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zag. At every turn cannon point directly at the approacher; and generally down every ditch, and in every possible direction, where the wall can be approached, great guns are ready to cut down the assailants. The promontory of the rock, which constitutes the loftiest point of the fortifications, is called Cape Diamond, and upon this is erected the famous citadel of Quebec.
7. This is not, as one might suppose, a building or cas tle covered with a roof; it is open to the heavens, and differs from the rest of the works only in being more ela vated, stronger, and therefore more commanding. The highest part of the citadel is Brock's battery, which is a mound, artificially raised, higher than every thing else, and mounted with cannon, pointing to the plains of Abraham. From the citadel, the view of the river, of the town, and of the surrounding country, is, of course, extremely beautiful. Within the walls are numerous magazines, furnished with every implement and preparation, and more or less proof against the various missiles of war.
8. Piles of cannon balls are every where to be seen, and the cannons mounted on the walls and other places amount to several hundred. Beyond the walls, on the plains of Abraham, are the four Martello towers. They are solidly constructed, about forty feet high, the diameter at the base being about the same; as they have cannon on their tops. They of course sweep the whole plain, and effectually command it; the particular object of their construction is to prevent an enemy from occupying the high ground on the plains of Abraham.
9. These towers are very strong on the side farthest from the town, and weaker on the side next to it, that they may be battered from it, should an enemy obtain possession of them. On the whole, Quebec is so strong in its defences, and so well garrisoned, that an attempt to take it by any force whatever, would undoubtedly prove a fruitless undertaking.
Note. Gibraltar is a town in the south of Spain, in 3Go north latitude. Its fortifications, which are probably the strongest in the world, command the straits of Gibraltar, or the narrow Sea which connects the Mediterranean with the Atlantic Ocean.--St. Lawrence, one of the largest rivers in North America, proceeds from Lake Ontario, from which it runs in a northeast direction, 700 miles, to the Atlantic Ocean. It is navigable for the largest vessels to Quebec, 400 miles from its mouth.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF GENERAL LEE.
1. CHARLES LEE, a major general in the army the United States, was born in Wales, and was the son of John Lee, a colonel in the British service. He entered the army at a very early age ; but though he possessed a military spirit, he was ardent in the pursuit of knowledge He acquired a competent skill in Greek and Latin, while his fondness for travelling made him acquainted with the Italian, Spanish, German, and French languages. In 1756, he came to America, and was engaged in the attack upon Ticonderoga, in July, 1758, when Abercrombie was de feated.
2. In 1762, he bore a colonel's commission, and served ander Burgoyne, in Portugal, where he much distinguished himself. Not long afterwards, he entered into the Polish Bervice. Though he was absent when the stamp act was passed, he yet by his letters zealously supported the cause of America. In the years 1771, 1772, and 1773, he rambled over all Europe, for he could never stay long at one place. During this excursion he was engaged with an Officer in an affair of honour, and he slew bis antagonist, escaping himself with the loss of two fingers.
3. Having lost the favour of the ministry, and the hopes of promotion, in consequence of his political sentimente, he came to America, in November, 1773. He travelled through the country, animating the colonies to resistance. In 1774, he was induced by the persuasion of his friend, general Gates, to purchase a valuable tract of land, of two or three thousand acres, in Berkley county, Virginia. Here he resided until the following year, when he resigned a com mission which he held in the British service, and accepted a commission from Congress appointing him a major general.
4. He accompanied Washington to the camp at Canbridge, where he arrived July 2, 1775, and was received with every mark of respect. In the beginning of the following year he was despatched to New York to prevent the British from obtaining possession of the Hudson. This trust he executed with great wisdom and energy. He dis armed all suspicious persons on Long Island, and drew up a test to be offered to every one, whose attachment to the American cause was doubted. His bold measures carried terror wherever he appeared.
5. He seems to have been very fond of this application of a test ; for, in a letter to the President of Congress, he informs him, that he had taken the liberty, at Newport, to administer to some of the tories a very strong oath, one article of which was, that they should take up arms in defence of their country, if called upon by Congress; and he recommends that this measure should be adopted in reference to all the tories in America. Those fanatics who might refuse to take it, he thought should be carried into the interior.
6. Being sent into the southern colonies, as commander of all the forces which should there be raised, he diffused an ardour among the soldiers which was attended with the most salutary consequences. He was very active in giving directions and making preparations previously to the unsuccessful attack of the British on Sullivan's Island, June 23, 1776. In October, by the direction of Congress, he repaired to the northern army. As he was marching through New Jersey, from the Hudson, to form a junction with Washington in Pennsylvania, be quitted his camp in Morris county, to reconnoitre.
