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fections. To be perfect as our heavenly that God may be glorified: but not to be Father is perfect, is indeed impossible, as seen of men, that ourselves may be aplo equality, but not as to imitation. The plauded. Observe, 3. The particular sin word rendered here perfect, by St. Mat- which our Saviour warns his disciples thew, is elsewhere, by St. Luke, rendered against in giving their alms, namely, osten. merciful, Luke vi. 36, implying, Thatcharity lation and vain-glory, which the Pharisees is the perfection of a Christian's graces; were notoriously guilty of; sounding a trumhe that is made perfect in love, is perfect pet to call people about them when they in all divine graces, in the account of God. gave their alms. Thence learn, That the Learn, 1. That there is no standing still in doing any good work, especially any work religion, but he that will be saved must of charity and mercy, vain-gloriously, and press on towards perfection. Learn, 2. not with an eye to God's glory, will cerThat no less than perfect and complete per- tainly miss of the reward of well-doing in fection in grace, and particularly in the another world. Observe, 4. The advice grace and love of charity, is and ought to given by our Saviour for the prevention of be the aim of every Christian in this life, this sin and danger; and that is, to do our and shall be his attainment in the next. alms as secretly as we can; Let not thy

right hand know what thy left hand doeth; that CHAP. VI.

is, conceal it from thy nearest relations, This chapter is a continuation of our Saviour's in

and, if possible, from thyself. Note thence, comparable serion upon the mount, in which he

That the secrecy of our charity is one good cautions bis disciples against ine hypocrisy and evidence of its sincerity. Hence the Egypvain-glory of the Pharisees, both in their alms

tians made the emblem of charity to be a giving and prayers; the former in the first four verses of this chapter, which speaks thus ;

blind boy reaching out honey to a bee

that had lost her wings. alms before men, to be seen of

5 And when thou prayest, thou them: otherwise ye have no reward shalt not be as the hypocrites are: of your Father which is in heaven. for they love to pray standing in the 2 Therefore when thou doest thine synagogues, and in the corners of alms, do not sound a trumpet before the streets, that they may be seen of thee, as the hypocrites do in the men. Verily I say unto you, They synagogues and in the streets, that have their reward. 6 But thou, they may have glory of men. Verily when thou prayest, enter into thy I say unto you, They have their re- closet, and, when thou hast shut thy ward. 3 But when thou doest alms, door, pray to thy Father which is in let not thy left hand know what thy secret; and thy Father, which seeth right hand doeth; 4 That thine alms in secret, shall reward thee openly. may be in secret: and thy Father, Here our Saviour warns his disciples which seeth in secret, himself shall against the same pharisaical hypocrisy in reward thee openly.

praying, which he had before reproved in

alms-giving. It was lawful to pray in the Observe here, 1. The duty directed to, synagogues, and to pray standing, and alms-giving after a right manner; Do not that before men; but to do this upon your alms before men: some copies read it, || design to be applauded by men, is conDo not your righteousness before men ; be- demned by Christ. Our business in prayer cause alms-giving is a considerable part lies with God, we are not to concern our of that righteousness and justice which selves how men like our performances, it we owe unto our neighbour; he that is is sufficient if God doth approve and will uncharitable, is unjust: acts of charity are accept them. To cure the foregoing vanity, acts of justice and equity. It also intimates Christ directs to secret prayer in our to us, That the matter of our alms should closets, where God is the Witness, and will be goods righteously gotten : to give alms be the Rewarder, of our sincerity. Note, of what is gotten unjustly, is robbery, That secret prayer is a commanded and and not righteousness. Observe, 2. Our encouraged duty, and when in sincerity Saviour's cautionary direction in giving performed shall be attended with a public alms, Take heed that you do them not to and glorious reward: Pray to thy Father be seen of men. It is one thing to do our which is in secret, &c. alms that men may see them, and another ihing to do them ihat we may be seen of

7 But when ye pray, use not vain men. We ought to do alms before men, | repetitions, as the heathen do: for

they think that they shall be heard in earth, as it is in heaven: 11 Give for their much speaking. 8 Be not us this day our daily bread : 12 And ye therefore like unto them: for your forgive us our debts, as we forgive Father knoweth what things ye have our debtors. 13 And lead us not into need of, before ye ask him. temptation, but deliver us from evil:

