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It has sometimes in the end of words a sound obscure, and scarcely perceptible, as open, shapen, botten, thistle, participle, lucre.

This faintness of sound is found when separates a mute from a liquid, as in rotten; or follows a mute and liquid, as in cattle.

E forms a dipththong with a, as near; with i, as degn, receive ; and with u or ov, as new, flew. Ea sounds like e long, as mean ; or like ee, as dear, clear, near. Ei is sounded like e long, as seize, percriving. Eu sounds as u long and soft. E., a, u, are combined in beaty and its derivatives, but have only the sound of u. E may be said to form a diphthong by reduplication, as agree, sleeping. Eo is found in yeomen, where it is sounded as a short; and in Aeople, where it is pronounced like ot.

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O is long, as bone, obedient, corröding; or short, as block, knock, Åblique, l'îll. Isomen is pronounced wimen. The short o has sometimes the sound of a clos u, as son, come. O coalesces into a diphthong with a, a moan, groan, approach; oa has the sound of long. 0 is united to e in some words derived fro Greek, as acconomy; but or being not an Engli: diphthong, they are better written as they a sounded, with only e, economy. Withi, as oil, soil, moil, moisome. This coalition of letters scens to unite t sounds of the two letters as far as two sounds c be united without being destroyed, and theref approaches more nearly than any combination our tongue to the notion of a diphthong.

With o, as boot, boot, cooler; oo has t sound of the Italian u.

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in some words has only the sound of o long, as in soul, bowl, sow, grow. These different sounds are used to distinguish different significations; as bow, an instrument for shooting; &w, a depression of the head : sow, the she of a boar; sow, to scatter seed : bowl, an orbicular body; bowl, a wooden vessel. Ou is sometimes pronounced like o soft, as court; sometimes like o short, as coogh; sometimes like u close, as could; or u open, as roogh, tough ; which use only can teach. Cu is frequently used in the last syllable of words which in Latin end in or, and are made English; as honour, labour, favour, from honor, labor, favor. Some late innovators have ejected the u, without considering that the last syllable gives the sound neither of or nor ur, but a sound between them, if not compounded of both; beides that they are probably derived to us from the French nouns in eur, as honneur, favour.

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C has before e and ; the sound of s : as sincerely, centrick, century, circular, cistern, city, siccity to before a, o, and u, it sounds like #, as calm, concavity, copper, incorporate, curiosity, concupiscence. so C might be omitted in the language without loss, since one of its sounds might be supplied by , and the other by k; but that it preserves to the eye the etymology of words, as face from facies, captive from captivus.

Ch has a sound which is analyzed into tib, as church, cbin, crutch. It is the same sound which the Italians give to the c simple before i and e, as citta, cerro.

Ch is sounded like k in words derived from the Greek, as chymist, scheme, choler. Arch is commonly sounded ark before a vowel, as archangel; and with the English sound of ch before a consonant, as archbishop.

C#, in some French words not yet assimilated, sounds like th, as machine, chaise.

C, having no determinate sound, according to English orthography, never ends a word; therefore we write stick, block, which were originally sticke, blocke. In such words C is now Inute.

It is used before land r, as clock, cross.

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- * G has two sounds; one hard, as in gay, go, gun ; the other soft, as in gem, giant. At the end of a word it is always hard, as ring; inug, song, frog. Before e and the sound is uncertain. G before e is soft, as gem, generation, except in gear, geld, geese, &et, growgaw, and derivatives from words ending in g, as singing, stronger, and generally before er at the end of . words, as finger. G is mute before n, as gnash, sign, foreign. G before i is hard, as give, except in giant, gigantick, gibbet, gibe, giblets, Giles,

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-, T. . . . Thas its customary sound, as take, terptation. To before a vowel has the sound of i, as *akation, except an : goes before, as question; excepting likewise derivatives from words ‘nding in ty, as mighly, mightier. . To has two sounds; the one soft, as thus, whether; the other hard, as thing, think. The sound is soft in these words, then, thence, and têtre, with their derivatives and compounds; and in that, reese, thot', thee, thy, thine, their, too, this, those, teem, though, thus, and in all words between two vowels, as {:}; whetor; and between r and a vowel, as burthen.. : In other words it is hard, as thics, thunder, fath, faithful. Where it is softened at the end of a word, an e silent must be added, as *cato, broute; cloth, cotte.

