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As a fpecimen of the work, we shall insert the author's obler, vations on the two mildest species of whitloe:

The firit species is situated round the nail, immediately under the cuticle or epidermis. It is in general a disease of little confeç . quence., but may be made troublesome by ill treatment.

• It begins by forming a little swelling, attended with a degree of redness, and some pain at one corner of the nail. A linen compress dipped in fpirit of wine and camphor, applied moderately tight sound the finger, and kept constantly moist, very frequently proves fufficient to cure the complaint in a few hours, and prevent the for. mation of matter. I knew a lady who was very subject to frequent attacks of this disease. She had been taught always to treat it with the good old woman's remedy, a bread and milk poultice, and by this means the complaint frequently lafted a fortnight, and proved extremely worrying and troublesome. I directed her, as soon as she felt the least pain in the finger, to dip the part and wrap it up in {pirit of wine and camphor. By this management fhe never after, wards had a whitloe that proceeded to suppuration.

"-But if, notwithstanding these precautions, matter should fill make its appearance, which it generally does at first by one white spot under the cuticle, we muit not delay cutting off the cuticle from that spot immediately, and from every part of the finger where it is raised. The application of a piece of rag, wet in the Goulard water, and renewed when dry, is then sufficient to cure the disease in four-andtwenty hours. But if, on that evening, we delay opening the cu. ticle, which is easily separated from the subjacent skin, it becomes loosened by the maiter, which extends perhaps round the finger, and sometimes a congderable way down it, and, what is worse, destroys ebe adhesion of the nail to the cuticle from which it is produced, Hence there is a necessity for casting off the old nail, and confequently waiting for the growth of a new one, which makes a tedious and troublesome disease of one that would have been well in a few hours if properly treated at the outset. We see therefore, even in the most trilling cases, how much mischief may be prevented by a little timely attention and obfervation.

"The second species of whitloe is seated immediately in or under the cutis, in the adipose membrane about the end of the finger.

The inflammation being greater here, and also the pain, from the greater sensibility of the parts concerned, the disease becomes of . a little more consequence. There is a strong throbbing and pulsa

tion in the part, and a considerable elevation of the skin. We may attempt to disperse this abscess by immersing the finger, for half an hour at a time, in warm water, and by keepirg rags, wet with the faturnine water, constantly applied to the part; but if these attempts thould fail, the sooner the matter finds an issue outwardly the better; every thing, therefore, that tends to remove the obstacle to the exit of the matter, hould be speedily attempted. The cuticle in these parts is very thick, and it often happens that the matter shall have got through the skin, and shall not be able to make its way through the epidermis; for the natural thickness of the cuticle is here increaled

by the inflammation, and by the practice of soaking the part constantly in a bread and milk poultice. This is evident to the senses; forthe cuticle becomes white and perfe&ly opaque, resembling that of washerwomen who have been soaking their hands all day in water.

• In flight cases of this fort I have known the separating of the lamellæ of the cuticle from each other, or, in other words, the thinning of the cuticle, prove fufficient to afford an outlet, either at the time or in a few hours after, to the matter, and to cure the disease. In several instances, where there existed an evident tumour, with no fluctuation, but, from all appearances, a tendency to suppuration, I haye succeeded in preventing farther mischief by plunging a knife into the prominent part through the kin and fat; which effect, I imagine, can only have been produced by unloading the vefsels of the part, in the same manner as topical bleeding cures inflammation.',

The next essay is a Differtation on the Effects of Motion and Reft. It is an ingenious memoir, and faithfully translated by Mr. Justamond, who has subjoined to it a number of useful annotations. The author first explains the effects of motion and rest, and afterwards points out the indications which are to lead the practitioner in prescribing motion or rest respectively in surgical disorders.

The tract immediately following is likewise a translation from the French, explaining the effects of counter-strokes on the feveral parts of the body, and the method of relieving them. It is probable that, had Mr. Justamond lived longer, he would have furnished this treatise also with useful annotations, which an extensive knowledge of the subject had fully enabled him to fupply.

The concluding treatise, on the Trial of certain Remedies for the Cure of Cancers, &c. is a republication of one of Mr. Justamond's former productions. It evinces great judgment, as well as observation, on the treatment of those obstinate disorders,

From the whole of these tracts Mr. Justamond's abilities, as a scientific and well-informed surgeon, appear to unquestionable advantage ; and were there wanting any proof of his industry in the improvement of chirurgical knowledge, it is amply exhibited in this collection of detached essays, which we are glad to see rescued from oblivion by the laudable attention of the present editor, and the generous co-operation of the subscribers towards the publication of the work.

ART.

ART. V. The Peor Soldier ; an American Tale: founded on a

récent Fact. Infcribed to Mrs. Crespigny. 4to. 2s.6d. Walter, London, 1789.

