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... In the year 876 Tinmouth was again ravaged by Halfden, the Danish king.. . During the reign of Athelstan, King of the Weft-Saxons, which began A.D. 924, and ended in 946, this monastery, then hardly secovered from its former desolation, was again ravaged by the Danes.
It is no wonder that, after having been so often plundered and destroyed, this place should have lain to'long in ruins that the re. membrance of King Ofwin, the fainted patron thereof, was útterly loft..
• After some respite from the invasions of the Danish pirates, to whom its exposed situation on the sea coaft rendered it an easy and defenceless prey; and who, by their repeated depredations, appear to have left nothing that could induce them to return, the then bishop of the diocese obtained it of the Earls of Northumberland; and, after filling it anew with religious, restored therein the celebration of divine Tervice.
It was not, however, till the latter end of the reign of Edward the Confeffor that the bones of the royal martyr St. Oswin were dif. covered. . ,
About the conclusion of this reign, which ended in 1066, the roval faint and martyr Ofwin, in one of those dreams common to the times. is said to have appeard to Edmund, the fexton of this placé. and pointed out to him the place of his own interment. Judith, wife of Tosti, Earl of Northumberland, gave credit to the sexton's vision, and ceased not to exert her influence with Egelwine, then bishop of Duro ham. till he had ordered a search to be made for the royal bones, which are faid to have been discovered in an' oratory, according to the faint's directions in the vision, on the 5th of the ides of March, A. D. 106.5, and 415 years after his death. The royal remains, after having been inclofed in a coffin, and honoured with every kind of funeral pomp, were recommitted to the sacred earth.
· Totti, Earl of Northumberland, according to some writers, res built this monastery from the foundation,',
Mr. Brand afterwards gives the history of Newcastle, as a corporáte town, or borough; which is detailed with great and uninteresting minuteness through the remaining part of the work. In respect of coal, for which this place has been long so much diftinguished, he juftly observes, that though some writers have not Tcrupled to affirm that coal was unknown to the ancient Britons, yet others have contended for the contrary by almolt irresistible arguments. The Britons, it appears, had a primitive "name for this foffil; and Mr. Pennant informs us that a fineax, the instrument of the aborigines of our island, was discovered ftuck in certain veins of coal, exposed to day, in Craig Park in Monmouthshire, and in such a situation as to render it very accessible to the unexperienced națives, who in early times were incapable of pursuing the veins to any great depth. The
trongelt strongest argument in favour of the opinion of those who think that the Romans, while in Britain, were ignorant of this commodity, is, that their language affords no name for it; the genuine and determinate signification of carbo being charcoal. But the facts and testimonies adduced by our author afford much reafon to conclude that coal, though at first unnoticed in Britain by the Romans, was afterwards in actual use amongst them.,
The second volume, like the first, is accompanied with an appendix, containing various documents relative to the subject of the history. It would be a task no less unproductive of gra.
tification to our readers than unnecessary, and indeed almost im* poffible for us, to give a more particular account of this work. We have already expressed our disapprobation of the frivolous prolixity and jejune minuteness with which it has been indul*triously executed; but we cannot conclude without acknowledging at the same time, in justice to Mr. Brand, that he apa pears to have fpared no pains in anassing his extraordinary collection of materials; that he has preserved the historical detail with uninterrupted exactness; and above all, that he has manifested, by the multiplicity of notes and references, a degree of learning, and an extent of inquiry, which, in a nobler field of historical research, might have crowned his labours with more than common approbation. We must not omit to mention, in favour of the work, that it is embellished with a great number of well-executed engravings. .
ART. VI. A Treatise of the Materia Medici. By William
Cullen, M. D. Professor of the Practice of Phyfic in the Uni"versity of Edinburgh, &c. &c. 4to. 2 vols. II. IIs. 6d. boards.
Elliot and Kay. London, 1789. i ." .
D R. Cullen, it feems, from the success of his lectures on
the Materia Medica formerly, published in his name, though extremely incorrect, had entertained a design of giving a more accurate and complete edition of those lectures, but he afterwards, abandoned that idea, and has modelled the work into the form in which it now appears. As if he had purposely resolved to preclude incorrectness, as much as pofli. ble, by retrenchment, he has omitted a number of articles com. mon in every treatise on this subject; and for these omissions he proceeds to offer an apology, or rather a justification of his
conduct. : In the first place, he informs us that he did not think it ne. cessary to detail the various nomenclature of the different subftantes, as it may be readily obtained elsewhere; and particularly
he has not attempted to ascertain the nomenclature of the ancients, both because of the difficulty that would attend such a labour, and because he is very doubtful of its utility.
In ascertaining the species of plants, where several of the fame genus may be employed, he has likewise purposely omitted entering into any critical discussion respecting their comparative superiority; thinking it enough for him to have marked, in the catalogue prefixed to his tréatile, the botanical distinction of the fpecies which he judged most fit to be employed.
Another omission, of a similar nature with the preceding, is the not giving any defcription of the particular medicines as they are employed, or fit to be employed. This, however, he acknowledges to have omitted because he could not do it so completely and accurately as the authors to whom he refers, and whom he supposes his readers to have in their hands.