A vain-glorious ostentation in prayer. For thine is the kingdom, and the was condemned by our Saviour in the for- power, and the glory, for ever. mer verse; here a vain-glorious multipli- Amen. cation of words, by idle tautologies and impertinent repetitions, is condemned also; The sense and signification of this best after the manner of the heathen, who ex- of prayers, is this: “O thou our Father pect to have their prayers granted by God in Jesus Christ! who remainest on thy for the multiplicity of words used by throne in heaven, and art there perthemselves. Hence note, That a Chris- petually praised, and perfectly obeyed by tian's business in prayer being not to inform glorious angels and glorified saints'; grant God, (for he knoweth what things we need, that thy name may be glorified, thy throne before we ask him :) nor yet to move and per- acknowledged, and thy holy will obeyed, suade God, (for he is our Father :) it cer- here on earth below, by us thy sons and tainly argues an undue apprehension of servants, most sincerely and readily, and God, when we lengthen out our prayers in some proportion to what is done in with vain repetitions and a multitude of heaven. And because, by reason of the words. Yet note, 1. That it is not all repe- frailty of our natures, we cannot subsist tition of the same words in prayer which without the comforts and supports of life, Christ here condemns, for he himself pray- we crave, that such a proportion of the ed thrice, using the same words, that the good things of this life may be given unto cap might pass from him. Nor, 2. Are we us, as may be sufficient for us; and that to apprehend that prayers continued to a we may be content with our allowance. considerable lengih are forbidden by And knowing that thy holiness and justice Christ; for Solomon's prayer was such, 1 oblige thee to punish sin and sinners, we Kings, viii. Nehemiah's such, chap. ix. 'Tis plead with thee, for the sake of thy Son's said the people confessed and worshipped satisfaction, to pardon 10 us our daily for three hours: Christ continued in prayer trespasses, which we are guilty of in this all night; and the church, Acts xii. made state of imperfection; as we do freely and prayers without ceasing for St. Peter's en- heartily forgive others that have offended largement. And we read of St. Paul's pray- and wronged us. And seeing that by ing night and day, 1 Thess. iii. 10, and of reason of the frailty of our natures we are his commanding the churches to be instant prone to rush upon and run into temptain prayer, and to continue in prayer. But tion; we crave that, by the power of thy Christ here condemns prayers lengthened omnipotent grace, we may be kept from out upon an apprehension that we shall Satan's temptations, from the world's allurebe heard for our much speaking, or can ments, from our own evil inclinations, and move God by arguments whilst we con- be preserved unblamable to thine everlasttinue in our sins. Dr. Whitby.

ing kingdom; which is exalted over all 9 After this manner therefore persons, over all places, over all things, in

all times, past, present, and to come: and pray ye :

accordingly, in testimony of our desires, As if Christ had said, For preventing and in assurance to be heard and answerthese and all other faults in prayer, I willed, we say, Amen; so be it; so let it be, myself give you a complete form of pray-even so, O Lord, let it be for ever.” More er, and an exact pattern and platform for particularly, in this comprehensive and your imitation when you pray.

Note, compendious prayer, the following seveThat the Lord's Prayer is both a perfect rals are remarkable. Namely, 1. That the form of prayer which ought to be used by | learned observe, that this prayer is taken us, and also a pattern and platform, ac- out of the Jewish liturgies, in which it is cording to which all our prayers ought to entirely found, excepting these words, be framed. St. Matthew says, After this As we forgive them that trespass against us. manner pray ye: St. Luke says, When ye Prom whence Grotius notes, how far Christ pray, say,

the Lord of his church was from affecting Our Father which art in heaven, novelties, or despising any thing because Hallowed be thy name:

it was a form; a piece of piteous weak10 Thy

ness amongst some at this day. Observe, kingdom come. Thy will be done | 2. The person to whom Chrisi directs us