THIS poem, the production of a female pen, has several

claims at least to a sprig of Parnassian bays. . If the defign of the poet to expand the bosom to all the feelings of benevolence by teaching us to seek for objects every where; to relate the history of a virtuous sufferer; and lastly to pay some tribute to the amiable exertions of her patroness; be in itself commendable, we may assure our readers these are not the only inerits of the performance. Many poetical descriptions, some degree of imagery, and a mind warmly engaged in the subject, are discoverable in every part; nor is there a want of something like the order and arrangement necessary to the structure of a poem. In what then is it deficient? We might say in adhering to truth in the first instance; and next in too strictly conforming to those rules which are considered as essential to distinguish poetry from prose. An ingenious writer, whose works we have lately reviewed with much pleasure, places this distinction in the exclu. fion of all abstract ideas from the language of poetry. We were much pleased with this definition, but are now obliged to add, that the subject of a poem may come fo near to common life, as not easily to admit a very familiar and exact detail of circumStances. The Poor Soldier is an American loyalist, who, after suffering the loss of his property and family in America, comes to England in hopes of being received into Chelsea hospital. His subsequent calamities to his death make the remainder of the poem. The best contrived parts are the scenes in American which, not being familiar to English readers, admit of that clofe detail which can alone render poetry interesting. The following description of a modern skirmish and a rally, are as poetical as the subject will admit, without divesting it of truth:

Now, front to front, our hostile legions ftand,
And anxious wait the signal of command.
Barbaric war-whoops pierce the echoing sky, .
Provincial trumpets louder still reply;
While, by the deep.mouth'd cannon's thundering found,
Ear-thrilling yells and martial blasts are drown'd.
A bloody itrife ensues-Death's įron car
Triumphant ranges o'er the field of war..
Long time doth fortune equal hold the scale,
But England's mighty arms at last prevail:
Rebellion's fons in broken ranks retire, .
Save on one spot, where, with heroic fire,

A brave

A brave provincial wakes the slumbering zeal .
Of every private for the public weal. ..

Yield not, my friends! (the rebel-patriot cries ;)
Your bleeding country on your aid relies!
O save her liberty, preserve her laws,
Or greatly fall in Freedom's glorious caase!'

* He ceas d—the rebel train his words obey,
And boldly follow where he leads the way.
''Twas mine to stop th' intrepid warrior's course;
But vain my efforts, vain my utmost force!
Till, hurld from Indian hands, a whirring dart
Resistless came, and pierc'd his manly heart-
He reel'dhe fell—and, gasping fore for breath,
Faintly exclaim'd, " I die a glorious death!
Yield not, my countrymen ! our foes retire
Nor, with your chief, let Freedom's cause expire!!

:· If we contrast this with the description of Felicia going to the war-office in order to gain a settlement for her protegé, we Thall see how difficult it is to give familiar objects a poetic

air :

- Thus bufied, to that pile Felicia came
Which from barbaric war derives its name.
She stops-and to the martial office goes,
Where, with kind zeal, she pleads her veteran's woes
To one whose open brow proclaims a soul
„Pliant to gentle Pity's soft control:

This youth—but wherefore, muse, neglect to breathe
A name that merits Honour's brightest wreath?
(If active warm Benevolence may plead
A facred title to that envied meed ;)
Randole thus answers straight the anxious fair:
- To gallant Howard, Chelsea's chief, repair,
Since he, and he alone, can grant thy pray’r.
• Alas! I know him not' (Felicia fighs);
• Yet seek him, lady, (ardent Randole cries).
He joys the friendlefs soldier to relieve;
He bids the child of sorrow cease to grieve;
For sweet philanthropy, angelic guest!
Hath fix'd her empire in his noble breast.'

• Thus urg'd, Felicia hesitates no more;
But instant bends her course to Howard's door:
Yet vain her fpeed--the chief is far away
Bur learning that the next revolving day
Chelsea's brave rulers will in council meet,
The fair, with warmelt charity replete,
Resolves those bashful feelings to control,
Which oft o’erwhelm with dread the female fout,
And, in the virtue of her motive bold,
- Before the chiefs her story to unfold.'

We observed before that the poem is regularly constructed; that is, it begins in the middle of the hero's hiftory, and he is afterwards introduced as relating the earlier parts of it to Felicia, who, meeting him in the street, very benevolently interests herself in his behalf. But by these means Felicia is so constantly before us that we almost lose sight of the principal cha. racter. We mean not to detract from the merits of this lady, or the propriety of marking so amiable a character to the world, but the poem is entitled the Poor Soldier, and we must not de. viate from Horace's rule:

Denique sit quidvis, fimplex

Duntaxat et unum. .. On the whole, therefore, whatever merit we may admit to

many parts of this performance, we are obliged to confess either that the subject would not admit of poetic ornaments, or that the poet has been too often unhappy in her choice of them.

ART. VI. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of

London, Vol. LXXVIII. For the Year 1788. Part II. 4to. 8s. 6d. sewed. Davis. London, 1788.

Art. XIV. OBSERVATIONS on the Natural History of

the Cuckoo. By Mr. Edward Jenner. In a Letter to John Hunter, Esq. F.R.S. This paper is curious and entertaining. The faềts, though extraordinary, seem to be well authenticated. The more we contemplate the works of Nature, we are the more astonished at that wonderful instinct which directs her creatures :

The first appearance of cuckoos in Gloucestershire (the part of England where these observations were made) is about the 17th of April. The song of the male, which is well known, foon proclaims its arrival. The song of the female (if the peculiar notes of which it is composed may be so called) is widely different, and has been so ' little attended to, that I believe few are acquainted with it. I know not how to convey to you a proper idea of it by a comparison with

the notes of any other bird, but the cry of the dab.chick bears the · Deareft refemblance to it.

· Unlike the generality of birds, cuckoos do not pair. When a female appears on the wing, she is often attended by two or three males, who seem to be earnestly contending for her favours. From the time of her appearance, till after the middle of summer, the Detts of the birds selected to receive her eggs are to be found in great abundance ; but, like the other migrating birds, she does not begin to lay till fome weeks after her arrival. I never could procure

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