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can supply oxygen to the metals, and thus calcine them without extricating hydrogenous gas.
Mr. Higgins next proceeds to consider the calcination of mes tals by the mere agency of heat and air, and gives a neat abftract 1 of the various hypothefes formed upon that fubject. He then examines several experiments with regard to the calcination by steam, and answers the objections that have been made to the decomposition of water. He next considers the solution of metals, and their precipitation by each other. He concludes with an analysis of the human calculus. The labours of Mr. Higgins upon this most iinportant fubject are not more fuccessful than those of his predecessors.:
• Mild mineral alkali may be taken in large doses, and continued for a length of time with impunity to the most delicate constitutions, only observing a few circumstances; but this alkali, in a caustic state, muit very often be attended with mischievous consequences. Besides, if we consider that it must enter the mass of blood before any part can reach the bladder, and the small portion of the dose taken fecreted with the urine; and, lastly, the action of caustic alkali upor animal substances, we shall be at a lofs to know on what principle caustic atkalies have been recommended in preference to the mild. Soap itself might as well be prescribed at once; for foon after cauitie alkali is taken, it must be in a faponaceous state. Fixed vegetable alkalt Mould be avoided, and the preference given to the other two alkalies. As it is evident that alkalies have no real action on the Kone in the bladder, though their efficacy has been experienced in alleviating the disease when timely administered, theif mode of action is only explicable in the following manner: They either prevent the generation of the sublimate in the syftem, or elfe keep it in folution in the mass of fluids; and, being in the atmost degree of divisibility, its ultimate particles are capable of passing through the most minute emunëtories, by which it is carried off by other secretions as well as by the urinary. Thus the urine, not being saturated with this matter, acts as a solvent on the stone ; and, as the most foluble parts are first washed away, it in time falls into fragments of irregular surfaces, which, by their friction, irritate and inflame the bladder, as fias heen. obferved by several practitioners.' Allowing that the sublimate is the cementing fubftance in the calculas, and judging from the effe&s of alkalies upon it, their modus operandi in the conftitution, it remains now to inquire into the origin of the calculus. The im. mortal Scheele has found this sublimate in the urine of different perfons, and hence inferred that it was a common secretion ; but it ftill remains to be ascertained whether there be a greater quantity of it procured from the urine of patients who have the misfortune to la. bour under this disorder, than in that of those who never felt its pangs. If this latter should not be the case, another path lies open_ for our researches, which promifes molt success. May 'nar a deficiency of volatile alkali in the conftitution be the cause of concretions in the bladder, kidnies, &c. or, which must have the same effect,
too great a proportion of acid, which, uniting with the alkali, may take up that portion which would have kept the sublimate in folution until conveyed out of the fyftem by the urinary and other secretions ; and may not this be the phosphoric acid ? If this latter should be the case, an increase of microcomic salt must be found in the urine; but if the former, a decrease of the volatile alkali, and no increase of the neutral falt. The small quantity of phosphoric acid found in the calculus proceeds from the solubility of microcosmic falt. Do not volatile alkali and phosphoric acid constitute a great part of the human frame? and is there not a process continually carried on to generate these in the system and is not this process liable to be retarded or checked by intemperance, &c. which may vary their quantities and proportions? and may not a due proportion of these be necessary to a vigorous and found constitution? If so, no wonder that an increate or deficiency in either or both of these thould be productive of several disorders.'
Our author is particularly fond of explaining the action of the integrant particles of substances upon each other, by the assistance of figures and diagrams. This affords scope indeed for the imagination, but it is scarcely consistent with the sober pretenfions of philosophy. We cannot conclude without heartily wilhing Mr. Higgins success in the career of investigation.
Art. VIII, Sonnets. to Eliza. By her Friend. 4to. 25. Murray.
London, 1790. .
OUR English writers have seldom succeeded in the laboured
construction of the fonnet, which, like many other difficul. ties, is not worth the pains it requires. Instead therefore of adhering to the genuine measure and intricate rhymes of the original sonnet, that name has been given by many to any poem on a tender or sentimental subject, without attending to the meafure in which it is written. It is in this view that we are to consider the sonnets now before us; they consist generally of four, five, or fix ftanzas of four lines each, of which the second and fourth lines rhyme, the first and thiid do not, and seem to be the effusions of a sensible and elegant mind.
As a specimen of the work we shall select the two following fonnets :
• Το ELIZA.
It is not Reason's, 'tis not Nature's child-
Reason's too proud, and Nature is too wild.
Yet barbarous Nature has been known to feel,
And proud Philosophy has learn’d to rest,
In sweet dependence on another's breast.
The harmonious union forms the angel Love;
And teach the headlong passions how to move."
What's perfect must be lov’d: 'tis thus we see
The effect is seen in me, the caufe in thee.'
