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-, T. . . . Thas its customary sound, as take, terptation. To before a vowel has the sound of i, as *akation, except an : goes before, as question; excepting likewise derivatives from words ‘nding in ty, as mighly, mightier. . To has two sounds; the one soft, as thus, whether; the other hard, as thing, think. The sound is soft in these words, then, thence, and têtre, with their derivatives and compounds; and in that, reese, thot', thee, thy, thine, their, too, this, those, teem, though, thus, and in all words between two vowels, as {:}; whetor; and between r and a vowel, as burthen.. : In other words it is hard, as thics, thunder, fath, faithful. Where it is softened at the end of a word, an e silent must be added, as *cato, broute; cloth, cotte.

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Of w, which in diphthongs is often an undoubted vowel, some grammarians have doubtcd whether it ever be a consonant ; and not rather, as it is called, a double u, or ou, as water may be resolved into ouater : but letters of the same sound are always reckoned consonants in other alphabets: and it may be observed, that so follows a vowel without any hiatus or difficulty of utterance, as frosty winter.

Wo has a sound accounted peculiar to the English, which the Saxons better expressed by hp, bow, as wbar, whence, whiting; in **ore only, and sometimes in wholesome, w8 is sounded like a simple b.

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Z begins no word originally English; it has the sound, as its name izzard or s hard' expresses, of an uttered with a closer compression of the palate by the tongue, as fircze, frozc. - o In orthography I have supposed ortherhy, or just utterarce of word, to be included; orthography, being only the art of expressing certain sounds by proper characters. I have therefore observed in what words any of the letters are muto. ...' ' , * - -, Most of the writers of English grammar have given long tables of words pronounced otherwise than they are written; and seen, not sufficiently to have considered, that of English, as, of all living tongues, there is a double pronunciation, one cursory and, colloquial, the other regular and solemn. The cursory pronunciation is always vague and uncertain, being made,

different in different mouths by negligence, unw

skilfulness, or afiectation. The solemn pronunciation, though by no means immutable and permanent, is yet always less remote from the or-.

thography, and less liable to capricious innova."

tion. They have however generally formed their tables according to the cursory speech of those with whom they happened to converse; and concluding that the whole nation combines to vitiate language in one manner, have often established the jargon of the lowest of the people as the model of speech. For pronunciation the best general rule is, te consider those as the most elegant speakers who deviate least from the written words. There have been many schemes offered for the emendation and settlement of our orthography, which, like that of other nations, being: formed by chance, oraccording to the fancy of the earliest writers in rude ages, was at first very various and uncertain, and is yet sufficiently irregular. Of these reformers some have endeavoured to accommodate orthography better to the pronunciation, without con

sidering that this is to measure by a shadow, to

take that for a model or standard which is changing while they apply it. Others, less absurdly indeed, but with equal unlikelihood of success, have endeavoured to proportion the number of letters to that of sounds, that every sound may have its own character, and every character a single sound. Such would be the orthography of a new language to be formed

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by a synod of grammarians upon principles of science. But who can hope to prevail on na; tions to change their practice, and make all their old books useless 2 or what advantage would a new orthography procure equivalent to the confusion and perplexity of such an alteration ?

Some of these schemes I shall however exhibit; which may be used according to the diversities of genius, as a guide to reformers, or terTour to innovators.

One of the first who proposed a scheme of regular orthography, was Sir Thomas Smith, secretary of state to Queen Elizabeth, a man of real learning, and much practised in grammatical disquisitions. Had he written the following lines according to his scheme, they would have appeared thus:

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• Spenser, book iii. canto 5. R}nthankful wretch, said he, is this the meed, With which her sovereign mercy thou dost -: quite Thy life she saved by her gracious deed; But thou dost ween with villanous despight, To blot her honour, and her heav'nly light. Die, rather die, than so disloyally Deem of her high desert, or seem so light. Fair death it is to shun more shame; then die. Die, rather die, than ever love disloyally. But if to love disloyalty it be, Shall I then hate her, that from deathes door Me brought? ah! far be such reproach from me. What can I less do, than her love therefore, Sith I her due reward cannot restore ? Die, rather die, and dying do her serve, Dying her serve, and living her adore. Thy life she gave, thy life she doth deserve; Die, rather die, than ever from her service swerve.

