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painful, and loathsome to the ex). "

and though it was lingering, and " Oh !” he said to a brother who

visited him, “my Bible, the word treme, yet the period of its vio- of God, is more truly inestimable lence was especially the period, now than ever.

Its promises upwhen Christian piety was mani-hold and gladden me. I can now fested, and the value of Christian say as the Psalmist, It is good for consolations was felt and declared. me that I am afflicted. I trust in Through almost all the protracted my Father, in my Saviour ; and season of anguish which Mr. he will order all for the best, and Lowe endared, the language of finally bring me to his glory." faith, and love, and resignation, Indeed, for days, and weeks, and flowed from his lips, and renewed months, he seemed to be filled testimonies were given by him to with comfort, and to grow richer the faithfulness of God, to the and stronger in faith and grace. preciousness of Christ Jesus, and His funeral was attended by a to the efficacy of Divine grace to large number of his brethren in produce joy and triumph in the the ministry, and a vast concourse midst of suffering and agony.lof people.



The first annual report of the constitution, is “ to promote and

American Society for colonizing execute a plan for colonizing the free people of colour of the (with their consent) the free peoUnited States; and the proceed-ple of colour, residing in our ings of the Society at their annual country, in Africa, or such other meeting in the city of Washing- place as Congress shall deem most ton, on the first day of January, expedient." Such a project, not1818. Washington city, pp. 49. withstanding all the obstacles

which may be opposed to its exeSome apology perhaps is due cation, we conceive not merely to to the Society whose Report is be practicable, but pregnant with prefixed to this article, for our the most momentous results to tardiness in noticing its proceed the highest hopes and noblest inings. We are the more solicitous terests of our species, and thereon this point, because we are anx- fore in every respect worthy of ious not to be considered as parti- the patronage and enterprise of a cipating in that spirit of indiffer- united nation. Considered as a ence, if not of direct hostility to measure dictated by justice, huthe avowed object of this Society, manity, or policy, it equally adwhich appears to pervade some dresses itself to every generous portion of the public mind, at least sentiment in our nature, and calls in this section of our country loudly for public and private coThis object, as set forth in the loperation.

It is presumed that no one will for the benefits of intellectual and deny its justice. It is only restor- moral culture; and therefore it is ing to the degraded sons of Africa, said to transport any number of what the avarice and fraud of our them to Africa, would be merely to own citizens have deprived them expose them to the miseries of of; and after having grown rich anarchy and vice. If these concluby their labours and sufferings, sions were founded in truth, any giving them an opportunity of re- attempt like the present would be gaining their native liberty, en- adding insult to injury. But it is riched by the honours and loaded easy to show that they are prediwith the blessings of civilized cated upon an unjust estimate of life. This is after all but a poor the African character. To judge recompense for the injuries that of the capabilities of that charachave been inflicted on suffering ter from what we see of it here, Africa. It is indeed a debt of in- enchained to the earth, and assocalculable magnitude that we owe ciated with all that is mean and her; and it is not an ebullition of debased, is indeed most erroneextravagance to assert, that it can ous. To expect that amid the never be cancelled by the most influence of such degradation, the stupendous efforts or the most gi- African of our country should gantic enterprises for the melio- display any nobility of character, ration of her condition. This con. any elevation of moral sentiment, sideration, however, should not any intellectual refinement, would discourage us in the present un- be to expect from him a trandertaking. It ought rather to inscendency of native genius which spire us with ardour in any'endea- Providence has not even granted vours however inadequately, to to the more fortunate portions of propitiate the spirit of an insulted our species. There is something continent, and to lighten that enor- in the state of slavery which mous load of guilt which the sweeps out of existence all those traffic in human flesh has imposed motives which operate most powupon our land. On this head it erfully in elevating and improving is unnecessary to add another the character of man-depresses word.

