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• New Translation.
i Old Translation. CHAP. IX. CH A P.'. IX. •2-SHALL be upon every "2 AND the fear of you and beast of the earth, and upon every the dread of 'you Thall be upon fowl of the air [and you shall have every beast of the earth, and upon dominion), over all that moveth every fowl of the air, upon all upon the earth, and over all the that moveth upon the earth, and fiihes of the sea; for into your upon all the fishes of the sea; into hands are they delivered. I your hand are they delivered.
5 And surely your blood of your lives' will I require; at the hand of every beast will I require it; and at the hand of man, at the hand of every man's brother,
will I require the life of man.is ( 10 And with every living in to 10 And with every living creature that is with you, both the creature that is with you, of the fowl, the cattle, and every beast fowl, of the cattle, and of every of the earth, with you, even all beast of the earth, with you ; from the wild beasts of the earth, being all that go out of the ark, to every all that came out of the ark. beast of the earth.
r12 This is the token of the .'12 And God said, This is covenant which I put between me the token of the covenant which and you, &c.
I make between me and you, and every living creature that is with
you, for perpetual generations." OBSERVATIONS on CHAP. IX. ima • 2 The two first prepositions, ufon, are governed by the sentence, and the fear of you, &c. fall be ; but the two laft, over, have no verb to be governed by; therefore I thought it necessary to make an addition, in this verse, of the verb and you shall have dominion, which is certainly understood ; and this preposition is proper to this verb. Vide Hebrew expression in chap. i. v. 16 and ver. 18. in ji
• 3, 4. Here a permission is given them to kill beasts for their food, which is another indication of the remiffion of Adam's fino'
*5 From the first part of this verse the crime of suicide and its pu.. nishment,''I think, may be fairly deduced; and, if so, the immor. tality of the soul is proved from scripture. [Happily for Chriftians. they have proofs from scripture less ambiguous than this.]
• 10 By the translation of the English Bible it appears as if the lait mentioned bealts of the earth had not come out of the ark, which is absurd; and therefore I made a transposition in this verse, calling this last wild beasts, because to the first the words with you are added, which I suppose means tame beasts.
' 12 The verb, which I put, refers to the token, not to the covenant; therefore, which I make is wrong, and the Hebrew verb ini is to puti'
. . New Translation.
• Old Translation. I
2 AND Sarai faid unto : handimaid; it may be that I may Abram, Behold, now the Lord obtain children by her, &c.
hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her: and Abram heark
ened to the voice of Sarai. '12 And he shall be a wild 12 And he will be a wild man; , man; his hand shall be in all, and his hand will be against every
the hand of all shall be in him, man, and every man's hand and he shall dwell in the presence against him: and he shall dwell of all his brethren..
in the presence of all his brethren. - 13 Thou art the God that r13 And she called the name feeft me: for, the faid, Have I of the Lord that spake unto her, also thus far feen him after seeing Thou, God, seest me ; for the ime?,.. .
said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me?
ci. "OBSERVATIONS on CHAP. XVI. * * 2 I take this to be rather a condescension than an entreaty, as
the translation of the English Bible seems to imply; for, if fo, the had no reason to complain against her husband, as in v. 5.
18 This is merely by way of introduction to a discourse, as observed before ; for the angel knew very well every thing concerning her. 9.12 This verse is not intelligible; therefore I think that the pre(position 2 should be rendered in its first natyral meaning, which : is in
Note. The Ishmaelites or Hagarites, were situated in the neigh.bourhood of Egypt, and the Egyptians were her brethren, agreeably
to this prediction.
the name of the well; and this speech of hers means a surprise of . her seeing there the glory of the Lord (as she was accustomed to see
it at Abram's house), now that God saw her affliction ; for the mean..ing of seeing me is, in my affliction.' ... We leave it to our readers to determine whether Mr. Delga
do's mode of rendering the twelfth verse adds any thing to its per· fpicuity. The subsequent note is ingenious and well introduced. • These specimens are sufficient to thew the plan of this useful
performance, We heartily with the author encouragement to pursue his undertaking, and hope, as a foreigner, he will not be alhamed of asking the afliftance of his friends in correcting, if not polishing his language,
Art. IV. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of
London, Vol. LXXVIII. For the Year 1787. Part 1. 4to. 8s. 6d. sewed. Davis. London, 1788..
Art. I. oF the Methods of manifesting the Presence, and af
certaining the Quality, of small Quantities of Natural or Artificial Electricity. “By Mr. Tiberius Cavallo, F.R.S. Mr. Cavallo juftly observes that, notwithstanding the amazing discoveries made in electricity, the science is still in its infant state. We can reason vaguely about some striking phenomena, but, with regard to the intimate nature and mode of operation, we are still in the dark. To promote our inquiries, we ought to examine the electrical power in its incipient state, when its effects are minute, and do not strike the senses. Various instruments have been proposed for this purpose. Mr. Canton was the first who constructed an ele&trometer. It consisted of two small balls of the pith of elder or cork, fastened to the extremities of a linen thread. Mr. Cavallo improved the , sensibility of the electrometer by contracting its fize. He fufpended each ball by a separate thread, and, to avoid the twifting, he afterwards substituted fine silver wires. The inftrument was screened from the disturbance of the wind, by being · inclosed in a bottle, and was found to anfwer remarkably well.
