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CHA'lder. On. s. A dry English meaCHA'LD RON. sure of coals, consisting CHA/U DRO N. of thirty-six bushels

heaped up, according to the sealed bushel kept at Guildhall, London. The chaldron should weigh two thousand pounds. Chambers. Ch A'lice. n. 4. [calic, Sax. calice, Fr. calix, Latin.] 1. A cup ; a bowl. When in your motion you are hot, And that he calls for drink, I'll have prepar'd him. A chalice for the nonce. Shakspeare. 2. It is generally used for a cup used in acts of worship. All the church at that time did not think emblematical figures unlawful ornaments of cups or chalices. Stillingfeet. CHA'lice D. adj.[from calix, Lat. the cup of a flower.] Having a cell or cup : applied by Shakspeare to a flower, but now obsolete. Hark, hark the lark at heav'n's gate sings, And Phoebus 'gins arise, His steeds to water at these springs, On chalic'd flowers that lies. Shakspeare. CHALK. n. 4. [cealc, cealcroan, Saxon, calck, Welsh.) Chalk is a white fossile, usually reckoned a stone, but by some ranked among the boles. It is used in medicine as an absorbent, and is celebrated for curing the heartburn. Chambers. He maketh all the stones of the altar chalk stones that are beaten in sunder. Iraiah. Chalk is of two sorts; the fiard, dry, strong chalk, which is best for lime; and a soft, unctuous chalk, which is best for lands, because it easily dissolves with rain and frost. Mortimer. With cloalk I first describe a circle here, Where these ethereal spirits must appear. Dryd. To CH Al K. v. a. [from the noun.] 1. To rub with chalk. The beastly rabble then came down From all the garrets in the town, And stalls and shopboards in vast swarms, With new chalk'd bills and rusty arms. Hudibrar. 2. To manure with chalk. Land that is chalked, if it is not well dunged, will receive but little benefit from a second sbalking. Mortimer. 3. To mark or trace out as with chalk. Being not propt by ancestry, whose grace Chalks successours their way. . . . Shakspeare. His own mind chalkedout to him the just prortions and measures of behaviour to his felow-creatures. South. With these helps I might at least have cooked out a way for others, to amend my errours in a like design. Dryden. The time falls within the compasshere colked out by nature, very punctually. Pozzo..., d. CHAL K-Cut T E R. n. 4. [from cha!: and cut.] A man that digs chalk. Shells, by the seamen called chalk eggs, are dug up commonly in the chalk-pils, where the cloalk-cutters drive a great trade with them. J/cof-ward. CH Alk-pit. n... [from chalk and pit.] A

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pit in which chalk is dug. See Chalk- CUT TER. CHA'lky. adj. [from chalk.] 1. Consisting of chalk ; white with chalk. As far as I could ken the chalky cliffs, When from thy shore the tempest beat us back, I stood upon the hatches in the storm. †. That bellowing beats on Dover's chalky cli Fows. 2. Impregnated with chalk. Chally water towards the top of earth is too fretting. Bacon. To CHA'LLENGE. v.a. [chalenger, *...] 1. To call another to answer for an o fence by combat. The prince of Wales stept forth before the

king, And, nephew, challeng'd you to single fight. Sba

*peare. 2. To call to a contest. Thus form'd for speed, he challenges the wind, And leaves the Scythian arrow far behind. Dryd. I challenge any man to make any pretence to power by right of fatherhood, either intelligible or possible. Locke. 3. To accuse. Many of them be such losels and scatterlings, as that they cannot easily by any sheriff he gotten, when they are challenged for any such fact. Spenter. Were the grac'd person of our Banquo present, Whom may I rather challenge for unkindness. Shakspeare. 4. [In law.] To object to the impartiality of any one. [See the noun.] Though only twelve are sworn, yet twentyfour are to be returned, to supply the defects or want of appearance of those that are challenged off, or make default. alt. 5. To claim as due. That divine order, whereby the pre-eminence of chiefest acceptation is by the best things worthily challenged. Hookr. hich of you, shall we say, doth love us most? That we our largest bounty may extend Where nature doth with merit challeng. Shake. And so much duty as my mother shew'd To you, preferring you before her father; So much I challenge, that I may profess Due to the Moor, my lord. Shakspears. Had you not been their father, these white

aroes Did challenge pity of them. Shakspeare. So when a tyger sucks the bullock's blood, . A famish'd lion, issuing from the wood, Roars loudly fierce, and clallenges the food. 12ryden. Hast thou yet drawn o'er young Juba That still would recommend thee more to Caesar, And challenge better terms. Addison. 6. To call any one to the performance of conditions. I will now challenge you of your promise, to give me certain rules as to the principles of blazonry. Peacham on Drawing