to make our prayers; namely, to God, || saints and glorious angels done in heaven; under the notion of a Father; teaching namely, with that alacrity and cheerfulness, us, that in all our religious addresses to with that speed and readiness, with that conGod, we are to conceive of him, and pray stancy and diligence, that the imperfection unto him, under the notion and relation of of human nature will admit of; imitating a Father. Our Father, &c. So is he by the blessed angels, who execute the divine creation, by a right of providence and pre-commands without reluctancy or regret. servation, by redemption, by outward and Observe, 4. The three last petitions respect visible profession, by regeneration and ourselves, as the three former did Almighty adoption; and this relation which God God. The first of which is a prayer for stands in to us, may encourage us to pray | temporal blessings: give us this day our unto him; for being our Father, we are daily bread. Where note, The mercy praysure that he is of easy access unto, anded for, bread, which comprehends all the graciously ready to grant what we pray comforts and conveniences of life, and for. And whereas it is added, which art in whatever is necessary for the supporting heaven; this is not to be so understood as if human nature. Also the qualification ; his essence were included, or his presence it must be our own bread, not another's, circumscribed or confined there, for he fills | what we have a civil right to as men, and heaven and earth with the immensity of it: a covenant right to as Christians. Note but he is said to be so in heaven, because farther, The kind of bread we ask and dethere is the special manifestation of his sire; it is daily bread. Hereby we are presence, of his purity, of his power and put in mind of our continual dependence glory, and teaches us with what holy fear, | upon God for our lives, and for all the supwith what humble reverence, and not with ports of life which we enjoy, and also kept out a trembling veneration, polluted dust in mind of our mortality. And mark the way ought to make their solemn approaches and manner of conveying all good things to the God of heaven. Observe, 3. That to us, it is in a way of free-gift. Give us the three first petitions relate more imme- our daily bread, we cannot give it ourdiately to God. 1. That his name may be selves; and when we have it of God, we halloved. By the name of God, understand receive it not as a debt, but as a free gift. God himself, as made known to us in his The next petition is for spiritual blessings, attributes, words, and works. This name Forgive us our debts as we forgive our debtors. is hallowed or sanctified by us three ways;|| Where note, 1. Some things supposed, by our lips, when we acknowledge his di- | namely, That we are all sinners, and, as vine perfections, and tell of all his won- such, stand in need of pardon and forgivedrous works; in our hearts, by entertain- ness. 2. That our sins are debts, wilful ing suitable conceptions of God; and in | debts, repeated debts, innumerable debts, our lives, when the consideration of these inexcusable debts, debts difficultly disdivine perfections engages us to suitable charged, and yet, if undischarged, undoing obedience. 2. That his kingdom may come: | debts. 3. That we are obliged to pray by which we are not to understand his every day for daily pardon, as we do for general and providential kingdom, by daily bread, for our sins are many and daily. which he ruleth over all the world, that | 4. It is here supposed, that since we are lo being always come, and capable of no far- pray for forgiveness of sin, it is impossible ther amplification; but principally the ever to satisfy the justice of God for sin. kingdom of grace, promoted in the hearts | Lastly note, The condition or qualification of his people by the preaching of the gos-required, forgive as we forgive : This repel: we pray that God would dethrone sin quires, 1. That our minds be full of chaand Satan in our own and others' souls, || rity, free from rancour and ill-will, and all and increase grace and sanctification both desires of revenge, and a secret grudge in us and them, and that the kingdom of against another. 2. That we stand ready glory may be hastened, and we may be to help them, and to do any office of love preserved blameless to the coming of and service for them that have offended us. Christ in his kingdom. 3. That his will 3. That we admit our offending brother may be done ; by which the preceptive into friendship and familiarity, which is rather than the providential will of God called a forgiving him from the heart : our is to be understood: we are to obey the for- heart must be towards him as formerly it mer universally, and to submit to the latter was. The sixth and last petition follows, very cheerfully. It intimates, that it ought Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from to be the prayer and care, the study and en- evil. Here note, A double mercy prayed deavour, of every Christian, that the com- for; namely, preventing mercy, and delimanding will of God may be so done by vering mercy. 1. Preventing mercy, lead men upon earth, as it is by the glorified us not into temptation. Hereby it is sup

