahte to hauen. y're king for þideji he for to Romey þæn pær pæl under- I besætte him y his broder Willelm fangen fram pe Pape Eugenie. 7 begæt de R... are in pe cartel. 7 te eon! thane priuilegier. an of alle Þe landes stæl ut fende efter Roobert eon'' DF Þabbornice. ; an oder of þe lander of Gloucestne. y brolit him þiden mid Þe lien to șe circepican. j gif he leng micel fend. and fuhten spide on Canmoste liuen. alre he mint to don of delmarse-dæi agenes heore lauerd. 7 Þe honden-pycan And he begæt in namen him. foil his men hım suyken y Sander price men hepden mid strengpe. Flugæn. and læd him to Briprope and of Willelm Walduit þe heols Roging. Siden þar in pņisun. I. ham þæ carrel he pan Loringham 7 pas all Engle-land szýred mar þan

æn Ertun y of þuze of Waltuile he pan par. and all ýuel pæs in lande. Der þýntlingb. ; Stanepiz., Lx. rot. of efter com þe kinger dohrer þennies Aldepingle ælc gær. And he makede þe hefde ben Empenic on Alamanie. manie muneker. y plantede pinıænd. y nu pæs cuntesse in Angou. y com to makede manie peonker: 7 pende pe tun Lundene. yze Lundenissce folc hire betere pan it æn pær and pær god polde ræcen y scæ pleh. 1 forles par munec 1 god man. I forði hi luueden inicel:. Den efter þe biscop of WiLod and gode men. Nu pe pillen sæ- cerere benni. Þe kinger broden Stegen sum del pat belamp on Stephne phner. ypac pid Roobert eorl y pid kinger time. On his time pe Judeur þempenice anó rpon heom adar B he OF Non-pıc bohzon an Iristen cıld be- neure ma mid te king his broden polde Foren Ertren. and pineden him alle pe balden. y cursede alle be men pe mid ilce pining * ure Drıhtın par pined. him heolden. and sæde heom he polde and on lanz-Fridæl him on node hengen ííuen heom up Win-cerene. I dide ror une Drhcner luue. GryỒen bype- heom cumen bien. Đá ho ban nne ben lum. Wenden % 17 sculde ben for- - pæren pa com þe kinges cuen ... huje holen. oc une Drihin atypede. Å he strengde y besæt heom. Þ þer pæs

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Anne micel hungen. Đa họ ne lens ne mid hire. Đa rebe he mo micel
muhten þolen. þa stali hi uz 7 Flugen. Færd into Engle-land. y pan castles.
7 hu puršen pan piðuzen y polecheden j ze king ferde agenes him micel mare
heom. and namen Rodbenz eonl of ferð. y boð pæpere suten hi noht. oc
Llou-cestre and ledden him to Roue- ferden þe Ænce-biscop y te pire men
ceszre. and diden hım þare in prisun. berpux heom. y makede š sahte is te
ano ze emperice fleh into an mynstre. king sculde ben lauero y king pile he
Đa seoroen Sa Pire men becpsx be loeoe. 3 accen lar bei pane ben kinh
kunger freond y te eorles freond. and y he helde him for maden 7 he him for
zahtlede sua me sculde lezen ut pe rune. and ridiselite sculte ben be-
king of prisun fon pe eojil. y te eorl Epix heomy on al Engle-land. Đir
for þe king. 1 rua diden. Siðen der and te odne forunander ber hi makeden
efter sachleden še king y Randolf suoren to halden þe kuy y te eonl. and
eorl at Szan-foro y ader rporen and te biscop. y te eonler: y nicemen alle.
rreuder fæszon } her nouder sculde Đa par þe eonl underfangen ær Win-
beruken oder.yit ne fon-stod nahit. cestre and æt Lundene mio micel.
for be km3 him siden nam in Ham- purtseipe, and alle diden hım man-red.
tun. þurhe picci ræd. 4 dide him in and ruoren pe pais zo lialden. and hit
prisun. y ef soner he let him ut paro sone sude god pair sua f neure
þurhe pænse red to $ foreparde he var hehe. Đa par Se knirchengene
fuor on halidom. 1 gysles fand. $ he þanne he æuere her par: I te eorl
alle his careles sculde iiuen up. Sume ferde ouer sæ. y al folc him luuede.
he iaf up and sume ne iaf he noht. for he dide god justice and makede
and dide þanne pænse Sanne he hær pais ::
sculde. Ha pas Engle-land suide to-
deled. sume helden mid re king. I
sume mið þemperice. for þa þe king

Nearly about this time, the following
pas in prisun. þa penden þe eonler pieces of poetry seem to have been writ-
te rice men i he neure niane sculde ten, of which I have inserted only short
cumme ur. 1 sæhtleden pyo pem- fragments; the tirst is a rude attempt at
perice. 7 brohten hire into Oxen-fono. the present measure of eight syllables, and
and iauen - hine pe bunch ::