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Of w, which in diphthongs is often an undoubted vowel, some grammarians have doubtcd whether it ever be a consonant ; and not rather, as it is called, a double u, or ou, as water may be resolved into ouater : but letters of the same sound are always reckoned consonants in other alphabets: and it may be observed, that so follows a vowel without any hiatus or difficulty of utterance, as frosty winter.

Wo has a sound accounted peculiar to the English, which the Saxons better expressed by hp, bow, as wbar, whence, whiting; in **ore only, and sometimes in wholesome, w8 is sounded like a simple b.

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Z begins no word originally English; it has the sound, as its name izzard or s hard' expresses, of an uttered with a closer compression of the palate by the tongue, as fircze, frozc. - o In orthography I have supposed ortherhy, or just utterarce of word, to be included; orthography, being only the art of expressing certain sounds by proper characters. I have therefore observed in what words any of the letters are muto. ...' ' , * - -, Most of the writers of English grammar have given long tables of words pronounced otherwise than they are written; and seen, not sufficiently to have considered, that of English, as, of all living tongues, there is a double pronunciation, one cursory and, colloquial, the other regular and solemn. The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain, being made,

different in different mouths by negligence, unw

skilfulness, or afiectation. The solemn pronunciation, though by no means immutable and permanent, is yet always less remote from the or-.

thography, and less liable to capricious innova."

tion. They have however generally formed their tables according to the cursory speech of those with whom they happened to converse; and concluding that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one manner, have often established the jargon of the lowest of the people as the model of speech. For pronunciation the best general rule is, te consider those as the most elegant speakers who deviate least from the written words. There have been many schemes offered for the emendation and settlement of our orthography, which, like that of other nations, being: formed by chance, oraccording to the fancy of the earliest writers in rude ages, was at first very various and uncertain, and is yet sufficiently irregular. Of these reformers some have endeavoured to accommodate orthography better to the pronunciation, without con

sidering that this is to measure by a shadow, to

take that for a model or standard which is changing while they apply it. Others, less absurdly indeed, but with equal unlikelihood of success, have endeavoured to proportion the number of letters to that of sounds, that every sound may have its own character, and every character a single sound. Such would be the orthography of a new language to be formed

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by a synod of grammarians upon principles of science. But who can hope to prevail on na; tions to change their practice, and make all their old books useless 2 or what advantage would a new orthography procure equivalent to the confusion and perplexity of such an alteration ?

Some of these schemes I shall however exhibit; which may be used according to the diversities of genius, as a guide to reformers, or terTour to innovators.

One of the first who proposed a scheme of regular orthography, was Sir Thomas Smith, secretary of state to Queen Elizabeth, a man of real learning, and much practised in grammatical disquisitions. Had he written the following lines according to his scheme, they would have appeared thus:

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• Spenser, book iii. canto 5. R}nthankful wretch, said he, is this the meed, With which her sovereign mercy thou dost -: quite Thy life she saved by her gracious deed; But thou dost ween with villanous despight, To blot her honour, and her heav'nly light. Die, rather die, than so disloyally Deem of her high desert, or seem so light. Fair death it is to shun more shame; then die. Die, rather die, than ever love disloyally. But if to love disloyalty it be, Shall I then hate her, that from deathes door Me brought? ah! far be such reproach from me. What can I less do, than her love therefore, Sith I her due reward cannot restore ? Die, rather die, and dying do her serve, Dying her serve, and living her adore. Thy life she gave, thy life she doth deserve; Die, rather die, than ever from her service swerve.

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But whensoever you have occasion to trouble their patience, or to come among them being troubled, it is better to stand upon your guard than to trust to their gentleness. For the safeguard of your face, which they have most mind unto, provide a pursehood, made of coarse boultering, to be drawn and knit about your collar, which for more safety is to be lined against the eminent parts with woollen cloth. First cut a piece about an inch and a half broad, and half a yard long, to reach round by the temples and forehead, from one ear to the other; which being sowed in his place, join unto it two short pieces of the same breadth under the eyes, for the balls of the cheeks, and then set another piece about the breadth of a shilling against the top of the nose. At other times, when they are not angered, a little piece half a quarter broad, to cover the eyes and parts about them, may, serve, though it be in the heat of the day.

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In the time of Charles I, there was a verv prevalent inclination to change the orthography; as appears, among other books, in such editions of the works of Milton as were published by himself. Of these reformers, every man had his own scheme; but they agreed it one general design of accommodating the letter to the pronunciation, by ejecting such as the thought superfluous. Some of them would hav written these lines thus:

All the erth Shall then be paradis, far happier placeThan this of Eden, and far happier dais.

Bishop Wilkins afterwards, in his great wo:

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