M. de Saussure has made several alterations, but does not seem to have improved the construction. The pith balls are inferior to the conical corks, because they are more apt to cohere, and, having less surface, do not exert so great a repulfion. Mr. Bennet employed two flips of gold leaf; by which construction the bottle electrometer is more sensible, but at the same time it is less portable, and more easily spoiled. But beside delicate electrometers, other instruments have been invented, by which small quantities of electricity are made manifest. These are M. Volta's condencer of electricity, and Mr. Bennet's doubler of ele&tricity. In the condencer, the electricity to be examined is communicated to a flat, smooth metal plate, resting upon a semi-conducting plane. The capacity of the plate for the electrical fluid is increased by this pofition, and it manifests strong indications, when removed by an insulating handle. This apparatus, therefore, does not detect a minute quantity of electricity, but only condenses an expanded quantity of the Auid. Mr. Bennet's doubler consists of three brass plates, of about three or four inches diameter; the first is thinly varnilhed on its upper surface, the third on its under, and the second on both. The electricity is communicated to the under surface of the first plate, and the second is placed upon it. The varnishing of the plates
prevents their contact and the consequent equilibrium of the Auid, but allows them to enter each other's atmospheres. The second plate will therefore acquire the opposite electricity to the first, and, if it be touched with a finger, it will possess it in the same intensity. The fecond plate is then removed, and the third applied to it, which thus acquires the same electricity with the first. The second plate is now placed between the first and third, and, by this position, acquires an opposite electricity equal in intensity to both, and therefore double of the first: By proceeding in this way, the electricity will be continually doubled and multiplied prodigiously. But even when no electricity has been previously communicated, the apparatus, after twenty or thirty operations, will become strongly electrified. This may naturally be attributed to the friction of the varnish of the plates, -and, to avoid it, Mr. Cavallo constructed three plates without
the least varnish, but which could stand within an eighth of an .inch of each other, upon glass sticks covered with sealing-wax, But he was surprised to find that these laboured under the same defect. Without any previous communication of electricity, they would afford sparks, after doubling ten, fifteen, or at most twenty times. All his endeavours to deprive them of electricity were ineffectual. Even after remaining for a month untouched, during which time they were connected with the ground by means of good conductors, they were still found to give the
fame indications. Sometimes the electricity exhibited was po- fitive, at other times negative. In short, difficulty and uncertainty obtrude upon our inquiries; and the doubler of Mr. Bennet, though very ingenious, is not altogether to be depended upon. It appears, from Mr. Cavallo's experiments, that the electrical equilibrium which subsists among connected bodies does not obtain in a very accurate degree, and that the tendency of the fluid to diffuse itself is diminished with the intensity. In the conclusion of the paper, Mr. Cavallo hints at the explanation of the production of electricity by friction, The cylinder, he conceives, always retains some positive electricity, and the cushion, from its proximity, becomes negative. When another part of the cylinder is applied, it becomes more strongly positively electrified, from the reaction of the cushion; and thus, as the parts of the cylinder come successively into contact, they receive elec- tricity from the lowest part of the rubber, and afterwards, when their capacity is diminished, they readily part with it. Hence the under part of the rubber is covered with amalgam, and the upper is furnished with a piece of filk. The idea is plausible and extremely ingenious,
Art. II. The Croonian Lecture on Muscular Motion. By George Fordyce, M.D. F.R.S. The subject of muscular motion is naturally involved in obscurity, and eludes the keenness of human research. A few curious facts have been observed ; but from these, conclusions have been drawn at once puerile and absurd. Dr. George Fordyce very properly apologises for the trite remarks which the annual discussion of the subject obliges him to make. He talks of the vis inertiæ, of matter, the communication of motion, &c. He mentions the theories of nervous fluid, of the vibration of the nerves, of æther, &c. and properly treats them as chimeras. He points out several in. stances where stimuli produce action in parts at a distance, without any communication of motion by the nerves. The muscles in the living body are always in a state of contraction; and this principle he terms the attraction of life. He illustrates spalin by means of magnets; but takes care to inform us in a note that he is no abettor of animal magnetilin. He next gives a short view of the progress of medicine. He seems to insinuate that several alterations introduced into the practice of physic, by reasoning from the modern anatomical discoveries, were improper.
Art. III. An Account of a Mass of native Iron found in South-America. By Don Michael Rubin de Celis. Commų. nicated by Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. F.R.S. This letter is.curious and interesting. It contains a Mort description of the face of the country, and of the manners of those roving Indians who spend their gloomy lives in the search of wild honey in the impenetrable forests of America. But the most extraordinary fact is the discovery of an amazing mass of native jron in a wide exe' tended plain, at a distance from mountains and mines, and in a country where the degraded natives have never been acquainted with that useful metal. Don Celis examined it in February 1783. The exterior appearance was perfectly compact, marked with various impressions; the interior was full of cavities, and seemed to have been formerly in a liquid ftate; and he infers that it was produced by a volcano. He mentions that many of the Indians have seen, in another part of the country, a mass of pure iron, with the shape and ramifications of a tree. Some specimens of the native iron accompanied this paper, and were laid before the Royal Society, who afterwards presented them to the British Museum.
Art. IV. Frigorific Experiments on the Mechanical-Expanfion of Air; explaining the Cause of the great Degree of Cold on the Summits of high Mountains, the sudden Condensation of Aerial Vapour, and of the perpetual Mutability of Atmospheric Heat. By Erasmus Darwin, M.D.F.R.S. Communicated by the Right Hon. Charles Greville, F.R.S. Reflecting upon the production of cold by evaporation, Dr. Darwin .was led to imagine that elastic Auids, when expanded, would absorb heat