Đa te the second is a natural introduction to king pas ute. þa herde op sægen. and

Robert of Gloucester, being composed in
toc his feord y besæt hipe in þe tup. and barbarous it may seem, taught the

the same measure, which, however rude
y me læt hine dun on niht of þe tup
md naper. i stal ut 1 scæ fleh way to the Alexandrines of the French
læde on yote to Waling-fond. Þær

poetry.
efter scæ ferde ofer sæ. Y hi of Non-
mandi penden alle fra þe king to be

FUR in see bi west spaynge.
eorl of Angæu. rüme here þankes y

If a lond ihote cokaygne.
sume here un-bankes. fon he besæt Đer nis lond under heuenriche.
heom zıl hı aauen up hepe caseles: ghi Of wel of godnis hit iliche.
nan helpe ne hærden of be king. Đa Đoy paradis be miri and brıyt.
Feride Eustace pe kinger rune to France. Lokajgn is of fairır sıýt.
I nan be knger ruster of France to What is þer in paradis.
pife. pende to bigæzon Normandi þæn Bot grasse and flure and greneris
þurh. oc he spedde litel. y be gode Đoy þer be 101 and gret dute.

he
e par an yuel man. for pare

Đer nis met bote frute.
.... dide mane yuel þanne god. Đer nis halle bure no bench.
he reuede pe lander y lạide mic... Bot watır man is þursto quench.
s on: he brohte his pic to Engle-land. Beþ þer no men but two.
Joide hine in þe carte .

bely and enok also.
pimman scæ pær. oc scæ hedde litel Ilinglich may hi go.
blisse mid him. '1 xpire ne poloe B he Whar þer womp inen no mo.
sculde lange rixan. I pæro deo and his In cokaygne is met and drmk.
moder beien. 7 te eonl of Angeau pærd Wipute care how and swink.
deo. y his sune penrı toc to nice.

Đe met is trie pe drunk so clere.
And te cuen of France to-cælde fra

To none russin and sopper.
Þe king. Y scæ com to be iunge eorl I

sigge

for sop boute were. þenri. y he toc hine to piçe. Y al Peitou

Đer nis lond on erpe is pere,

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Under heuen nis lond i wisse.

De norice þar hire wiste. children Of so mochil 101 and blisse.

aheuede seuene. Đer is mani swete sıyre.

Đe eittebe was maregreze. cristes may Al is dai nis per no niýte.

of heuene. Đer nis baret noper strif.

Tales ho ani tolde. ful feire ant ful
Nis per no dep ac euer lıf.
Đer'nis lac of met no clop.

Wou ho poleden martırdom. sein Lau-
Đer nis no man no woman wrop.

rence ant seinte Greuene.
Der nis serpent wolf no fox.
Þors no capıl. kowe no ox.
Đer nis schepe no swine no gote.
No non horwyla god it wote.

In these fragments, the adulteration
Noper harate noper stode.

of the Saxon tongue, by a mixture of the Đe land is ful of oper gode.

Norman, becomes apparent; yet it is not Nis þer fler fle no lowse.

so much changed by the admixture of In clop in toune bed no house. new words, which might be imputed to Đer nis Sunnir slete no hawle. comierce with the continent, as by No non vile worme no snawile. changes of its own form and terminaNo non storm rein no winde.

tions; for which no reason can be given. Đer nis man no woman blinde.

Hitherto the language used in this Ok al is game 101 ant gle.

island, however different in successive Wel is him þat per mai be.

time, may be called Saxon; nor can it be Der bep rivers gret and fine. expected, from the nature of things graOf oile melk koni and wine.

dually changing, that any time can be Wazir seruip þer to noping.

assigned, when the Saron may be said to Bor to siýt and to waussing.

cease, and the English to commence.

Robert of Gloucester however, who is
SANTA MARGARETTA. placed by the critics in the thirteenth

century, seems to have used a kind of OLDE arit yonge 1 preie ou oure folies intermediate diction, neither Saron nor for to lere.

English; in his work therefore we see Đenchet on god þar yef ou wit oure the transition exhibited, and, as he is the sunnes to bere.

first of our writers in rhyme, of whom bere mai tellen ou. wid wordes ferre and any large work remains, a more exten

sive quotation is extracted. He writes Đe vie of one meidan. was hoten Mare- apparently in the same measure with the grete.

foregoing author of St. Margarite, which, hire tader was a patriac, as ic ou tellen polished into greater exactness, appeared may.

to our ancestors so suitable to the genius In auntioge wif eches 1 Ce false lay. of the English language, that it was conDeve godes ant dournbe. he served nitt tinued in use almost to the middle of the ant day.

