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ritance; of the legal distribution of moveable and immoveable property; in fine, of the laws concerning the administration of justice, respecting the qualities which the magistrates are required to possess, judicial suits, evidence, the decisory oath, judicial acknowledgments, arbitration, compositions agreed to by the parties, the right of imprisonment, &c. &c.
III. The CRIMINAL Code will describe the corporal punishments inflicted on those who are giilty of adultery, of drinking wine, of contumelious language, of domestic stealing, of apostacy, of rebellion, of highway robbery, &c. Here also are inserted the laws respecting the price of blood, and the punishment of retaliation, a limb for a limb, blood for blood, &c. with the forms and modes of proceeding in these respective cases.
IV. The POLITICAL Code affords information on four important subjects : 1. The laws of the revenue, which comprehend the taxes imposed on the commerce of the Mussulmen, and on that of the Non-Mahometan subjects and strangers; the taxes of lands titheable and tributary; capitation, which all the NonMahometan subjects are obliged to pay; mines, or other valuable discoveries ; in fine, the legal use of all the public revenue. In the observations annexed to this chapter, is calculated the state of the income and expences of the empire; and an account is given of the Deftarderie, or department of the minister of the finances, composed of thirty-four offices, all relating to the administration of the public funds. 2. The laws which concern the tributary subjects, the Christian churches, &c. 3. Those which relate to strangers residing in Mahometan countries, and to Mahometans who are in the country of strangers ; and, 4, The rights of the Sultan in his character of supreme imam. Here allo, in a general discourse, is shewn the state of the Othoman empire, and the form of its constitution. Among many other interesting particulars an account will be given of the private life of the Sultan, his occupations, his ordinary and extraordi. nary amusements; of the princes, Schah Zadés, and of the princesses of the blood to whom exclusively belongs the title of Sultana.
V. The MILITARY Code will treat of war and its rights; of captives; of legal plunder; of the division of plunder be. tween the monarch and his army, &c. It will contain also an account of all the forces of the empire, infantry, cavalry, regular and irregular troops, the feudal militia, &c. ; the actual state of the marine, with the regulations relative to each corps of the soldiery; this plan comprehends an account of all the forces, both by land and sea, belonging to the Othoman monarchy.
of the houfe derived from the only hele annals,
The Second Part of the work will comprehend the history, of the house of Mahomet, from its earliest origin to the present time; it is derived from the only true source of information, the annals of the monarchy. These annals, says our author, though written in pompous and emphatic language, bear howa, . ever strong impressions of truth, fidelity, and exactness. They possess a valuable advantage in having been digested by the first personages of the state. In these, many have related the events of the age in which they lived, some from a love of letters, others in the character of public historiographers of their country.
The history of a long period of the Othoman monarchy has been written by contemporary authors, many of them highly esteemed, both for the purity and elegance of their style, and for the fagacity and depth of their reflections.
Such is the plan, and such are the materials of Chevalier D'Ohsson's History of the Othoman Empire. Though he has descended to a degree of minuteness which by some readers will perhaps be thought tedious, yet it should be remembered that he describes a people of whom we had previously but a scanty and imperfect knowledge. At first view he may appear to have entered into too nice a detail respecting the religious tenets and popular prejudices of the Mahometans; but it should be considered that an acquaintance with these enables his readers to account for many extraordinary facts, which otherwise would be deemed incredible. A commentary upon a religious code, however useful to be known, must be expected to be somewhat infipid; yet the author has contrived to enliven even this part of his work with such curious anecdotes as render it considerably interesting.
To shew the attachment of the Mahometans to ancient superstitions, though expressly condemned by their prophet, the au. thor, among other extraordinary facts, relates the following: ...