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But whensoever you have occasion to trouble their patience, or to come among them being troubled, it is better to stand upon your guard than to trust to their gentleness. For the safeguard of your face, which they have most mind unto, provide a pursehood, made of coarse boultering, to be drawn and knit about your collar, which for more safety is to be lined against the eminent parts with woollen cloth. First cut a piece about an inch and a half broad, and half a yard long, to reach round by the temples and forehead, from one ear to the other; which being sowed in his place, join unto it two short pieces of the same breadth under the eyes, for the balls of the cheeks, and then set another piece about the breadth of a shilling against the top of the nose. At other times, when they are not angered, a little piece half a quarter broad, to cover the eyes and parts about them, may, serve, though it be in the heat of the day.

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In the time of Charles I, there was a verv prevalent inclination to change the orthography; as appears, among other books, in such editions of the works of Milton as were published by himself. Of these reformers, every man had his own scheme; but they agreed it one general design of accommodating the letter to the pronunciation, by ejecting such as the thought superfluous. Some of them would hav written these lines thus:

All the erth Shall then be paradis, far happier placeThan this of Eden, and far happier dais.

Bishop Wilkins afterwards, in his great wo:

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The English language has properly no dialects; the style of writers has no professed diversity in the use of words, or of their flexions and terminations, nor differs but by different degrees of skill or care. The oral diction is uniform in no spacious country, but has less variation in England than in most other nations of equal extent. The language of the northern counties retains many words now out of use, but which are commonly of the genuine Teutonick race; and is uttered with a pronunciation which now seems harsh and rough, but was probably used by our ancestors. The northern speech is therefore not barbarous, but obsolete. The speech in the western provinces seems to differ from the general diction rather by a depraved pronunciation, than by any real difference of: letters would express.

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Z 1. Proper names, as jobn, Alexander, LonIt is a further confirmation of this opinion, ,

ginus, Aristarchus, jerusalem, Athens, Rome, London. GoD is used as a proper name. 2. Abstract names, as blackness, witchcraft, virtue, vice, beauty, ugliness, love, hatred, anger, good-nature, kindness. 3. Words in which nothing but the mere being of any thing is implied: as, This is not beer, but water; this is not brass, but steel.

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These genitives are always written with a mark of elision, muster's, scholar's, according to an opinion long received, that the 's is a contraction of his, as the soldier's valoor, for the susdier his va cur: but this cannot be the true original, because ’s is put to female nouns, Woman't beauty, the Virgin's delicacy; Haughty Jono's unresenting hate; and collective nouns, as Women's /assions, the rabbit's insolence, the multitude's fully: in all these cases it is apparent to.; his cannot Se understood. We say likewise, the foundation's strength, the diamond', witre, the winter’s severity; but in these cases his may be understood, & and his having formerly {.. applied to neuters in the place now supplied by is and

A/3.

The learned and sagacious Wallis, to whom every English grammarian owes a tribute of reverence, calls this modification of the noun an adjective Aossessive; I think with no more propriety than he might have applied the same to the genitive in rquiem docus, Troja wris, or any other Latin genitive. Dr. Lowth, on the other part, supposes the possessive pronouns mine and thi e to be genitive cases.

This termiination of the noun seems to constitute a real genitive indicating possession. It is derived to us from those who declined rmis, a smith; Gen. Fmiser, of a smith; Plur. Tmièer, or smrčar, smiths; and so in two other of their seven declensions.

that in the old poets both the o: and plural were longer by a syllable than the oriinal word; on is for knight's, in Chaucer; leavis £. leaves, in Spenser. When a word ends in , the genitive may be the same with the nominative, as P'enus temple.

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Joute, mice from mouse, geese from got, ful from foot, dice from die, Aence from Aenny, bruthrin from brother, children from child.