Chap. VÌ

- prayers; Danely, to God, saints and glorious angela dane is bota. ca of a Fawer; teaching Games, was maaT.az.begritet Iciremos aliosses to Tithebat speed and reairess.net ? Cilcese of bin, and pray cancy

agence, har the same Eche non and reallon of baan batere admid; hus Fuiler, dr. So is he by the blessed angels, who erecta 217 27.561 i previdence and pre- commands without rescarca

ren, by ouiTard and Orserre, 4. The three as pessoas po Ensib, by regeneration and ourse res, as the three timer Ed this relata which God God. The first of which is a great s, may encecrage us to pray tempera! blessings: gan tis kan ver Ette.ng our father, we are daily bread. Where ecte, The Dera

is of easy access unto, and ed for, trecd, which comprebends 2. the uir to grant what we pray ccrnirts and ccaren:ences d 3 m ere as it is added, such art is whatever is necessary for the season Wittes understood as if human nature. Also the quantit; ere inciuded, or his presence it must be our own brea!, no contents E or contined there, for he fils that we have a cri) right to as pe

na with the immensity of it: a covenant right to as Chriscans

. In be so in heaven, because farther, The kind of breal we asi and pecial manifestation of his sire; it is daily bread. Hereby rs 23 is purity, of his power and put in mind of our contreal de entende lps us with what holy fear, upon God for our lives, and for alche copy Le reverence, and not with ports of life which we ecjus, and as my 9 receration, polluted dust in mindofour mortality. And bare

teir solerno approaches, and manner of conrerinz aile:1 3:19 hearen. Observe, 3. That to us, it is in a way of free-git Gem pertins relate more imme. our daily bread, we cannot grei - I. That his name may be selves; and when we hare it of God ge name of God, understand receive it not as a debt but as a free pot > Bade known to us in bis The next petition is for spiritual descanso ds, and works. This name Forgire us our debts as we forgine de dreptus ancuted by us three ways; Where note, I. Some things supposed to nen we acknowledge his di- namely, That we are all sipers, 2018 18, and tell of all his won such, stand in need of parlon and format in our hearts, by entertain. ness. 2. That our sins are dete, rza inceptions of God; and in debts

, repeated debts, innumerable dabei the consideration of these inexcusable debts, debts diñca's -11s engages us to suitable charged, and yet, if undischarged, totam "hat his kingdom may come : debts. 3. That we are obliged to in? re not to understand his every day for daily pardon, as we do te rovidential kingdom, by daily bread, for our sins are mansana baita > orer all the world, that 4. It is here supposed, that since we are i

ST. MATTHEW.

33 posed, 1. That we are unable to keep our. || this attribute of God is improvable in selves from temptation, partly through our prayer, as an encouragement to expect the natural depravity, partly through carnal se same blessings from God which others curity. 2. That it is God that must keep us have done before us; for he is the same from Satan's assaults, his traps and snares, yesterday, to-day, and for ever. Amen; a which everywhere he lays in ambush for word used in all languages, denoting an us. 3. That it is our own daily duty to be hearty assent to our own prayers, and an earnest and instant with God in prayer, not hearty desire to receive the mercies prayed to suffer us, by the subtraction of his grace, for, and an humble assurance that we shall or in a way of punishment for sin, to run | be heard and answered. into the circumstances which may prove 14 For if ye forgive men their snares to us, but daily to afford us such a measure of his grace as may keep us from trespasses, your heavenly Father falling by temptation, and not leave us fall- will also forgive you: 15 But if ye ing under the temptation, but recover us forgive not men their trespasses, speedily by his power