• Osman I. being allowed by his father to associate only with the Scheykhs and Oulémas, men of learning and virtue, often visited an aged Scheykh, who lived in the neighbourhood of Eky-Schebher. He was called Scheykh-Edebaly; he was eminent for his piety and speculative knowledge. Osman entertained for him a peculiar re. spect and attachment. He frequently passed days and whole nights in his fociety; he had a taste for the charms of his conversation, and profited by his lessons of morality, philosophy, and religion. But his happiness was soon troubled by an event which feldom occurs among a people where there is no social intercourse between the sexes. Chance presented to his view the daughter of this Scheykb, who possessed uncommon beauty. Enamoured with her charms, Osman found occasion to communicate to her his passion and his hopes. The chaftest modefty dictated the reply of the young woman,
whose name was Malhounn-Khaturn. I am far, said the, from nou, rishing a deceitful hope; the immense distance which birth and fortune interjose between us can never permit the daughter of a Scheykh, whose whole pollefion is his religion and his virtue, to aspire to so exalted an alliance. This answer in flamed ftill more the passion of Ofman. Not daring to confess it to his father, or to the Scheykh, he communi. cated it to the governor of Esky-Schehber, with whom he was intimately connected, and requested his endeavours to obtain the consent of his father ; but he experienced from him the blackest perfidy. Captivated with the delightful picture which he drew of his mistress, the governor exerted his whole power to extinguish the flame of Ofman, and to obtain for himself the hand of Malhounn-Khatunn. Her father, the enemy of ambition and human greatness, wished only for a son-in-law distinguished for his virtue, who should, like himfelf, place true happiness in the possession of a moderate fortune, and in the exercise of piety and religion. Informed of the vices which tarnished the birth and rank of the governor of Elky-Schebher, he did not hesitate to refuse his daughter. The vindictive conduct of the governor soon obliged Scheykh Edebaly to change his place of refidence. He retired to the territories of Ertoghroul, in the neighbourhood of Sezgutdjik. Acquainted with the secret motive of the altercation between the Schaykb and the governor, Osman indulged the warmest emotions of resentment; and the keenest hatred of rivalfhip was instantly kindled between him and the perfidious governor. The events ard political effects of this animosity belong, however, to the historical part of the present work.
• It will be sufficient to mention here, that in the midst of this civil war between the party of the governor and that of Ofman, this young prince, inflamed with the same paflion for Malhounn Kiatunn, though filent through fear of offending his father and the ScbeykhEdebaly, went one day to visit the sage in his new situation. After expressing to him sentiments the most affectionate and elevated, he retired to his apartment, and passed the greatest part of the night in prayer and meditation. Proftrate on the earth, he supplicated God, with fervent tears, to direct his heart and mind, to flife in him every sentiment repugnant to virtue, to teach him to act worthy of his name and dignity, to enable him to defend the doctrine of the Cou'rann, and to propagate the tenets of its author. Amidit these ecllafies, overcome with sleep, 'he faw in a dream a placid light, equal to the brightness of a full moon, iffue forth from the side of the Scheykb. Edebaly, and terminate its rapid course in his own navel; from this immediately sprung up a prodigious tree ; its fem touched the clouds; its branches were innumerable, and loaded with delicious fruit; its foliage was immensely thick and extensive, and seemed to cover the universe; one of its branches, distinguished above the rest by its beautiful and shining verdure, inclined towards Conftan tinople and the West, in the form of a fabre; under the shade of this tree, and at the extremity of the prospect, were discovered plains and mountains, pas ures and shepherds, houses and edifices; num. berlels rivers and springs diffused every where the purest streams; crowds of people resorted thither from all parts of the worid, some to quench their thirst, others to water their fields, to erect foun. tains and aqueducts, to take exercise and repose in its fragrant walks ; all were in transports of joy, astonishment, and admiration. :: Struck with this prodigy, Osman ran with the tendereit emotion to the Scheykh Edebaly, who possessed in a superior degree the art of interpreting dreams. At Osman's recital the old man was con- , founded; but recovering his spirits, he assured the young prince that his miraculous vision announced his future power and greatness: the tree which he had feen was the mysterious tree of Touba, one of the wonders of Paradise; the moon's rising from his side and setting in his navel, was an emblem of the intimacy which fubfifted between them on account of their union of sentiment respecting faith, doctrine, and virtue ; the flourishing state of the tree, its fruit, branches, and foliage, foretold the prosperity of his family and dominions; the plains and mountains, the paftures and shepherds, the rivers and springs, shewed the extent of his monarchy, and the immenfity of his poiseffions; the branch inclining towards the West and Conítantinople, indicated plainly the conquest of that superb ca.. pital of the eastern empire by a prince of his family; the various people, in fine, who walked under its Thade, represented the different nations who, under his sceptre and laws, would enjoy the advantage of a mild, equitable, and prosperous government.