Plurals ending in s have for the most part no genitives; but we say, Womens excellengies, and Weigh the mens wits against the adies bairs. Pope. Dr. Wallis thinks the Lords' hour may be said for the house of Lords; but such phrases are not now in use; and surely an English ear rebels against them. They would commonly produce ... à troublesome ambiguity, as the Lord house may be the house of Lords, or the house of a Lord. Besides that the mark of elision is improper, for in the Lords’ house nothing is cut off. * Some English substantives, like those of many other languages, change their terminition as they express difierent sexes, as prince, Arincess; actor, actress; siz”, lioness; hero, heroint. To these mentioned by Dr. Lowth may be added arou, eos, Aoetess, countress, daches, tigress, governois, tutress, preros, authorest, traytroit, and erhaps others. Of these variable terminations we have only a sufficient number to make us feel our want; for when we say of a woman that she is a philosopher, au astronomer, a builder, a weaver, a dancer, we perceive an impropriety in the termination which we cannot avoid; but we can say that she is an architect, a botanist, a studen', because these terminations have annexed to then the notion of sex. In words which the necessities of life are often requiring, the sex is distinguished not by different terminations but by different names, as, a buil, a cow; a horse, a mare, equus, equa; a cook, a hen; and sometimes by pronouns prefixed, as a he-goo., • she-goat. - - - - - - - . . . . . .” --

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- All adjectives may be compared by more and most, even when they have comparatives and superlatives regularly formed; as fair, fairer, or more fair; fairest, or most fair.

In adjectives that admit a regular comparison, the comparative more is oftener used than the superlative most, as more fair is oftener written for fairer, than most fair for fairest.

The comparison of adjectives is very uncertain; ...' being much regulated by commodiousness of utterance, or agreeableness of sound, is not easily reduced to rules.

Monosyllables are commonly compared.

Polysyllables, or words of more than two syllables, are seldom compared otherwise than by more and most, as deplorable, more deplorable, most deplorable.

Dissyllables are seldom compared if they terminate in some, as fussome, toilome; in ful, as careful, spleensul, dreadful; in ing, as trifing, charming; in ous, as porows; in less, as rareless, barmless ; in ed, as wretched; in id, as candid; in al, as mortal; in ent, as recent, fervent; in ain, as certain ; in ive, as missive; in dy, as woody; in fy, as puffy: in £y, as rooty, except lucky; in my, as roomy; in ny, as skinny; in py, as ropy, except happy; in ry, as boary.

Some comparatives and superlatives are yet found in good writers, formed without regard to the foregoing rules: but in a language subjected so little and so lately to grammar, such anomalies must frequently occur.

So shady is compared by Milton.
She, in shudiest covert hid,
Tun'd her nocturnal note. Purauise Lost.

And virtuous.
What she wills to say or do,
Seems wisest, virtuousest, discreetest, best.
Paradise Lost.

So toffing, by Ray, who is indeed of no great authority. It is not so decorous, in respect of God, that he should immediately do all the meanest and to fingest things himself, withcut making use of any inferior or subordinate minister. Roy on the Crcation. Famous, by Milfor. I shall be nam'd among the famousest Of women, sung at solemn festivals. Milton's Agonister. Isvestive, by Ascham. Those have the inventivest heads for all purposes, and roundest tongues in all matters. Astham's Schoolmaster. Marta', by Bacon. The mortalest poisons practised by the West Indians, have some mixture of the blood, fat, or flesh of man. Natural, by Wortan. I will now deliver a few of the properest and "at-ratest considerations that belong to this piece. Wolton's Architecture. Wretches, by junion. The *etcheder are the contemners of all

help"; such as, presuming on their own.

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Bacon. yours; of the third, from be, bis; from she,

ber, and hers ; and in the plural their, theirs, for both sexes. -

Ours, yours, hers, theirs, are used when the substantive preceding is separated by a verb, as These are our books. These books are ours. Your children exced ours in stature, but ours inspass yours

in learning. * * *

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