The omission of the chemical analysis of the several substances ħe thinks, and very justly, will require no apology in the present age; but he doubts whether he shall be so easily forgiven för frequently omitting the treatment of substances by the application of different menftruums, and for not mentioning the quantities of extract that are obtained from each of them. He admits that an attention to these circumstances is very necessary in the pharmaceutic treatment of medicines; but he did not think it proper to increase the bulk of his work by details contained in books to which he refers, and which he wishes to recommend to all his readers. The books alluded to are the three following, viz. the Treatise of the Materia Medica by Dr. Lewis, as now published by Dr. Aikin; the Treatise of Petrus Jonas Bergius on the Materia Medica, taken from vegetables; an'i the Apparatus.Medicaminum by the learned professor of Gottingen, Jo. Andreas Murray, knight of the royal order of Wasa.
Dr. Cullen's chief purpose in the present work is to give the principles upon which the various substances coinprehended in the Materia Medica are to be judged of as medicines ; to cor-rect the errors of former writers in that respect; and to offer some new principles and doctrines which appear to him to be necessary. These doctrines are given partly in his general in troduction, and partly in the reflections on the general operation of medicines, prefixed to the several chapters. ,
Such is the general plan of the work now before us, and such the particular motives which have actuated this learned and industrious author in the execution of it. We shall now pro. ceed to give a concise account of its different parts.
After a general history of the Materia Medica, as it exists in the writings of the Greek and Arabian physicians, Dr. Cullen ENG. REV. VOL. XV. JAN. 1790.
traces the progress of this science, through the various authors on the subjeci, from the revival of learning in the fifteenth century to the present time. This part of the work discovers much reading and attentive observation; but the inferences deducible from the whole are chiefly that the Materia Medica, with all its accumulated acquisitions, has hitherto remained in a state of great imperfection; that superstition, both ancient and modern, obfervations too flight, and conclusions likewise too precipitate, had given rise to a multiplicity of errors, rendered venerable by long prescription; and, in short, that there was still a necessity for such a work as the present, to examine more strictly the mass of the Materia Medica, which has been reared by the ignorance of ages, and to establish the virtues of medicines by the only true and unerring test, that of accurate observation and experience. In endeavouring to perform this useful undertaking, Dr. Cullen evinces a scrupulous regard to fact, and a judgment too strong to be in the least degree influenced by the prejudice of authority; but, at the same time, we are of opinion that, though he has exercised his critical talents with much ability in examining the writings of former authors, he treats them, in some instances, with a severity of censure from which candour at least, if not justice, might have exempted them.
The author next proceeds to consider the action of medicines upon the body in general ; concluding from obvious premises, that the peculiar effects of substances in general, or of those substances in particular which are called medicines, when applied to the human body, depend on their action upon its sentient and irritable parts. This naturally leads him to the confideration of temperaments, concerning which the theory of the ancient physicians has long since been deservedly exploded. To treat this subject in a philosophical manner is a task attended with great difficulty, and would require very extensive, as well as minute observation. Dr. Cullen, therefore, instead of distinguish ing temperaments by marking the internal and observable cirá cuinstances which are commonly combined together, proceeds to the inquiry in another way; and endeavours to consider those circumstances of the internal state of the human body which may give occasion to a difference in the state of the functions, and even in the external appearances which distinguish different inen. These circuinstances our author refers to five general heads, according as they occur, ist. In the state of the simple folids; 2dly. In the state of the fluids; 3dly. In the proportion of folids and fluids in the body; 4thly. In the distribution of the Huids; and, 5thly, In the state of the nervous power. Having treated of these several subjects, he next inquires into the nature of particular temperaments and idiosyncrasies; as these likewise
tend, though remotely, to account for the action of medicines upon the body in general.
In the second chapter of this part of the work the learned professor comes more immediately to the subject of pharmaceutical disquisition, and treats of the various means by which we arrive at the knowledge of the virtues of medicines. In prosecuting this inquiry he examines into the use of chemical resolution in investigating the virtues of different substances; the use of botanical affinities in ascertaining the medical virtues of plants; the consideration of the sensible qualities of substances, as pointing out their medical virtues ; and, lastly, the knowledge of the virtues of medicines by experience.
Dr. Cullen, after giving a short account of the most proper plan for a treatise on the Materia Medica, presents us with a dictionary of the general terms employed by writers on that subject. This chapter, which includes the catalogue of medicinal substances, is of great length, and may indeed be considered as liable to the charge of redundancy. For the instances are so few in which our author employs general terms in any peculiar acceptation, that either the latter might have been defined occafionally, when they occurred, or the dictionary been reduced to a very small number of articles.
We next meet with a copious treatise of aliments; which, after some observations on the cookery of meats, is followed by a chapter on drinks, succeeded by another of condiments. The article of which our author treats most copiously is that of milk, which he seems to have considered with more than common attention. As our limits will not permit us to detail the observations on this subject, we shall only mention that Dr. Cullen endeavours to invalidate the notion of the chyle alone affording the matter of milk, immediately on its reception into the blood-vessels ; a doctrine which we think he impugns by strong arguments, founded upon facts and the established principles of physiology.
"Our ingenious author, having finished all his preliminary subjects, introduces us to the Materia Medica in the beginning of the second volume, through the whole of which it extends. He distinguishes medicines into the various classes usual in systems of this kind; and prefixes to each chapter an account of the mode of operation assigned to the particular class of which they respectively consist. The first is the tribe of astringents, considered by Dr. Cullen as distinct from that of the tonics, which forms the second chapter of the volume. Next follow emollients, corrosives, stimulants, sedatives, refrigerants, antispasmodics, &c. If we except the Peruvian bark, opium, camphire, mercury, and a few other articles, of which our author ti eats C 2