every faculty of the soulWith regard to the humanity of quenches every noble aspiration the project, there may be a diver- of our nature-snaps in sunder sity of sentiment ; and it ought the silken cords of benevolence not to be concealed that this di- wbich bind together the circle of versity does in fact exist. Every society, and arrays in deadly hosmeasure of this kind should un- tility one portion of our race doubtedly have in view the im- against the other. Such are the provement of the moral and po- natural effects of slavery, and will litical condition of the negroes. always be found to prevail, wheNow there are not a few, who ther the slave be white or black. though favourably disposed to the If, however, we look at negroes, African race, yet think them so when placed under circumstances degraded in the scale of being, as more favourable, enjoying liverty to be incapable of self-govern- and some share of civilization, ment, and even unable to appre- we shall find them exhibiting a ciate the blessings of civil liberty, degree of intellect and an energy

of character, which should shield (municated, will not expire with them from the calumnies so pro- itself. Industry, manufactures, fusely heaped upon them. Facts arts, and science, will follow in on this subject might be multi- rapid succession, and impart acplied without end * Without ad- tivity, enterprise, and refinement. verting to the history of St. Do- This is certainly not a picture of mingo in proof of this position, the imagination; we are confident we need only refer to the asto- that it will one day be realized, nishing revolution that has been and that the period for its accoineffected in some of our own blacks plishment is not very far distant. through the instrumentality of But it has been objected to all proper education. Our Sunday this, that such a colony established Schools have taught us that in the on the coast of Africa, will be acquisition of knowledge, under deprived of that moral and relia similarity of advantages, they gious instruction which may here are not so far inferior to the be enjoyed. We hardly know whites, as the credulity or preju- how to treat such an objection, dice of many has taught them to whether to canvass it soberly, or believe.

to direct against it the weapons If then nature has not deprived of ridicule and satire. The puthe African mind of the power of rity of the motive which dictated improvement and if its imbecility it, may justly be suspected, when in this country arise altogether we know that a great part of our from the circumstances under black population is suffered to lanwhich it is doomed to exist, ought guish in hopeless ignorance of the it not to be considered as an effort truths of religion, without one efof the purest benevolence, to fort being made to rescue them place it in a situation where it from such a state. shall realize its utmost expansion ? one seriously imagine that the The benefits accruing to the Afri- proposed colony will be left descan colonist, will be numerous and titute of the means of religious important. He will be invested instruction ? If it were so, the at once with all the rights and project ought to be abandoned, privileges of a freeman ; associa- for without it, every attempt to ted with his equals ; governed by transform the African character magistrates of his own colour; would probably fail of success. and by laws which he himself as- But we koow it to be one of the sisted in framing; he will find cherished objects of the present himself respected by those around enterprise, to supply the colony him in proportion to his talents with ministers of their own colour, and good conduct; and the influ- who shall be able to impart moence which the combination of all ral and religious instruction to the these circumstances will have in inhabitants. Nor does the Chrisdeveloping his resources and tian philanthropy of the enterawakening his ambition, is incal. prise end with the colony; it exculable. An impulse thus com- tends its vision throughout the

* Whoever wishes to see an able defence whole of Africa, and beholds in of the African character, may consult the that moral wilderness, a theatre interesting work of Gregoire on the Litera. ture of the Negroes, and Dr. E. Griffin's worthy of the noblest achievemasterly Plea for Africa.

ments of Christian charity. What

But can any

Christian heart does not fail when and the white as insurmountable it contemplates the moral death as ever-he is conscious that he which has fastened upon that un- carries about with him in his perhappy portion of our globe ? And son the badge of bis inferiority; what man's bosom is not moved and whatever exertions he may within him, when he is led to an- use, he can never cherish the ticipate, that from this civilized expectation of attaining to civil or colony streams of light may flash political distinction. Deprived of through the trackless deserts of these incentives to good conduct, Africa, while the sable missiona- and destitute of all moral rearies of truth issuing from this straints, he abandons himself to hallowed sanctuary, with the despair, idleness and vice. Nor word of life in their hands, shall is this all. Attributing all his ills march from one end of the con- to the oppression of the whites, tinent to the other, until they he is constantly cherishing against shall have rallied under the ban- them sentiments of the deepest ners of the cross the noblest of animosity. The influence too its population ? Who does not which they have over the slaves perceive that under the influence is exercised in fomenting rebelof such an excitement, the sleep- lion and disturbance, and exciting ing energies of Africa must be contempt for the authority of awakened, and that ere long she their masters. Besides, the cormust stand forth in defence of her rupt association which takes place injured rights, and as she recounts between them and the lower classthe names of her philosophers, es of the white population must her statesmen, her poets, and her have a direct tendency to demowarriors, and boasts of her arts, ralize society at large. All these her manufactures, and her com-considerations taken into view, merce, must claim her rank in the any measure capable of remedyscale of civilized existence? ing this growing evil must be