CHA'LLEN Ge. n. . [from the verb.] 1. A summons to combat. I never in my life

Did hear a challenge urg'd more modestly. S44.

2. A demand of something as due.

- Taking for his younglings cark, Iest greedy, eyes to them might challenge lay, Busy with oker did their shoulders mark. Sooy.

. There must be no challenge of superiority, or

discountenancing of freedom, Colliez.

3. In law.

the land in contest, or part of the gains. Cowell. Cli A'MPERTY. m.s.. [champart, Fr. In law.] A maintenance of any man in his suit, while depending, upon condition to have part of the thing when it is recovered. Cowell. CHA M P 1'G No N. n. 4. [champignon, Fr.] A kind of mushroom. Heviler friends with doubtful mushroonstreats, Secure from you, himselfchampignons eats. Dryd. It has the resemblance of a large champignon before it is opened, branching out into a large round knob. Woodward. CHA'MPION. m. s. [champion, Fr. campio, low Lat.] 1. A man who undertakes a cause in single combat. In many armies, the matter should be tried by duel between two champions. Bacon. For hot, cold, moist, and dry, four champions - fierce, Strive here for mast'ry, and to battle bring Their embryon atoms. AMilton's Por. Lost. O light of Trojans, and support of Troy, Thy father's champion, and thy country's joy! Dryden. At length the adverse admirals appear, The two bold champions of each country's right. Dryden. 2. A hero; a stout warriour; one bold in contest. A stouter champion never handled sword. Shakspeare. This makes you incapable of conviction; and they applaud themselves as zealous champions for truth, when indeed they are contending for errour. 3. In law. In our common law, champion is taken no less for him that trieth the combat in his own case, than for him that fighteth in the case of another. Cowell. To CHA’M Pro N. v. a. [from the noun.] To challenge to the combat. - The seed of Banquo, kings! Rather than so, come, Fate, into the list, And champion me to th’ utterance. Shakspeare. CHANCE. n. s. [chance, Fr.] 1. Fortune; the cause of fortuitous events. As th' unthought accident is guilty Of what we wildly do, so we profess Ourselves to be the slaves of chance, and flies Of every wind that blows. Sbakrpeare. The only man, of all that chance could bring To meet my arms, was worth the conquering: Dryden. Chance is but a mere name, and really nothing in itself; a conception of our minds, and only a compendious way of speaking, whereby we . express, that such effects as are commonly attributed to chance, were verily produced by their true and proper causes, but without their design to produce them. Bentley. 2. Fortune; the act of fortune; what fortune may bring : applied to persons. These things are commonly not observed, but left to take their chance. Bacon's Essays. 3. Accident; casual occurrence ; fortuitous event. To say a thing is a chance or casualty, as it relates to second causes, is not profaneness, but a great truth; as signifying no more, than that there are some events besides the knowledge and wer of second agents. South. The beauty I beheld has struck me dead;

Locke.

É. she strikes, and kills by chance: Poison is in her eyes, and death in ev'ry glance, - Dryden. All nature is but art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction which thou canst not see. Poe. 4. Event; success; luck: applied to things. Now we'll together, and the chance of goodness Belike our warranted quarrel ! Séal feare. 5. Misfortune; unlucky accident. You were us'd To say extremity was the trier of spirits, That common chances common men could bear, Shakspeare. 6. Possibility of any occurrence. A chance, but chance may lead, where I may meet Some wand'ringspirit of heav'n, by fountain side, Or in thick shade retir’d. Milton’s Par. Last. Then your ladyship might have a chance to escape this address. Strift. CHAN ce. adj. [It is seldom used but in composition.] Happening by chance. Nowshould theypart, malicious tongues would