- To ELIZA.
In Nature's fragrance rich, is Thomson laid;
Or lulls the throbbings of the love ftung maid.
Descriptive poetry then gain'd a height
Through Nature's wild wood took his rural flight.
Where icy Winter chills the poet's wing:
Beyond the richness of the budding Spring.
Though not like Shakespeare's glow'd his tragic fire;
And Sigismunda's woes can grief inspire.
The poet thunders, and his gen’rous zeal
The glowing champion of the public weal.' The author appears to have endeavoured at compressing his thoughts as much as possible; from this cause he has not always avoided obscurity. His subjects are various and interesting; and there reigns through the whole that plaintive tone of sensibility which is ever pleasing to the virtuous mind.
Art. IX. Examination of a Sermon preached at the Cathedral
Church of St. Paul, London, before the Right Hon. the Lord-
Johnson. London, 1789.
opportunity of bringing forward the disputes on this holy, mystery. Had he only given his opinion on the fubject, without any invectives against those who differed from him, but with an earnest exhortation that they would be open to the truth, no objection could have been made, either to the time or occasion. For if controversial subjects ever should be introduced, public occasions, and the presence of public characters, seem, of all others, the best calculated for them. But it must be confessed we too often meet with such harsh epithets, as profane, scorn< ful unbelievers'' impiously daring to assert—' impious mortals, ( who divest the great Author and Founder of our faith of his <divinity,' &c. Where this language is used against men who, however mistaken, seem many of them to mean well, religion can never be benefited. Hard names and anathemas may be necessary to support popish impositions ; but the Church of England should appeal to reason and scripture, and exhibit that moderation with the want of which it has so often had occasion to accuse papacy.
But if Mr. Harrison's antagonist is at all eminent for his modesty, the perpetual accusation of a want of common-sense, in a sermon well received by a respectable audience, seems not only indecent to the preacher, but his hearers. Unfortunately as long as Christians are divided in this celebrated controversy, which we must expect to be the case till the prediction of happier days shall be accomplished; the same dull rotine of argument and invective is the only prospect we can look to. On one side an appeal to scripture and an exclusion from all pretensions to Christianity in such as deny its plain meaning; on the other, logical reasoning on a subject its defenders admit cannot be comprehended by human realon; a metaphorical language introduced into holy writy and the defenders of a system supported by at Jeast as many learned and honest men as the former, accused of asserting absurdities, and defending, for the fake of preferment, contradictions the most palpable. Satisfied as we are with the establishment as it now is, and wishing that difsenters of every description may for ever experience the moderation they have so long been indulged in, we shall be sparing of reviving those
animofities which have hitherto been the chief obstruction to the influence of genuine Christianity; and having acquainted our readers with the design of this Letter to an Athanasian Chris(tian,' shall refer such as wish for further information to the performance itself.
Art. X. An Essay to direct and extend the Inquiries of patriotic
Travellers; and further Observations on the Means of preserving the Life, Health, and Property, of the unexperienced in their fournies by Land and Sea. Also a Series of Questions interesting to Society and Humanity, necessary to be proposed for Solution to Men of all Ranks and Employments, and of all Nations and Governo ments, comprising the most serious Points relative to the Objects of all Travels. To which is annexed a List of English and Foreign Works intended for the Instruction and Benefit of Travellers, and a Catalogue of the most interesting European Travels which have been published in different Languages from the earliest Times down to Sept. 8, 1787. By Count Leopold Berchtold, Knight of the Military Order of St. Stephen of Tuscany, &c. &c. 8vo. 2 vols. 125. London ; printed for the Author, and sold by Robinsoris. 1789.
THE nature of this publication is sufficiently set forth in the
above ample title. The author, after having, in the first part of his work, given very proper general directions for travellers, proceeds to the various subjects which he wishes to be the object of theft inquiries. These we shall enumerate, as an inducement to our readers to peruse the work, and to contribute, as far as they can, to further the benevolent and patriotic views of the writer.
The following are the subjects he proposes for the Inquiries of the traveller: Geographical account of the country, and register of lands, population, state of the peasantry, agriculture, cattle, woods, mines, manufactures, inland and foreign trade, colonies, fisheries, construction of merchantmen, laws and administration of civil and criminal justice, police, charitable eftablishments, education; origin, manners, and customs of the nation; women, religion, and clergy; nobility, governmert, taxes, and imports; finances, land-forces, navy, construction of men of war, sovereign, general rules. Count Berchtold has not satisfied himself with saying that such are the subjects of inquiry, but has entered minutely into every particular in each, so that no one can be at a loss how to conduct his investigation.
The Count in this work has shewn what might be done to increase the knowledge, and promote the happiness, of mankind;