, and enable us to neither will your Father forgive your stand more firmly for the future. 2. We trespasses. here pray for delivering mercy, Deliver us

ere being no duty to which our corfrom evil ; by which may be understood | rupt natures are more backward than this Satan the evil one, but especially the evil |of forgiving injuries, our Saviour repeats of sin. We pray here that God would | that duty over and over, and frequently in. graciously preserve us from those vicious || culcates it in the holy Gospels; assuring inclinations of our minds, and evil dispo- || us, that forgiving others is the indispensasitions of our hearts, which render us so

ble condition upon which we are to expect prone to yield to the temptations of Satan. | forgiveness from God. Learn thence, That Here we see the ugly and deformed face of every time we go to God in prayer, and beg sin : it is evil: evil in its author and origi- || forgiveness of him, as we forgive others; nal, it is of the devil, the evil one; evil in if we do not forgive them heartily and sinits effects and fruits, it doth debase and de. | cerely, fully and freely, readily and willing. grade us, pollute and defile us, befool and ly, we fly in the face of God, and our pray deceive us, and, without repentance, damns ers are a sort of imprecations against our. and destroys us. Observe lastly, The con- selves. Note farther, That although God clusion of the Lord's Prayer, which con- || promises us forgiveness if we forgive tains a complication of arguments to urge others; yet it is with this limitation, if no Almighty God with, for obtaining the other condition of salvation be wanting, for mercy prayed for. 1. For thine is the king this virtue alone cannot obtain favour with dom ; thou art the only absolute and right-God, unless other duties are performed. fal Sovereign, and all men are concerned to honour thee, and obey thy laws; thou

16 Moreover, when ye fast, be not art the supreme Governor of the world, | as the hypocrites, of a sad counteand King of thy church, therefore let thy | nance : for they disfigure their faces, kingdom come, and thy will be done, 2. || that they may appear unto men Thine is the power

, therefore give us daily ! to fast. Verily I say unto you, bread, and forgive our daily sins; for thou

17 But hast power to supply the one, and autho- | They have their reward. rity to pardon the other. The power of thou, when thou fastest, anoint thine God is a mighty encouragement to prayer, head and wash thy face ; 18 That and faith in the power of God has a mighty thou appear not unto men to fast, prevalency in prayer with God. 3. Thine | but unto thy Father, which is in seis the glory, that is, thine will be the glory;cret: and thy Father, which seeth as if we should say, “Lord! by enabling us to hallow thy name by owning thy king in secret, shall reward thee openly. dom, by doing thy will, and by thy pro The next duty which our Saviour in. viding for us, and pardoning of us, thou structs his disciples in, is that of religious wilt have much glory by us and from us." fasting, which is a devoting of the whole It teaches us, that as our prayers in gene- man, soul and body, to a solemn and extraral ought to be argumentative; so an argu- ordinary attendance upon God, in a parti. ment in prayer drawn from the glory of cular time, set apart for that purpose; in God is a mighty encouragement to hope for order to the deprecating of his displeasure, audience and acceptance. 4. For ever and and for the supplicating of his favour, acever, that is, thy kingdom is eternal, thy companied with an abstinence from bodily power eternal, thy glory eternal; the God food and sensual delights, and from all se. whom we pray tó is an eternal God, and cular affairs and worldly business Now

Vol. 15

me, and capable of no far- pray for forgireness of sin, it is impossib?
wn; bus principally the ever to satisfy the justice of God for si
se, promoted in the hearts Lastly note, The condition or qualific-2002

the preaching of the gos required, forgire as we forgire: Test
11 God would dethrone sin quires, 1. That our minds be full of cus-
ir own and others' souls, rity, free from rancour and ill-will, and a!
ce and sanctification both desires of revenge, and a secret grada
and that the kingdom of against another. 2. That me stand ready
astened, and we may be to help them, and to do any otice of love
plans to the coming of and service for them that hare ofendados
gdom. 3. That his will 3. That we admit our offending brother

which the preceptive into friendship and familiarity, which is
rovidential will of God called a forgiring him from the keari au
: we are to obey the for heart must be towards him as formats
od to submit to the latter / was. The sixth and last peution ideas
intimates, that it ought Lead 19 not into temptation, but deliter al frente
care, the study and en. eril. Here note, Å double mercr prired
Christian, that the com- for; namely, preventing merep, and des
d may be so done by vering mercy: 1. Prerenung mercr, level
it is by the glorified us not into temptation. Hereby it is sup