say, They met like chance companions on the way. Dryers. I would not take the gift, Which, like a toy droptfrom the handsoffortune, Lay for the next chance comer. I}rwicz. To CH AN ce. v. n. [from the noun.J. To happen; to fall out ; to fortune. hink what a chance thou chanceston; but thinkThou hast thy mistress still. Shakspeare. How chance thou art not with the Prince thy brother? S. Ay, Casca, tell us what hath chanc'd to-day, That Caesar looks so sad. Shakoaire. He chancedupon diversofthe Turksvictudiers, whom he easily took. Knollo’s Hist, of the Turks. I chose the safer sea, and chanc'd to find A river's mouth impervious to the wind. Pot. CHAN ce-MED LEY. n.s.. [from chance and medley. In law.] The casual slaughter of a man, not altogether without the fault of the slayer, when ignorance or negligence is joined with the chance; as if a man lop trees by an highway-side, by which many usually travel, and cast down a bough, not giving warning to take heed thereof, by which bough one passing by is slain ; in this case he of fends, because he gave no warning, that the party might have taken heed to himself. Cowell. - If such an one should have the ill hap, at any time, to strike a man dead with a smart saying, it ought, in all reason and conscience, to be judged but a chance-medley. Saoto. CHA'NCEABLE. adj. [from chance.] Accidental. The trial thereof was cut off by the chancraise coming thither of the king of Iberia. Sii-3. CHA'N CEFU L. adj. tchance and fill.] Hazardous. Out of use. Myself would offer you to accompany In this advent'rous changeful jeopardy. Spearer. CHA'NCEL. n.s.. [from cancelli, Lat. lattices, with which the chancel was enclosed.] The eastern part of the church, in which the altaris placed. Whether it be allowable or no, that the minister should say service in the obsatel. Bolor,

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CHA'Nc E L to R. n.s.. [cancellarius, Lat. chancellier, Fr., from cancellare, litera: vel scriptum lined per medium ductd dammare; and seemeth of itself likewise to - be derived a cancellis, which signify all one with xyzaos;, a lattice; that is, a thing made of wood or iron bars, laid crossways one over another, so that a man may see through them in and out. It may be thought that judgment seats were compassed in with bars, to defend the judges and other cfficers from the press of the multitude, and yet not to hinder any man’s view. $2u.esitus regni tibi cancellarius Angli, Primus solliciti mente petendus erit. Hic est, qui regni leges cancellat iniguas, Et mandata pit principis equa facit. Verses of Nigel de Wetekre to the bishop of Ely, chancellor to Richard I.] 1. The highest judge of the law. Cancellarius, at the first, signified the registers or actuaries, in court; grapharios, sci/. Quiconscribendis 5’ excipiendi: judicum acti, dant operan. I3ut this name is greatly advanced, and, not only in other kingdoms but in this, is given to him that is the chief judge in causes of property; for the chancellor hath power to moderate and temper the written law, and subjecteth himself only to the law of nature and conscience. - Correll. Turn out, you rogue! how like a beast you lie! Go, buckle to the law. Is this an hour To stretch your limbs? you'll ne'er be chancellor. --- Dryden jun. Aristides was a person of the strictest justice, and best acquainted with the laws, as well as forms of their government ; so that he was in a manner, chancellor of Athens. Swift. 3. CHAN C E L Lo R in the Ecclesiastical Court. A bishop's lawyer; a man • trained up in the civil and canon law, to direct the bishops in matters of judgment, relating as well to criminal as to civil affairs in the church.