• The Scheykh Edebaly, however, interpreted still further this myfa terious dream : he thought the light which issued from his fide mult mean his daughter, then in her fifteeenth year; and, considering this vision as a celestial warning, he haftened to communicate it to Erioghroul, who imbibed his opinion, and determined immediately to form an alliance, which foretold, in such striking characters, the greatness of his family
• Though this dream may be supposed an artful contrivance between the Scheykh and Ofman, yet it had a decisive influence on the 'mind of Ertoghroul. It is mentioned by almost every oriental bifto. rian, and particularly by Idriss Bidlifly, who animates his narrative by ingenious verses on the amours of the founder of the Othoman monarchy.'
Of the style of the translation, which we have found to be not only faithful but elegant, our readers themselves will be able to form an opinion from this quotation.
This volume is illustrated by an Atlas of very fine engravings, which must have been executed at a great expence. And · this accounts for the high price of the work, which, however,
though the plates are the same, is two guiaeas less than that of the French edition,
Art. II. An Estimate of the Temperature of different Latitudes,
By Richard Kirwan, Esq. F.R.S. and Member of the Academies of Stockholm, Upsal, Dijon, Dublin, Philadelphia, &c. 8vo. 5s.
boards. Elmsly. London, 1787 METEOROLOGY is one of the most beautiful and inteJV resting subjects in the history of Nature. It is closely connected with the common affairs of life, and the knowledge of it is equally subfervient to the peaceful labours of the husband, man, and the adventurous toils of the mariner. Hence it was cultivated from the earliest ages of antiquity; but the study of it was generally committed to the vulgar, and observations made that were vague, local, and tinctured with superstition. The modern diffusion of natural knowledge has rescued meteorology from obscurity. Since the introduction of the barometer and thermometer in the last century, these instruments have been prodigiously multiplied, and accurate registers have been kept, and observations made, in various parts of the globe. We are happy to select as the benefactor of mankind, from the numerous herd of insignificant fovereigns, the name of Charles
Theodore, Elector Palatine of the Rhine. This wise prince erected the Meteorological Academy of Manheim, in his own principality, and ordered the beft inftruments to be constructed and sent to all the academies and univeriities in Europe.
It is well ascertained that the heat of the globe is not derived from central fires, but merely from the solar rays. The warmth is produced at the surface, where the particles of light are abforbed. It is promoted by the intensity of the light, by the altitude of the sun, and by his continuance above the horizon ; and it is sometimes augmented by the condensation of vapourş. The generation of heat may be suspended by the obscurity or darkness of the weather ; but active cold is always produced by the conversion of bodies from the solid to the liquid state, or from that into an elastic fluid. Hence the presence or absence of the sun, the evaporation or condensation of vapour, are the great causes of the variety of climates, and the vicissitudes of seasons. There is only one grand fource of heat therefore, while the other circumstances may indifferently occafion either heat or cold. What becomes of the perpetual accumulation of warmth? Is the heat carried off through the mass of atmosphere indefinitely into space? Perhaps the superfluous heat is spent in evaporating fluids, and perhaps the atmosphere is perpetually increasing. Besides, the vapour, as it rises into the superior regions, acquires greater elasticity, and consequently continues to absorb the surrounding warmth. Perhaps the steam is decomposed in its afcent, and the hydrogen gas, detached from the oxygen, produces the splendid phenomena of meteors.