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that the order of digestion is in some degree inverted. In both the ruminants and this tribe I think it must be allowed that the first fomach is a reservoir. In the ruminants the precise use of the second and third ftomachs is perhaps not known ; but digestion is certainly carried on in the fourth ; while in this tribe, I imagine, digestion is performed in the second, and the use of the third and fourth is not exactly ascertained.
The cæcum and colon do not assist in pointing out the nature of the food and mode of digestion in this tribe. The porpoise, which has teeth, and four cavities to the stomach, has no cæcum, fimilar to some land animals, as the bear, badger, racoon, ferret, polecat, &c. neither has the bottle-nose a cæcum, which has only two small, teeth in the lower jaw; and the piked whale, which has no teeth, has a cæcum, almost exactly like the lion, which has teeth, and a very different kind of stomach.
• The food of the whole of this tribe, I believe, is fish; probably each may have a particular kind, of which it is fondest, yet does not refuse a variety. In the ftomach of the large bottle-nose I found the beaks of some hundreds of cuttle-fish. In the grampus I found the tail of a porpoise; so that they eat their own genus. In the fto. mach of the piked whale I found the bones of different fish, but particularly those of the dog-fish.'
The organ of smell in these animals is out of the direct road of the current of air in inspiration, and out of the current of water when they discharge it by spouting. As the fish have olfactory nerves, they doubtless are endowed with the power of smelling; but through what medium this faculty is exercised it is difficult to determine. Mr. Hunter suspects that the finus, on which the olfactory nerves are dispersed, contains air, and, as the water passes by it in the act of spouting, the reservoir of air is . impregnated by its effluvia. This anatomical examination of whales reflects great honour on Mr. Hunter's abilities as a naturalist; but we wish that he had attended a little more to the propriety of the language in which so much curious and philosophical observation is contained.
Art. XXXIX. Sone Observations on ancient Inks, with the Proposal of a new Method for recovering the Legibility of decayed Writings. By Charles Blagden, M. D. Sec. R.S. and F.A.S. The ancient inks appear, on examination, to have been made on the same principle as the modern. The method found most effectual for restoring them was to moisten the paper with a diluted mineral acid, and afterwards to add a phlogisticated alkali, which gave the letters a bright blue colour. This method, however, seems to require that the form of the letters Thould be previously known ; and therefore it cannot be employed to render conspicuous the letters of manuscripts become illegible. If the astringent principle of galls cannot be separated
from the staining matter, it might be adviseable to prepare the phlogisticated alkali from the Pruffian blue, when it is very Sightly coloured, and expose the writing afterwards to the vitriolic acid, in the state of air.
In an appendix to this volume we meet with a supplement to Major-General Roy's mode of determining the relative situation of the royal observatories of Greenwich and Paris. The ingenious author detects some inaccuracies in the calculation of M. Bouguer, and subjoins a supplementary table of the degrees of the earth.
Art. XII. A new, succinct, and candid Examination of Mr. Da.
vid Levi's Objections against Jesus Christ and the Gospel History, in his Letters to Dr. Priestley. By Philtp David Krauter, D.D.
8vo. Bath, printed: Dilly, London. . 1788. THE ingenious author of this modeft and candid little per
formance admits that the objections started by Mr. Levi are not only not new, but have been frequently answered; yet as the subject deserves constant attention, he is in hopes the confideration of them, abstracted from particular principles or hypotheses, may not be superfluous.
In examining the first objection, that, Whether Jesus was the second person of the Trinity, as Christians in general hold, or only a prophet, in either character he could not be received by the Jews consistently with the law of Moses, our author, carefully avoiding any disquisition concerning the Trinity, shews that, by several paffages of scripture, Christ being the son of God, was not only admiflable, but plainly prophelied, and this in a manner different from all other created beings. From this fuperiority of his nature, it could hardly be necessary that, like other prophets from Mofes to Malachi, he should profess, as they had done, to prophesy in the name of God [as, The Lord spake unto Moses, &c.]. " What Jesus foretold was not as one
who had it only from hearsay, though what he had heard OF HIS " FATHER he made known to his friends, John xv. 15, but as ( one before whose eyes the future things were like the present, (and in whose hands and disposal they were.' Page 7.
Mr. Levi's next objection is too triling, in our opinion, to deserve all our author has said upon it:
• If we compare Jesus,' says Mr. Levy, with the rest of the prophets who succeeded Mofes, from Joshua to Malachi, we shall find such a manifest contradiction between him and them, as fully demonstrates that both parties could not be the messengers of God, as God never contradicts himself.
... Jesus ' Jefus acted in direct contradiction to the law of Moses; for. whereas the law of Moses exprefly commands the adulterer and adulterefs to be put to death, Levit. xx. 30; now Jefus, in defiance of this express command, rescues the adulteress from the just punishment due to her crime, Johin viii. 3, 4, 5; and that by one of the most extraordinary devices that ever entered into the mind of man; for if none were to be admitted as evidence in a court of jusrice against criminals but the immaculate, villainy would soon talk triumphant, and carry all before her with impunity.'.
As Jefus never acted as an earthly lawgiver, he could not be faid to acquit the woman; but not being acquainted with the fact, he could not condemn or accuse her. On this, as on all other occasions, he seized the opportunity of reminding the world of their faults, and of the necessity of attending to their own conduct. The event he could not be answerable for ; but the manner of conducting the inquiry was characteristic of a mind ever intent on doing good.