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nitary whose office it is to superintend the regular exercise of devotion. 4. CH AN cello R of the Exchequer. An officer who sits in that court, and in the exchequer chamber. He has power, with others, to compound for forfeitures on penal statutes, bonds and recognizances entered into by the king. He has great authority in managing the royal revenue, and in matters of first-fruits. The court of equity is in the exchequer chamber, and is held before the lord treasurer, chancellor, and barons, as that of common law before the barons only. Cowell. Chambers. 3. CHAN cellor of an University. The principal magistrate, who at Oxford he ds his office during life, but at CamR. e he may be ciected every three ** - 3

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6. CHANCE Llor of the Order of the Garter, and other military orders, is an officer who seals the commissions and mandates of the chapter and assembly of the knights, keeps the register of their deliberations, and delivers their acts under the seal of the order. Chambers. CHA'NCE L Lors HIP. m. s. The office of chancellor. The Soday after More gave up his chanceslorship of England, he came himself to his wife's pew, and used the usual words of his gentlemanusher, Maiam, my lord is gone. Carden. CHA'N ce. RY. m. s. [from chancellor; probably chancellery, then shortened.] The court of equity and conscience, moderating the rigour of other courts, that are tied to the letter of the law; whereof the lord chancellor of England is the chief judge, or the lord keeper of the great seal. Cowell. The contumacy and contempt of the party must be signified in the court of chancery, by the bishop's letters under the seal episcopal. Ayliffe. CHA'NCRE. m. s. [chancre, Fr. An ulcer usually arising from venereal maladies. It is possible he was not well cured, and would have relapsed with a chancre. Wiseman. CHA'N cRous. adj. [from chancre.] Having the qualities of a chancre; ulcerous. You may think I am too strict in giving so , many internals in the cure of so small an ulcer as a chancre, or rather a chanerous callus. Wisem. CHAN De Li'. R. m. s. [chandclier, Fr.] A branch for candles. CHA'N D le R. m. s. [chandelier, Fr.] An artisan whose trade it is to make candles, or a person who sells them. The sack that thou hast drunken me, would have bought me lights as good cheap at the dearest chandlers in Europe. Shakspeare. But whether black or lighter dyes are wora, The chandler's basket, on his shoulder born, With tallow spots thy coat. ay. CHA'NFRIN. m. s. [old French. The forepart of the head of a horse, which extends from under the cars, along the interval between the eyebrows, down to his nose. Farrier’s Dict. To CHANCE. v. a. [changer, Fr. cambio, Lat. I 1. To put one thing in the o of another. He that cannot look into his own estate, had need choose well whom he employeth, and change them often; for new are more timorous, and less subtile. Bacon's E. rays.

2. To quit anything for the sake of an

other: with for before the thing taken

or received. - - Persons grown up in the belief of any region, cannot clang: that for another, without anniying their understanding duly to consider and cornpare both. - South. The French and we still change; but here's the

curse, - They charge for better, and we changefo se* , -":/7. 3. To give and take reciprocally: with the particle with before the person to whom

we give, and from whom we take To secure thy centent, l-ak upou those thouI i

sands, tuith whom thou would:t not, for any interest, change thy fortune and condition. Taylor's Rule of living holy. 4. To alter; to make other than it was. Thou shalt not see me blush, Nor change my countenance, for this arrest; A heart unspotted is not easily daunted. Sha'r. Whatsoever is brought upon thee, take chearfully, and be patient when thou art clanged to a low estate. Ecclar. For the elements were changed in themselves by a kind of harmony; like as in a psaltery notes coange the name of the tune, and yet are always sounds. Wisdom.

5. To mend the disposition or mind. I would she were in heaven, so she could Intreat some pow'r to change this currish Jew. Shakspeare. 6. To discount a larger piece of money into several smaller. A shopkeeper might"be able to change a guinea, or a moidore, when a customer comes for a crown's worth of goods. §. 7. To change a horse, or to change hand, is to turn or bear the horse’s head from one hand to the other, from the left to the right, or from the right to the left. Farrier's Dict. To CH AN G. E. z. m. 1. To undergo change; to suffer alteration : as, his fortune may soon change, though he is now so secure. One Julia, that his changing thought forgot, / Would better fit his chamber. Shakspeare. 2. To change, as the moon; to begin a new monthly revolution. I am weary of this moon; would he would change. Shai peare. CH AN G F. n.s.. [from the verb.] 1. An alteration of the state of anything. Since I saw you last, There is a change upon you. Shalipeare. 2. A succession of one thing in the place of another. O wond’rous changes of a fatal scene, . Still varying to the last! Dryden. Nothing can cure this part of ill-breeding, but abange and variety of company, and that of persons above us. Locke. Empires by various turns shall rise and set; While thy abandon'd tribes shall only know A diff'rent master, and a change of time. Prior. Hear how Timotheus' varied lays surprize, And bid alternate passions fall and rise! While, at each change, the son of Libyan Jove Now burns with fury, and now melts with love. - Pope. 3. The time of the moon in which it begins a new monthly revolution. Take seeds or roots, and set some of them inmediately after the oage, and others of the same kind immediately after the full. Bacon. 4. Novelty; a state different from the former.