seventeenth century. So deden mony opere. þat singer weil

awey. Theodosius was is nome. on crist ne Of þe batayles of Denemarch, þat hii levede he noutt.

dude in þýs londe Þe levede on pe false godes. Eat peren þat worst were of alle opere, we mote W10 honden wroutt.

abbe an honde. Đo þat chuld sculde christine ben. ic com Worst hii were. vor opere adde somwanne him well in poutt.

ydo, € bed wen it were ibore. to debe iz As Romeyns & Saxons, & wel wuste þat

were ibnoutt. Đe moder was an hepene wif fat hire Ac hi ne kept ýt holde nogt, bote robby, to wyman bere.

and ssende, Đo þat chilo ibore was. nolde ho hit And destsrue, & berne, & sle, & ne coupe furfare.

abbe non ende. 13o sende it into asye. wid messagers ful And bote lute yt nas worý, þeý hii were yare.

ouercome ylome. To a norice þat hire wiste, ant sette hire Vor myd ssypes and gret poer as prest to lore.

efsone hii come,

swete.

lond berto.

domn non ;

Xyng Adelwolf of þys lond kyng was And so vorþ in to Sopereye, & słowe & tuenty yer.

barnde vaste, þe Deneys come by hým rýuor pan hii þere þe kyng and ýs sone hem mette atte dude er.

laste. Vor in þe al our vorst ger of ys kỳnedom þere was batayle strong ýnou ysmyte in Myd pre & þrýtty ssýpuol men her prince an þrowe. hýder come,

þe godes knygtes leye adoun as gras, wan And at Soupamtone aryuede, an hauene medep mowe. by Soupe.

Heueden, (þat were of ýsmýte,) & oper Anoßer gret ost þulke týme aryuede at lymes also, Portesmoupe.

Flete in blode al fram þe grounde, ar þe Þe kyng nuste weper kepe, at delde ys batayle were ydo. ost atuo.

Wanne þat blod stod al abrod, vas per Þe Denes adde pe maýstre. þo al was ģdo, gret wo y nou. And by Estangle and Lyndeseye hii wende Nys ýt reupe vorto hure, þat me so volc vor atte laste,

slou ? And so hainward al by Kent, & slowe & Acour suete Louerd atte laste ssewede ys barnde vaste.

suete grace, Agen wynter hii wende hem. anoper yer And sende pe Cristýne Englýsse men þe eft hii come.

maystrye in þe place, And destrude Kent al out, and Londone And þe hebene men of Denemarch bynome.

nepe were echon. Þas al an ten yer þat lond hii brogte per Nou nas jer gut in Denemarch Cristen

doune, So þat in þe tepe yer of þe kynge's þe kyng her after to holý chýrche ys herte croune,

þe more drou, Al býsoupe hii come alond, and þet folc And te bezede wel & al ys lond, as hii of Somersete

agte, wel y nou. Boru þe býssop Alcston and pet folc of Seyn Swythyn at Wýnchestre býssop po Dorsete

was, Hii come & smyte an batayle, & pere, And Aleston at Syrebourne, þat amendþoru Gode's grace,

ede muche þýs cas. Þe Deneys were al býneþe, & pe lond folc þe kỳng was wel þe betere man þoru her adde be place,

beyre red, And more prowesse dude þo, þan þe kyng Tuenty wynter he was kyng, ar he were mygte býuore,

ded. peruore gode lond men ne beþ nogt al At Wýnchestre he was ybyred, as he gut verlore.

lýþ þere. Þe kỳng was be boldore þo, & agen hem Hỳs tueye sones he gef ýs lond, as he byþe more drou,

get ham ere. Andýs foure godes sones woxe vastey nou, Adelbold, the eldore, Þe kỳnedom of Edelbold and Adelbrygt, Edelred and Estsex, Alfred.

And suppe Adelbrygt, Kent and Westbýs was a stalwarde tem, & of gret wysdom & red,

Eygte hondred yer ýt was and seuene and And kynges were al foure, & defendede fyfty al so, wel býs lond,

After þat God anerpe com, þat þýs dede An Deneys dude ssame ynou, ze me vol was ydo. wel vond.

Bope hii wuste by her tỷme wel her In sýxte pe zere of þe kynge's kỳnedom kynedoin, is eldeste sone Adelbold gret ost to hým At þe vyfte zer Adelbold out of þýs lyue nome,

nome. And ys fader also god, and opere heye At Ssyrebourne he was ybured, & ys bromen al so,

per Adelbrygt And wende agen þýs Deneys, þat muche His kỳnedom adde after hým, as lawe was wo adde ý do.

and rygt. Vor mýd tuo hondred ssýpes & an alf at By ys daye pe verde com of þe hepene Temse moup hii come,

men wel prout, And Londone, and Kanterbury, and oper And Hamtessyre and destrade Wynchestounes nome,

tre al out.

sex.

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