We shall now cast a glance at hailed with joy by every friend the policy of the measure. The of his country. Now the only most striking and obvious advan- one at all adequate to the protage, is that of ridding ourselves duction of so salutary an effect of a portion of our population, we conceive to be that of colonifor the most part useless, if not zation. It is giving the blacks injurious to the country. We all themselves the fairest, and in know that the character of the free fact the only chance of reformapeople of colour in these states tion and improvement, at the is infinitely more vicious and cor. same time that it is relieving ourrupted* than that of the slaves selves of an evil which will, themselves. Nor ought this to sooner or later, deluge our land excite the least surprise. It arises with blood and crime. wholly out of their situation, and Another most essential advancan never be corrected while tage which may be expected to they remain intermingled with flow from this measure is, that it

Notwithstanding the slave will diminish the number of has obtained his liberty, yet he slaves. That slavery is a disfinds the barrier between himself grace as well as a curse to any

* There are some honourable exceptions. I nation, every person in the pre


sent day will be ready to admit, " Whence does it arise? I answer But it is so in a peculiar manner

from this: that in one division of counto our country which justly for their own benefit; and in the other

try the land is cultivated by freemen, boasts of civil and political privi-almost entirely by slaves, for the beneleges, superior to any nation on fit of their masters. It is the obvious the face of the globe. To show interest of the first class of labourers, the deleterious effects which it to produce as much and consume as lit

tle as possible; and of the second class bas produced, we shall appeal to to consume as much and produce as the authority of a person every little as possible. What the slave conway qualified to judge correctly. sumes is for bimself: what he produces We allude to our distinguished is for his master. All the time that he countryman, Mr. Harper. It is himself: all that he spends in labour is an extract from a letter appended devoted to his master. All that the to the present report, containing free labourer, on the contrary, can proa luminous and eloquent view of duce is for himself: all that he can save

is so much added to his owu stock. All the subject of colonization.

the time that he loses from labour is his

own loss. “ No person who has seen the slave “ This, if it were all, would probably holding states, and those where slavery be quite sufficient, to account for the does not exist, and has compared ever whole difference in question. But unso slightly their condition and situation, fortunately it is far from being all. can bave failed to be struck with the Another and a still more injurious vast difference, in favour of the latter. effect of slavery remains to be conThis difference extends to every thing, sidered. except only the character and manners * Where the labouring class is comof the most opulent and best educated posed wholly or in a very considerable people. These are very much the same degree, of slaves, and of slaves distinevery where. But in population, in guished from the free class by colour, the general diffusion of wealth and features, and origin, the ideas of labour comfort, in public and private improve- and of slavery soon become connected ments, in the education, manners, and in the minds of the free class. This mode of life, of the middle and labour- arises from that association of ideas ing classes, in the face of the country, which forms one of the characteristic in roads, bridges, and inns, in schools features of the human mind, and with and churches, in the general advance- which every reflecting person is well ment of improvement and prosperity, acquainted. They who continually there is no comparison. The change is from their infancy see black slaves emseen the instant you cross the line, ployed in Jabour, and forming by much which separates the country where the most numerous class of labourers, there are slaves, from that where there insensibly associate the ideas of labour are none. Even in the same state, the and of slavery, and are almost irresistiparts where slaves most abound, are bly led to consider labour as a badge of voiformly the worst cultivated, the slavery, and consequently as a degradapoorest, and the least populous; whiletion. To be idle, on the contrary, is wealth and improvement uniformly in- in their view the mark and the privicrease, as the number of slaves in the lege of freemen. The effect of this country diminishes. I might prove and habitual feeling, upon that class of free illustrate this position by many ex- whites which ought to labour, and conamples, drawn from a comparison of sequently upon their condition, and the different states, as Maryland and Penn- general condition of the country, will sylvania, and between different coun- be readily perceived by those who reties in the same state, as Charles Coun- fect on such subjects. It is seen in the ty and Frederick in Maryland; but it vast difference between the labouring is unnecessary; because every body class of whites in the southern and midwho has seen the different parts of the dle, and those of the northern and eastcountry, has been struck by this differ-ern states. Why are the latter incom

parably more industrious, more thriv. VOL. II....No. 3.



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