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Easy it may be to contrive new postures, and ring other clarges upon the same bells. Norris. 6. "I hat which makes a variety; that which may be used for another of the same kind. I will now put forth a riddle unto you; if yo: can find it oor, then I will give you thirty sheets, and thirty counge of garments. jors. 7. Small money, which may be given for larger pieces. Wood beys up our old halfpence, and from thence the present want of change arises; but supposing not one forthing of change in the nation, five-and-twenty thousand pounds would be sufficient. - Soft. 8. Change for exchange; a place where persons meet to traffick and transact mercantiie affairs. The bar, the bench, the change, the schools and pulpits, are full of quacks, jugglers, and plagiaries. L'Etrange. CHA's G E A B I. E. ad;. strom change.] 1. Subject to charge ; fickle ; inconstant. A steady mind will admit steady methods and counsels; there is no measure to be taken of a elongego!e humour. L'Estrange. As I am a man, I must be changeable; and sometimes the gravest of us all are so, even wpon ridiculous accidents. or. 2. Possible to be changed. The fibrous or vascular parts of vegetables seem scarce changeable in the alimentary duct. Arbuthnot en Alinert. 3. Having the quality of exhibiting different appearances. Now the taylor, make thy doublet of co-orable taficta; for thy mind is a very opal. So. CHA'NG E A B L E N Ess. n.s.. [from changeable.] 1. Inconstancy; fickleness. At length he betrothed himself to one worthy to be liked, if any worthiness might excuse. so unworthy a changeableness. Sidney. There is no temper of mind more unmanly than that chang allorers, with which we are too justly branded by all our neighbours. Additer, 2. Susceptibility of change. If how long they are to continue in force, be no where expressed, then have we no light to direct our judgment concerning the charg—a or immutability of them, but considering nature and quality of such laws. Histor. CHA's G V a B.L.Y. adv. [from changeable.] Inconstantly. CHA's GEFU L. adj. [from change and fift.] Full of change; inconstant; uncertain; mutable; subject to variation ; fickle. Unsound Flots, and changeful orders, are daily devised for H. good, yet never effectually prosecuted. ***'. Britain, chan; ful as a child at play, Now calls in princes, and now turns away. Pope. CHA'NG E LIN G. n.s.. [from change; the word arises from an odd superstitious opinion, that the fairies steal away children, and put others that are ugly and stupid in their places.] . A child left or taken in the place of another. And her base elfin breed there for thee left: Such men do changeling, call, so chang'd by fairies theft. Sponser's Fairy Queen, She, as her attendant, hath A lovely boy stol'n from an Indian king; She never had so sweet a changeling. Shai-Proro. 2. An idiot; a fool : a natural. " ' Changeling, and fools of heav'n, and thence t shut out, Wildly we roam in discontent about. Dryden. Would any one be a changelog, because he is ** determińed by wise cosidons thin a wise man? *. 1...e. 3 Que apt to change; a waverer. Offickle changelings and poor discontents, That gope and rob the elbow at the news *. Of hurly-buily innovation. Shakspeare. "Twas not long Before from world to world they swung; As they had turn'd from side to side, And as the changelings liv'd, they died. Hoob. 4. Any thing changed and put in the place of another: in ludicrous speech. ! folded the writ up in form of the other, Šubscrib'd it, gave the impression, plac'd it safely, The langoing never known. Shakspeare. CHA's Gov. n.s. [from change.] One that is employed in changing or discounting money; moneychanger. CHA'NNEL. n. 3. Loanal, Fr. canalis, Lat.] 1. The hollow bed of running waters. . It is not so easy, now that things are grown "nto an habit, and have their certain course, to “hange the channel, and turn their streams inother way. Soer's State of 1,...int. Draw them to Tybe’s bank, and weep your tears Into the channel, till the lowest stream