our Saviour's direction as to this duty of || rishing and uncertain nature, they are subfasting is double: 1. He cautions us to be-ject to moth and rust, to robbery and theft; ware of an abuse in fasting: Bc not as the the perishing nature of earthly things hypocrites are, of a sad countenance; that is, ought to be improved by us, as an arguDo not affect a sullen sadness, ghastliness, ment to sit loose in our affections towards and unpleasantness of countenance, like them. 2. The reason assigned why we the hypocritical Pharisees, who vitiate and should lay up our treasure in heaven, is discolour their faces, and mar and abolish this: because heavenly treasures are subtheir native complexion. Hypocrisy can ject to no such accidents and casualties as paint the face black and sable, as well as earthly treasures are, but are durable and pride with red and white. 2. He counsels us lasting. The things that are not seen are eternal. to take the right way in fasting; to anoint the The treasures of heaven are inviolable, inhead and wash the face : that is, to look as at corruptible, and everlasting. Now we may other times, using our ordinary garb and know whether we have chosen these things attire, and not to affect any thing that may for our treasure, by our high estimation of make us look like mourners, when really the worth of them, by our sensible apprewe are not so. Where we may note, That hension of the want of them, by the torrent though hypocrites, by their dejected coun- and tendency of our affection towards them, tenances and mortified habits, do seek to and by our laborious diligence and endeagain an extraordinary reputation for piety Ivours in the pursuit of them. Where the and devotion, yet the sincere Christian is treasure is, there will the heart be also. to be abundantly satisfied with God's ap

22 The light of the body is the probation of his services, and with the silent applause of his own conscience.

eye: if therefore thine

eye

be single,

thy whole body shall be full of light: ! 19 Lay not up for yourselves 23 But if thine eye be evil, thy whole treasures upon earth, where moth body shall be full of darkness. If and rust doth corrupt, and where therefore the light that is in thee be thieves break through and steal : darkness, how great is that darkness! 20 But lay up for yourselves trea In the foregoing verses our Saviour acsures in heaven, where neither moth quainted us what in our affections and nor rust doth corrupt, and where judgments we should esteem as our chief thieves do not break through nor treasure : now this judgment, concerning steal: 21 For where your treasure

our chief treasure, is by our Saviour here is, there will your heart be also.

compared to the eye; as the eye is the

candle of the body, that enlightens and Observe here, 1. Something implied, directs it, so our understanding and judg. namely, That every man has his treasure; ment of the excellency of heaven and the and whatsoever or wheresoever that trea- | things above, will draw our affections tosure is, it is attractive, and draws the heart | wards them, and quicken our endeavours of a man unto it: for every man's treasure after them. Note thence, That such as our is his chief good. 2. Something permitted ; judgment is concerning happiness, such namely, the getting, possessing, and enjoy- will our desires and endeavours be for the ing, of earthly treasure, as an instrument attainment of that happiness. Our affec. enabling us to do much good. 3. Some-tions are guided by our apprehensions : thing prohibited; and that is, the treasur-where the esteem is high, endeavours will ing up of worldly wealth, as our chief trea- | be strong. sure: Lay not up treasures on earth ; that is, 24 No man can serve two masters: take heed of an inordinate affection to, of for either he will hate the one, and an excessive pursuit after, of a vain confi- love the other; or else he will hold dence and trust in, any earthly comfort, as your chief treasure. 1. Here is something to the one, and despise the other. commanded; but lay up for yourselves Ye cannot serve God and Mammon. treasures in heaven: treasure up those ha Observe here, a two-fold master spoken bits of grace, which will bring you to an of, God and the world. God is our Master inheritance in glory: be fruitful in good by creation, preservation, and redemption; works, laying up in store for yourselves a he has appointed us our work, and secured good foundation against the time to come, us our wages. The world is our master by that ye may lay hold of eternal life. Ob-intrusion, usurpation, and a general estiserve, 5. The reasons assigned, 1. Why we mation ; too many esteeming it as their should not lay up our treasure on earth; chief good, and delighting in it as their Lecause all earthly treasures are of a pe- l chief joy. Observe, 2. That no man can

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