As little need be said of any contradiction between Christ and the preceding prophets when the former ordered the fick man whom he had healed on the fabbath to take up his bed and walk. ;
The third objection is to the abrogation of the ceremonial law, which Mr. Levi conceives would imply that God had contradicted himself. To this Dr. Krauter's answer is, that, in a variety of instances, God saw one dispensation necessary at one time, and a different one at another; and though he enjoined his people by Moses not to add or diminish from the law; it did not follow that God himself should not do it whenever in his wisdom he thought proper. But for a further discussion of this question we must refer our readers to the work itself.
Mr. Levi's next objection is to the miracles of Jesus, which he says he has observed are scarcely just or rational. He howa ever selects only those of the herd of swine and fig-tree. One should hardly have expected an objection to the first to come from this quarter. So much, indeed, has been said to remove the scruples of Christians on the subject, that we shall add nos thing here, but refer the reader to the book before us, and all the other writers who have given their opinion of our Saviour's miracles, and of demoniacal poffeffion.
On the fubject of the fig-tree Dr. Krauter offers some new and ingenious thoughts; but as most of them rest on the idea of Christ's being the messiah, they will be less fatisfactory to the Jews than the Christians.
Mr. Levi's objection to the apparently contradictory accounts of our Saviour's genealogy, are answered in a very satisfactory manner, by referring St. Matthew's account to Joseph and Sť.
Luke's Luke's to Mary. Though this is well known to most Chrifa tians, it became our author's duty to state it circumstantially to Mr. Levy; and he has strengthened it with many ingenious observations. .
Mr. Levi's last objection is to our Saviour's accusation against the Tews, that they had neither heard his Father's voice at any time. The implication is pretty obvious that the Jews had not paid the attention to it that would have taught them our Sa. viour's true character. The whole passage is, however, ingeniously illustrated by Dr. Krauter ; and we wish we could add, - in a manner satisfactory to Mr. Levi.
ART. XIII. Supplement to the Examination of Mr. Levi's Obe
Jeftions in his Letters to Dr. Priestley. Occasioned by his grofs
Part II. By Philip David Krauter, D.D. 8vo. ód.
the best intentions, and which promised the fair discussion of the most important truths, should so soon degenerate into flippancy and abuse.' In Mr. Levi's first answer were to be discovered many improper levities, which we forbore to take notice of, and which Dr. Krauter treated with a very becoming cool-ness. But the second part has been almost too much for the Doctor's temper; and we rather wonder, with truth on his fide, he should find himself so much hurt at misrepresentation, and something bordering on buffoonéry. Neither the gravity of the subject, nor the tenderness with which Mr. Levi had been treated, admitted such a retort. But we shall dismiss the article with giving Dr. Krauter credit for moderation, compared with his adversary, and wishing he had not shewn how much he felt himself hurt at what was greatly beneath his notice.
ART. XIV. An Inquiry into the Small-Pox, medical and political;
wherein a successful Method of treating that Disease is proposed, the Cause of Pits explained, and the Method of their Prevention pointed out; with an Appendix, representing the present State of Small-Pox. By Robert Walker, M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, Edirb. 8vo. 6s, boards, Murray, Lon don; Creech, Edinburgh. 1790.
[ Continued. ] TN our last Review we gave an account of the first eight chap
ters of this interesting work, where the ingenious author, after profecuting a variety of inquiries relative to the nature,
causes, and effects of variolous contagioni, delivered an accurate history of the several species of the disease. We now proceed to the ninth chapter, which is occupied with the important suba ject of the indications.
The period between the reception of the variolous contagion and the commencement of the eruptive symptoms, Dr. Walker had formerly denominated the stage of fermentation. In this stage, therefore, he observes that the indication is to prevent, as much as possible, too great an assimilation of the variolous ferment; for which purpose a cooling regimen is recommended as an indifpensable object. When the eruptive fever has commenced, our author judiciously describes the circumstances in which bloodletting may be respectively either falutary or pernicious, in different kinds of the disease. But bleeding being performed or omitted, according as circumstances require, the eruptive fever, he observes, may be moderated by attending to the following directions :
• If no diarrhea occurs, the belly, if costive, ought first to be.. opened by a laxative clyfter, and a cooling purgative administered the following day.
• Where the kin continues parched and dry, by which all the eruptive symptoms are aggravated, a gentle diaphoresis may be promoted by draughts of thin gruel, acidulated with lemon-juice, sagetea, or cold water, according to taste ; nothing contributes more to answer this intention than the saline draughts, where the acid fome. what prevails; these are found to be highly refreshing, and induce a degree of tranquillity over the whole fyítem.
• Perhaps there is no one expedient more effectual in moderating the eruptive fever, or more useful and falutary in every stage of the disease, than the application of cool air. The more urgent and severe the symptoms are, the more does the patient require this falutary res medy; and, as has been hinted, he may enjoy the benefit of it, i when confined to bed, as well as when he is able to fit up; it is impossible to conceive, where the ventilation is free, how powerful and refreshing its influence is, and how suddenly it is capable of bringing down the pulse, and of moderating, all the symptoms.'.
The various operations of nature, from the commencement of the small-pox, leave no room to doubt that her chief aim is the expulsion of the morbid particles, which however, instead of being expelled only by an eruption, are generally determined to some of the outlets of the body; to the skin, either by sensible or insensible perfpiration; to the head and salivary glands, to the kidneys, and sometimes to the intestines. Our author enters upon the consideration of these different discharges, and shews the advantages as well as inconveniencies attending each of them, with the view of ascertaining which is the most safe and