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course, To gain some acres, avarice did force; lf the new banks, neglected once, decay, olonger will from her old channot stay. HWaller. Had not the said strata been dislocated, some them elevated, and others depressed, there would have been no cavity or channel to give re“ption to the water of the sea. Js’ ow.ort. .The top of mountains and hills will be con: *ually washed down by the rains, and the chan* of rivers abraded by the streams. Dentley. * Any cavity drawn longwise. Complaint and hot desires, the lover's hell, And scalding tears, that worea of where they fell. I}ryden's Fables. 3. A strait or narrow sea, between two countries: as the British Channel, beWeen Britain and France; St. George's Channel, between Britain and Ireland. *: A gutter or furrow of a pillar. "...CHA's N E L. v. a. [from the noun.] To cut any thing in channels No more ... trenching war charne/her fickls, Xor bruise her flow'rets with the armed hors Of hostile paces. Who peare. The body of this column is perpetually chan***, like a thick plaited gown. *rents, and loud impetuous cataracts, oll down the lofty montain's of sides, * to the vale convey their foaming tides. Blackmore. * CHANT. a. a. [chanter, Fr.] 1. To sing. Wheroin the chearful birds of sundry kind chant sweet musick. Fairy Queen. * To celebrate by song. he Poets chant it in §. theatres, the she ords in the mountains. }.}. 3: To sing in the cathedral service. 0 CH ***, *, n. To sing; to make melody with the voice.

otton.

They chant to the sound of the viol, and invent to themselves instruments of musick. Azo. Heav'n heard his song, and hasten’d his relief; And chang'd to snowy plumes his hoary hair, And wing'd his flight to chant aloft in air. Dryd. C+ANT; n. 3. [from the verb.] Song; melody. A pleasant grove, With clant of tuneful birds resounding loud. - Milton. CHA'N TER. m. . [from chant..] A singer; a Songster. . chanters of the wood, That warble forth dame Nature's lays. Wotton. Jove's etherial lays, resistless fire, The chanto's soul and raptur'd song inspire, Instinct divine! nor blame severe his choice, Warbling the Grecian woes with harp and %. o - ope. CHA's Tic H. E.R. m. . [from chanter and clair, Fr.] The name given to the cock, from the clearness and loudness of his crow. And chearful chanticleer, with his note shrill, Had warned once, that Phoebus' fiery car In haste was climbing up the castern sill. Hark, hark, I hear The strain of strutting chanti-seer. Slal peare. Stay, the chearsul chanticeer Tolls you that the time is near. Bon Jenson." These verses were mentioned by Chaucer in the description of the sudden stir, and panical feat, when Clanticleer the cock was carried away by Reynard the fox. Camden's Remain;. Within this homestead liv'd, without a peer For crowing loud, the noble chaotics. 19nyden. CHA's TR Ess. m. s. Lírom chant..] A wo. man singer Sweet bird, that shunn'st the noise of folly, Most musical, most melancholy Thee, chantrers, oft, the woods among, I woo to hearthy even-song. Milton. CHA's To Y. h. 3. [from chant.] A church or chapel endowed with lands, or other yearly revenue for the maintenance of one or more priests, daily to sing mass for the souls of the donors, and such others as they appoint. Cowell. Now go with me, and with this holy man, Into the chantry by ; And, underneath that consecrated roof, Plight me the full assurance of your faith. Spair. CHAOS. m. s. [chaos, Lat. x 42.] 1. The mass of matter supposed to be in confusion before it was divided by the creation into its proper classes and elements. The whole universe would have been a sonfused chaos, without beauty or order. Bently. 2. Confusion ; irregular mixture. Had I followed the worst, I could not have brought church and state to such a chao, of onfusions, as some have done. A. Charler. Their reason sleeps, but mimick fancy wakes, Supplies her parts, and wild ideas takes From words and things, ill sorted, and misjoix'd; The anarchy of thought, and cla., ofti, ini. - Dryden. 3. Any thing where the parts are N. • tinguished. We shall have nothing but dukness and a chaos within, whatever order and ight there he in things without us, Jocke. Pleasd with a work, where nothing 's just or

Spent

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