7. In this employment he went to the distance of three miles from the camp and entered a house for breakfast. A British colonel became acquainted with his situation by intercepting a countryman charged with a letter from him, and was enabled to take him prisoner. He was immediavely mounted on a horse, without his cloak and hat, and carried safely to New York. He was detained until Aprü or May 1778, when he was exchanged for general Prescott, taken at Newport. He was engaged soon after in the battle of Monmouth.
8. Being detached by the commander in chief to make un attack
upon the rear of the enemy, general Washington was pressing forward to support him on the twenty-eighth of June, when, to his astonishment, he found him retreating without having made a single effort to maintain his ground. Meeting him in these circumstances, without any previous
notice of his plans, Washington addressed him in terms of some warmth. Lee being ordered to check the enemy, conducted himself with his usual bravery, and when forced from the ground on which he had been placed, brought off his troops in good order.
9. But his haughty temper could not brook the indignity which he believed to have been offered him on the field of battle, and he addressed a letter to Washington, requiring reparation for the injury. He was on the thirtieth arrested for disobedience of orders, for misbehaviour before the enemy, and for disrespect to the commander in chief. Of these charges he was found guilty by a court martial, at which lord Stirling presided, and he was sentenced to be suspended for one year.
10. He defended himself with his usual ability, and his retreat seems to be justified from the circumstance of his having advanced upon an enemy, whose strength was much greater than was apprehended, and from his being in a situation with a morass in his rear, which would preclude him from a retreat, if the British should have proved victo rious. But his disrespectful letters to the commander in chief it is not easy to justify. His suspension gave general satisfaction to the army, for he was suspected of aiming himself at the supreme command.
11. After the result of this trial was confirmed by Congress in January 1780, he retired to his estate in Berkley county, Virginia, where he lived in a style peculiar to himself. Glass windows and plaster would have been extravagancies in his house. Though he had for his companions few select authors and his dogs, yet as he found his situation too solitary and irksome, he sold his farm in the fall of 1782, that in a different abode he might enjoy the conversation of mankind. He went to Philadelphia and took lodgings at an inn. After being three or four days in the city he was seized by a fever which terminated his life October 2, 1782. The last words which he uttered were, * stand by me, my brave grenadiers."
Note. Portugal, the most western country of Europe, in a medium latitude of 400 north, is 310 miles long and 150 broad. It is bounded on the west and south by the Atlantic, and on the east and north by Spain.-long Island, belonging to the state of New York, is 140 miles
long and from 1 to 15 broad. It extends from Hudson river nearly to the western bounds of Rhode Island. It has Long Island Sound on the north, and the ocean on the south. Kringlon
ROMAN DISCIPLINE AND PATRIOTISM.
1. AS the war with the Samnites had been for somo time carried on with various success, and the balance seemed to vibrate in uncertainty, it was thought advisable to conclude a peace, the terms of which were so offensive to the Latins and the Campanians, that it induced them to revolt. The former carried their demands so far as to idsist, that one of the consuls, and half the senate, should be chosen out of their body, before they would submit to think of accommodation.
2. The Romans at first tried by gentle means to divert them from their purpose; but they insisted upon it still more resolutely, ascribing the lenity of Rome to its fears In order, therefore, to chastise them into reason, two CODsuls were sent by the senate to invade their country. The Latins were not remiss in their preparations for a de feace; so that the two armies met with equal animosity and a bloody and obstinate battle ensued. In this battle the strict discipline of the Romans and their amazing patriotism were displayed in a manner that has excited rather the wonder than the applause of posterity.
8. As the Latins and Romans were a neighbouring pea ple, and their habits, arms, and languages, were the same, the most exact discipline was necessary to prevent conform sion in the engagement Orders were therefore issued by Manlius, the consul, that no soldier should leave his ranks upon whatever provocation; and that he should be cer tainly put to death who should offer to violate this injedo tion, Both armies were drawn into array, and ready to begin, when Metius, the general of the enemy's cavalry, pushed forward from his lines, and challenged any knight in the Roman army to single combat.
4. For some time, there was a general pause, no soldier offering to disobey his orders, till Titus Manlius, the conEul's son, burning with shame to see the whole body of the Romans intimidated, boldly singled out against Metima